Jin-Xiong She

Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (110)554.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Deficient soluble fiber intake has been suggested to dysregulate the immune response either directly or through alterations of the microbial composition in the gut. We hypothesized that a high intake of dietary soluble fiber in early childhood decreases the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated islet autoimmunity. We analyzed 17,620 food records collected between age 9 and 48 mo from 3358 children from the United States and Germany prospectively followed in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. HRs for the development of any/multiple islet autoantibodies (242 and 151 events, respectively) and T1D (71 events) by soluble fiber intake were calculated in Cox regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. There were no statistically significantly protective associations observed between a high intake of soluble fiber and islet autoimmunity or T1D. For example, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for high intake (highest vs. lowest quintile) at age 12 mo were 0.90 (0.55, 1.45) for any islet autoantibody, 1.20 (0.69, 2.11) for multiple islet autoantibodies, and 1.24 (0.57, 2.70) for T1D. In analyzing soluble fiber intake as a time-varying covariate, there were also no short-term associations between soluble fiber intake and islet autoimmunity development, with adjusted HRs of 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) for high intake and development of any islet autoantibody, for example. These results indicate that the intake level of dietary soluble fiber is not associated with islet autoimmunity or T1D in early life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2015; 102(2). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.108159 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit. Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden). Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096). High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance. These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research.
    Public Health Nutrition 06/2015; -1:1-10. DOI:10.1017/S1368980015001883 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGAs) represent the first evidence of celiac disease (CD) development. Associations of HLA-DR3-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (i.e., DR3-DQ2) and, to a lesser extent, DR4-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 (i.e., DR4-DQ8) with the risk of CD differ by country, consistent with additional genetic heterogeneity that further refines risk. Therefore, we examined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) factors other than DR3-DQ2 for their contribution to developing tTGAs. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study enrolled 8,676 infants at an increased HLA-DR-DQ risk for type 1 diabetes and CD into a 15-year prospective surveillance follow-up. Of those followed up, 21% (n=1,813) carried DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2, 39% (n=3,359) carried DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8, 20% (n=1701) carried DR4-DQ8/DR4-DQ8, and 17% (n=1,493) carried DR4-DQ8/DQ4. Within TEDDY, a nested case-control design of 248 children with CD autoimmunity (CDA) and 248 matched control children were genotyped for HLA-B, -DRB3, -DRB4, -DPA1, and -DPB1 genes, and the entire cohort was genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Illumina ImmunoChip. CDA was defined as a positive tTGA test at two consecutive clinic visits, whereas matching in those with no evidence of tTGAs was based on the presence of HLA-DQ2, country, and sex. After adjustment for DR3-DQ2 and restriction to allele frequency (AF) ≥5%, HLA-DPB1*04:01 was inversely associated with CDA by conditional logistic regression (AF=44%, odds ratio=0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.96, P=0.025). This association of time to CDA and HLA-DPB1*04:01 was replicated with statistical significance in the remainder of the cohort using imputation for specific HLA alleles based on SNP genotyping (hazard ratio=0.84, 95% CI=0.73-0.96, P=0.013). HLA-DPB1*04:01 may reduce the risk of tTGAs, an early marker of CD, among DR3-DQ2 children, confirming that additional variants in the HLA region influence the risk for CDA.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 26 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.150.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2015; 110(6). DOI:10.1038/ajg.2015.150 · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Inflammation is one of the major hallmarks of cancer. This study was designed to profile a panel of inflammatory mediators in gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) and to identify their potential differences separately in metastatic and non-metastatic patient subgroups. Methods: Serum samples from 216 GA patients and 333 healthy controls from China were analyzed for six proteins using the Luminex multiplex assay. Results: The serum levels for all the six proteins were significantly elevated in metastatic GA compared to non-metastatic GA. Two acute phase proteins (SAA and CRP) and a CXC chemokine (GRO) were significantly elevated in metastatic GA (p <0.01) but smaller changes were observed in non-metastatic GA compared to healthy controls. OPN is moderately increased in non-metastatic GA (2.05-fold) and more severely elevated in metastatic GA (3.34-fold). Surprisingly, soluble VCAM1 and AGP were significantly lower in both non-metastatic and metastatic GA patients compared to controls. Several individual proteins were shown to possess moderate diagnostic value for non-metastatic GA (AUC = 0.786, 0.833, 0.823 for OPN, sVCAM1 and AGP, respectively) and metastatic GA (AUC = 0.931, 0.720, 0.834 and 0.737 for OPN, sVCAM1, SAA and CRP, respectively). However, protein combinations further improve the diagnostic potential for both non-metastatic GA (best AUC = 0.946) and metastatic GA (best AUC = 0.963). The protein combination with best AUC value for both comparisons is OPN+sVCAM1+AGP+SAA. Conclusions: These results suggest that several serum proteins are directly related to the severity of gastric cancer. Overall, stronger associations are observed with metastatic than non-metastatic GA as the protein changes are greater with the metastatic status. A combination of these serum proteins may serve as non-invasive markers to assess the severity status and stage of gastric cancer.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123985. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123985 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Haitao Liu · Yubin Wang · Ashok Sharma · Rui Mao · Na Jiang · Boying Dun · Jin-Xiong She
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    ABSTRACT: Coumarins are a large family of compounds derived from a wide range of plants, fungi, and bacteria, and coumarin derivatives can have extremely variable structures and consequently diverse biological properties including antitumor activity. Compounds that bear a benzimidazole moiety are known to possess antitumor activity and a variety of other biological activities. High-throughput screening of a compound library identified a coumarin-containing and a benzimidazole-containing compound [#32, 7-(diethylamino)-3-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one] that has potent anticancer activity. Evaluation of 17 additional analogs further identified three compounds with anticancer activity in 14 different human cancer cell lines. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and western blotting analyses suggested that these compounds can induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses of 26 cancer-related genes revealed that seven genes (NPPB, ATF3, DDIT4, CDH10, TSPAN14, TXNIP, and AXL) were significantly upregulated and nine genes (PAGE4, LRP8, SNCAIP, IGFBP5, SLCO2A1, CLDN2, ESRRG, D2HGDH, and PDGFRA) were significantly downregulated. The most upregulated gene is natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB) or brain natriuretic peptide, which is increased by 7-, 27-, and 197-fold at 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. The second most upregulated gene is ATF3, which is increased by 23-fold at the 48 h timepoint. PAGE4 and IGFBP5 are the two most downregulated genes, with a 17-fold reduction in both genes. The expression of several genes (DDIT4, PDGFRA, LRP8, IGFBP5) and western blotting data on key signaling proteins indicate that compound #32 significantly inhibits the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, an intracellular signaling pathway critical in cell proliferation and apoptosis.
    Anti-cancer drugs 03/2015; 26(6). DOI:10.1097/CAD.0000000000000232 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Islet autoantibodies, in addition to elevated blood glucose, define type 1 diabetes. These autoantibodies are detectable for a variable period of time before diabetes onset. Thus, the occurrence of islet autoantibodies is associated with the beginning of the disease process. The age at, and order in, which autoantibodies appear may be associated with different genetic backgrounds or environmental exposures, or both. Infants with HLA-DR high-risk genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8 and DR3/3) were enrolled and prospectively followed with standardised autoantibody assessments quarterly throughout the first 4 years of life and then semi-annually thereafter. Autoantibodies appeared in 549/8,503 (6.5%) children during 34,091 person-years of follow-up. Autoantibodies at 3 (0.1%) and 6 (0.2%) months of age were rare. Of the 549, 43.7% had islet autoantibodies to insulin (IAA) only, 37.7% had glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) only, 13.8% had both GADA and IAA only, 1.6% had insulinoma antigen-2 only and 3.1% had other combinations. The incidence of IAA only peaked within the first year of life and declined over the following 5 years, but GADA only increased until the second year and remained relatively constant. GADA only were more common than IAA only in HLA-DR3/3 children but less common in HLA-DR4/8 children. Islet autoantibodies can occur very early in life and the order of appearance was related to HLA-DR-DQ genotype.
    Diabetologia 02/2015; 58(5). DOI:10.1007/s00125-015-3514-y · 6.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether age at introduction to gluten was associated with risk for celiac disease (CD) in genetically predisposed children. TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) is a prospective birth cohort study. Newborn infants (N = 6436) screened for high-risk HLA-genotypes for CD were followed up in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Information about infant feeding was collected at clinical visits every third month. The first outcome was persistent positive for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA), the marker for CD. The second outcome was CD, defined as either a diagnosis based on intestinal biopsy results or on persistently high levels of tTGA. Swedish children were introduced to gluten earlier (median: 21.7 weeks) compared with children from Finland (median: 26.1 weeks), Germany, and the United States (both median: 30.4 weeks) (P < .0001). During a median follow-up of 5.0 years (range: 1.7-8.8 years), 773 (12%) children developed tTGA and 307 (5%) developed CD. Swedish children were at increased risk for tTGA (hazard ratio: 1.74 [95% CI: 1.47-2.06]) and CD (hazard ratio: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.34-2.24]) compared with US children, respectively (P < .0001).Gluten introduction before 17 weeks or later than 26 weeks was not associated with increased risk for tTGA or CD, adjusted for country, HLA, gender, and family history of CD, neither in the overall analysis nor on a country-level comparison. In TEDDY, the time to first introduction to gluten introduction was not an independent risk factor for developing CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Pediatrics 01/2015; 135(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-1787 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical lamination is crucial for the assembly of cerebellar circuitry. In this process, granule neurons (GNs) migrate along Bergmann glia (BG), which are specialized astroglial cells, from the external granule layer to the internal granule layer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BG development are not well understood. Here, we show that GFAP::Cre;Erbb3(F/F) mice, which lack Erbb3 in both radial glia and neurons, exhibit impairments in balance and motor coordination. Cerebellar lamination is aberrant, with misplaced Purkinje neurons and GN clusters. These phenotypes were not observed in Math1::CreER(T2);Erbb3(F/F) mice, where the Erbb3 gene was deleted in GNs, suggesting involvement of non-neuronal Erbb3 in cerebellar lamination. Mechanistic studies indicate that ERBB3 is crucial for the proliferation of BG, which are required for GN migration. These observations identify a crucial role for ERBB3 in cerebellar lamination and reveal a novel mechanism that regulates BG development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
    Development 01/2015; 142(3). DOI:10.1242/dev.115931 · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes. This pilot study determines how geographical location affects the microbiome of infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes in a population of homogenous HLA class II genotypes. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on stool samples collected from 90 high-risk, nonautoimmune infants participating in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study in the U.S., Germany, Sweden, and Finland. Study site-specific patterns of gut colonization share characteristics across continents. Finland and Colorado have a significantly lower bacterial diversity, while Sweden and Washington state are dominated by Bifidobacterium in early life. Bacterial community diversity over time is significantly different by geographical location. The microbiome of high-risk infants is associated with geographical location. Future studies aiming to identify the microbiome disease phenotype need to carefully consider the geographical origin of subjects. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 12/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.2337/dc14-0850 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study prospectively follows 8,677 children enrolled from birth, who carry HLA-susceptibility genotypes for development of islet autoantibodies (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). During the median follow-up time of 57 months, 350 children developed at least one persistent IA (GADA, IA-2A or mIAA) and 84 of them progressed to T1D. We genotyped 5,164 Caucasian children for 41 non-HLA SNPs that achieved genome-wide significance for association with T1D in the GWAS meta-analysis conducted by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium. In TEDDY-participants carrying high-risk HLA-genotypes, eight SNPs achieved significant association to development of IA using time-to-event analysis (p<0.05), whereof four were significant after adjustment for multiple testing (p<0.0012): rs2476601 in PTPN22 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54 [95% CI 1.27-1.88]), rs2292239 in ERBB3 (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.14-1.55]), rs3184504 in SH2B3 (HR 1.38 [95% CI 1.19-1.61]) and rs1004446 in INS (HR 0.77 [0.66-0.90]). These SNPs were also significantly associated with T1D in particular: rs2476601 (HR 2.42 [95% CI 1.70-3.44]). Although genes in the HLA-region remain the most important genetic risk factors for T1D, other non-HLA genetic factors contribute to IA, a first step in the pathogenesis of T1D, and the progression of the disease. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 11/2014; 64(5). DOI:10.2337/db14-1497 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility to detect lactobacilli in mail-in infant stools collected monthly from 3-18 months old children was investigated. The aim was to determine total lactobacilli and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) content (ng/g feces) in 50 infants each from Colorado (648 samples), Finland (624 samples) and Sweden (685 samples) who participated in the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study. Total lactobacilli content varied markedly between 5 and 16,800 ng/g feces in the three clinical sites within and between individuals especially in infants. L.plantarum also varied markedly intra- and inter-individually from <0.5 - 736 ng/g feces. A higher variability of total lactobacilli was found before 10 months of age than after in the three different clinical sites. Sweden had the lowest total lactobacilli content compared to Colorado and Finland while the L.plantarum content was higher in Sweden. Mail-in stool samples from infants should prove useful in analyzing probiotics in childhood.
    International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics 08/2014; 7(3-4):135.
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis plays an essential role in many physiological and pathological processes. Auranofin (Ridaura(®)), an important gold (I) complex, is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effect of auranofin on blood vessel formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of auranofin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro and zebrafish in vivo. Our results showed that auranofin could inhibit the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs and disrupted the formation of intersegmental vessels and the subintestinal vessels of zebrafish embryos. Auranofin inhibited the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (p-VEGFR2) on HUVECs and suppressed the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway (vegfa, flt-1, kdr and kdrl) but not thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) on zebrafish. Our study suggested that auranofin might serve as a potential anti-angiogenic compound candidate.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2014; 740. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.034 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) planned biomarker discovery studies on longitudinal samples for persistent confirmed islet cell autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes (T1D) using dietary biomarkers, metabolomics, microbiome/viral metagenomics and gene expression. This paper describes the details of planning the TEDDY biomarker discovery studies using a nested case-control design that was chosen as an alternative to the full cohort analysis. In the frame of a nested case-control design, it guides the choice of matching factors, selection of controls, preparation of external quality control samples, and reduction of batch effects along with proper sample allocation. Our design is to reduce potential bias and retain study power while reduce the costs by limiting the numbers of samples requiring laboratory analyses. It also covers two primary end points (the occurrence of diabetes-related autoantibodies and the diagnosis of T1D). The resulting list of case-control matched samples for each laboratory was augmented with external quality control (QC) samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 07/2014; 30(5). DOI:10.1002/dmrr.2510 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), known as AC10364, was identified from an antibody library generated by immunization of mice with human carcinoma cells. The mAb recognized proteins in lysates from multiple carcinoma cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity assays showed that AC10364 significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in multiple carcinoma cell lines, including Bel/fu, KATO-III and A2780. Compared with mAb AC10364 or chemotherapeutic drugs alone, the combination of mAb AC10364 with chemotherapeutic drugs demonstrated enhanced growth inhibitory effects on carcinoma cells. These results suggest that mAb AC10364 is a promising candidate for cancer therapy.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 06/2014; 15(11):4423-8. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.11.4423 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to reliably identify serum protein profile alterations that may be useful for elucidation of the disease mechanism and/or finding new targets for treatment and intervention. Materials and methods: A total of 1057 women at 4 different squamous cell cervical cancer stages (noninvasive, invasive International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages I, II, and III) were included in this cross-sectional study. Forty-seven serum proteins were profiled using multiplex Luminex immunoassays. Results: Serum concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I and II (sTNFRI and sTNFRII), soluble interleukin 2 receptor α (sIL2Rα), CXCL1, CXCL9, hepatocyte growth factor, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, CA125, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were elevated significantly as disease progressed in cervical cancer patients. Serum levels are significantly different at early stage (I) for SAA, CRP, sIL2Rα, sTNFRII, SCCA, and CEA (P values ranged from 0.02 for CEA to 0.0001 for CRP and SCCA) and at late stages (II and III) for all 12 proteins (P values ranged from 8.78E-5 for CA125 to 3.49E-47 for SAA), as compared to the noninvasive stage. The areas under the curves of these proteins for disease state separation also improved with the advancement of the disease. The correlations between serum concentrations of these proteins also show different patterns at different clinical stages. These proteins are involved in multiple mechanisms including inflammation and immunity, angiogenesis, growth promotion, and metastasis. Conclusions: A number of serum proteins are significantly different between patients at different stages of cervical cancer.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 06/2014; 24(6). DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000153 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3,4-Thiadiazole and urea group were hybridized to form new molecular skeleton and 11 compounds were synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Most of them showed comparable effects in inhibition of AChE, especially compound 6b which exhibited activity with IC50 value 1.17 μM, as strong as galanthamine. This information offered by our research would be valuable for further investigation of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and useful in future research of AChE inhibitors.
    Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 04/2014; 62(6). DOI:10.1248/cpb.c13-00964 · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • The FASEB Journal 04/2014; 28(1). · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is tremendous scientific and clinical value to further improve the predictive power of autoantibodies as autoantibody-positive (AbP) children have heterogeneous rates of progression to clinical diabetes. This study explored the potential of using gene expression profiles as biomarkers for risk stratification among 104 AbP subjects from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) using a discovery dataset based on microarray and a validation dataset based on Real-Time RT-PCR. Our microarray data identified 454 candidate genes with expression levels that are associated with different T1D progression rates. RT-PCR analyses of the top 27 candidate genes confirmed five genes (BACH2, IGLL3, EIF3A, CDC20 and TXNDC5) that are associated with differential progression and implicated in lymphocyte activation and function. Multivariate analyses of these five genes in the discovery and validation datasets identified and confirmed four multi-gene models (BI, ICE, BICE and BITE, each letter representing a gene) that consistently stratify high and low risk subsets of AbP subjects with hazard ratios (HR) greater than 6 (p < 0.01). These results suggest that these genes may be involved in T1D pathogenesis and potentially serve as excellent gene expression biomarkers to predict the risk of progression to clinical diabetes for AbP subjects.
    Diabetes 03/2014; 63(7). DOI:10.2337/db13-1716 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxicity is one of the major reasons for failure in drug development. Zebrafish, as an ideal vertebrate model, could also be used to evaluate drug toxicity. In this study, we aimed to show the predictability and highlight novel findings of toxicity in zebrafish model. Seven anticancer compounds, including triptolide (TP), gambogic acid (GA), mycophenolic acid (MPA), curcumin, auranofin, thalidomide, and taxol, were assessed in zebrafish for their toxicity. Three compounds (GA, TP, and taxol) showed highest acute lethality, with 50% lethal concentration ≈ 1 μmol/L. Missing tails, severe pericardial edema, and enlarged yolk sacs were observed in MPA-treated embryos. The development of pectoral fins was severely disturbed in thalidomide-, GA-, and TP-treated embryos. Bradycardia was observed in MPA- and thalidomide-treated groups. Our findings suggested that the zebrafish are a good model for toxicity assessment of anticancer compounds.
    International Journal of Toxicology 02/2014; 33(2). DOI:10.1177/1091581814523142 · 1.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
554.33 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Georgia Regents University
      • Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine
      Augusta, Georgia, United States
  • 2003–2014
    • Georgia Health Sciences University
      • • Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Augusta, Georgia, United States
  • 2011
    • Adventist University of Health Sciences
      Orlando, Florida, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Medical College of Georgia
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 2005
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Florida State University
      • Department of Medical Humanities & Social Sciences
      Tallahassee, Florida, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2002
    • McKnight Brain Institute
      Gainesville, Florida, United States