[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While hippocampal atrophy is a key feature of both hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathology underlying this finding differs in these two conditions. In AD, atrophy is due primarily to loss of neurons and neuronal volume as a result of neurofibrillary tangle formation. While the etiology of HS is unknown, neuron loss in the hippocampus is severe to complete. We compared hippocampal volume and deformations from premortem MRI in 43 neuropathologically diagnosed cases of HS, AD, and normal controls (NC) selected from a longitudinal study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (IVD Program Project). HS cases (n = 11) showed loss of neurons throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the hippocampus in one or both hemispheres. AD cases (n = 24) met NIA-Reagan criteria for high likelihood of AD. Normal control cases (n = 8) were cognitively intact and showed no significant AD or hippocampal pathology. The mean hippocampal volumes were significantly lower in HS versus AD groups (P < .001). Mean shape deformations in the CA1 and subiculum differed significantly between HS versus AD, HS versus NC, and AD versus NC (P < .0001). Additional study is needed to determine whether these differences will be meaningful for clinical diagnosis of individual cases.
International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2011; 2011:483972.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objectives were to compare the effects of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on cerebral blood flow (CBF), and then to analyze the relationship between CBF and subcortical vascular disease, measured as volume of white-matter lesions (WMLs).
Eight mildly demented patients with SIVD (mean +/- SD; aged 77 +/- 8 years; Mini-Mental State Examination score 26 +/- 3 years) and 14 patients with AD were compared with 18 cognitively normal elderly subjects. All subjects had CBF measured using arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging, and brain volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging.
AD and SIVD showed marked CBF reductions in the frontal (P = 0.001) and parietal (P = 0.001) cortices. In SIVD, increased subcortical WMLs were associated with reduced CBF in the frontal cortex (P = 0.04), in addition to cortical atrophy (frontal, P = 0.05; parietal, P = 0.03).
Subcortical vascular disease is associated with reduced CBF in the cortex, irrespective of brain atrophy.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 11/2009; 5(6):454-62. · 14.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate associations between vascular risk profile and cerebral glucose metabolism.
Subjects ranged from normal to having dementia (age >55 years) and underwent neuropsychological testing, MRI, and FDG PET scanning (n = 58). The Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Profile (FCRP) and its individual components were used as covariates in regression analyses with each PET scan using SPM2.
Analyses revealed broad areas of the frontal lobe in which higher FCRP was associated with lower normalized glucose metabolism including the superior medial frontal, superior frontal and superior orbital frontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Significant associations were predominately found in the left hemisphere. Independent component analyses revealed interesting regions but further confirm the relevance of the integrative measure of coronary risk.
Although the mechanism of this association bears further investigation, this finding provides further evidence that vascular risk factors have malignant effects on the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain features such as small vascular lesions seen in human MRI are detected reliably only in postmortem histological samples by microscopic imaging. Co-registration of these microscopically detected features to their corresponding locations in the in-vivo images would be of great benefit to understanding the MRI signatures of specific diseases. Using non-linear Polynomial transformation, we report a method to co-register in-vivo MRIs to microscopic images of histological samples drawn off the postmortem brain. The approach utilizes digital photographs of postmortem slices as an intermediate reference to co-register the MRIs to microscopy. The overall procedure is challenging due to gross structural deformations in the postmortem brain during extraction and subsequent distortions in the histological preparations. Hemispheres of the brain were co-registered separately to mitigate these effects. Approaches relying on matching single-slices, multiple-slices and entire volumes in conjunction with different similarity measures suggested that using four slices at a time in combination with two sequential measures, Pearson correlation coefficient followed by mutual information, produced the best MRI-postmortem co-registration according to a voxel mismatch count. The accuracy of the overall registration was evaluated by measuring the 3D Euclidean distance between the locations of microscopically identified lesions on postmortem slices and their MRI-postmortem co-registered locations. The results show a mean 3D displacement of 5.1 ± 2.0 mm between the in-vivo MRI and microscopically determined locations for 21 vascular lesions in 11 subjects.
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology 02/2008; 18(5-6):325-335. · 0.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small vascular lesions seen in human MRI are detected reliably only in postmortem histological samples. Using non-linear polynomial transformation, we report a method to co-register in-vivo MRIs to microscopic examinations of histological samples drawn off the postmortem brain. Digital photographs of postmortem slices served as an intermediate reference to coregister the MRIs to microscopy. In-vivo MRI to postmortem coregistration is challenging due to gross structural deformations in the brain during extraction. Hemispheres of the brain were co-registered separately to mitigate these effects. Approaches relying on matching single-slices, multiple-slices and entire volume in conjunction with different similarity measures suggested that using four slices at a time in combination with two sequential measures, Pearson correlation coefficient followed by mutual information produced the best MRI-postmortem coregistration according to a voxel mismatch count. The accuracy of the overall registration was evaluated by measuring the 3D Euclidean distance between the locations of the microscopically identified vascular lesions and their MRI-postmortem coregistered locations. The results show a mean 3D displacement of 7.5 plusmn 2.7 mm between these locations for 11 vascular lesions in 7 subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine how baseline and change of volumetric MRI relate to cognitive decline in older individuals.
Memory is associated with hippocampal integrity, whereas executive function has been linked to impaired frontal lobe function. Previous studies have shown that hippocampal and cortical atrophy are more strongly related to cognition than are measures of subcortical cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The authors hypothesized that memory (MEM) decline would be related to change in hippocampal volume (HC), whereas decline in executive function (EXEC) would be related to change of cortical gray matter volume (CGM) and measures of subcortical CVD.
Subjects from a multicenter study (n = 103) included cognitively normal, mildly impaired, and demented cases with and without subcortical lacunes. All had longitudinal cognitive evaluation (mean = 4.8 years) and two or more MRI scans at least one year apart (mean = 3.4 years). MRI measures included HC, CGM, total lacune volume (LAC), and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMH). Random effects modeling of longitudinal data assessed effects of MRI baseline and MRI change on baseline and change of psychometrically matched measures of MEM and EXEC.
Change in MEM was related to HC baseline and HC change. Change in EXEC was related to baseline CGM and to change in CGM, HC, and LAC. Results were unchanged when demented cases were excluded. WMH was not associated with change in MEM or EXEC independent of HC, CGM, and LAC.
Hippocampal volume was the primary determinant of memory decline, whereas executive function (EXEC) decline was related to multiple brain components. Results support a hypothesis that MEM decline is strongly influenced by Alzheimer disease (AD), whereas EXEC decline may be complexly determined by cerebrovascular disease and AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal lobe gray matter (GM) is diminished in Alzheimer disease (AD). Because NAA is considered a marker of neuronal integrity, reduced medial temporal and parietal lobe NAA could be an early indication of dementia-related pathology in elderly individuals.
1) To determine whether cognitively impaired but nondemented (CIND) elderly individuals exhibit a similar pattern of reduced medial temporal and parietal lobe NAA as AD patients. 2) To compare regional NAA patterns, hippocampal and neocortical gray matter (GM) volumes in CIND patients who remained cognitively stable and those who became demented over 3.6 years of follow-up. 3) To examine the relationship between memory performance, medial temporal lobe NAA, and hippocampal volume.
Seventeen CIND, 24 AD, and 24 cognitively normal subjects were studied using MRSI and MRI.
Relative to controls, CIND patients had reduced MTL NAA (19 to 21%, p = 0.005), hippocampal (11 to 14%, p < or = 0.04), and neocortical GM (5%, p = 0.05) volumes. CIND patients who later became demented had less MTL NAA (26%, p = 0.01), hippocampal (17 to 23%, p < or = 0.05), and neocortical GM (13%, p = 0.02) volumes than controls, but there were no significant differences between stable CIND patients and controls. MTL NAA in combination with hippocampal volume improved discrimination of CIND and controls over hippocampal volume alone. In AD and CIND patients, decreased MTL NAA correlated significantly with impaired memory performance.
Reduced medial temporal lobe N-acetylaspartate, together with reduced hippocampal and neocortical gray matter volumes, may be early indications of dementia-related pathology in subjects at high risk for developing dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed an agar-embedding method for brain-slicing that minimizes the geometrical distortions which arise from handling and slicing the fixed postmortem brain. To facilitate postmortem brain-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) co-registration, each hemisphere is processed separately. We embed the fixed brain hemisphere with reference markers in agar. The block containing the brain and markers is sliced at a fixed interval using a rotary slicer. Each slice is photographed with a high-resolution digital camera. The digital images are realigned as a 3-dimensional volume via a control point-based registration method for multi-slice registration. The realigned multiple slices of the reconstructed postmortem hemisphere are then co-registered to corresponding slices of an in vivo reference MRI-volume. We illustrate these postmortem MRI-brain co-registration methods to correlate in vivo T2-weighted MRI hyperintensities in gray and white matter with underlying pathology. For design-based stereology, the volume of interest (VOI) is defined using reproducible anatomical boundaries. This method is suitable for stereologic measures of structures ranging from defined nuclei to whole brain.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 11/2004; 139(2):209-15. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the effect of white matter lesions in different brain regions on regional cortical glucose metabolism, regional cortical atrophy, and cognitive function in a sample with a broad range of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive function.
Subjects (n = 78) were recruited for a study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) contributions to dementia. A new method was developed to define volumes of interest from high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted MR images. Volumetric measures of MRI segmented white matter signal hyperintensities (WMH) in five different brain regions were related to regional PET glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) in cerebral cortex, MRI measures of regional cortical atrophy, and neuropsychological assessment of executive and memory function.
WMH was significantly higher in the prefrontal region compared to the other brain regions. In all subjects, higher frontal and parietal WMH were associated with reduced frontal rCMRglc, whereas occipitotemporal WMH was only marginally associated with frontal rCMRglc. These associations were stronger and more widely distributed in nondemented subjects where reduced frontal rCMRglc was correlated with WMH for all regions measured. In contrast, there was no relationship between WMH in any brain region and rCMRglc in either parietal or occipitotemporal regions. WMHs in all brain regions were associated with low executive scores in nondemented subjects.
The frontal lobes are most severely affected by SIVD. WMHs are more abundant in the frontal region. Regardless of where in the brain these WMHs are located, they are associated with frontal hypometabolism and executive dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if atrophy rates were higher for entorhinal cortex (ERC) than for hippocampus in Alzheimer disease (AD), to determine the relationship between hippocampal atrophy rate and memory impairment, and to compare atrophy rates of ERC and hippocampus in differentiating between patients with AD and cognitively normal (CN) controls.
Twenty patients with AD and 25 CN subjects had MRI scans and clinical evaluations twice approximately 1.9 years apart. ERC volumes were measured manually and hippocampal volumes were measured semiautomatically on volumetric T1-weighted MR images.
In AD, the atrophy rate of ERC (7.1 +/- 3.2%/year) was higher (p < 0.02) than that of hippocampus (5.9 +/- 2.4%/year). Furthermore, memory deficit in mild AD, measured with the Delayed List Verbal Recall test, correlated significantly with atrophy rates of both ERC (r = -0.61) and hippocampus (r = -0.59). Atrophy rates of ERC and hippocampus were comparable in differentiating between AD and CN. Using atrophy rates of ERC or hippocampus to detect a 20% treatment effect with 90% power (p < 0.05) would require about 100 completed patients per arm in a 2-year study.
The finding in AD that the atrophy rate in the entorhinal cortex is higher than in the hippocampus is consistent with the view that AD pathology begins in the entorhinal cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1) To determine the regional pattern of reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD); 2) to explore the relationship between NAA reduction and subcortical vascular disease; and 3) to test if MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in combination with structural MRI improves differentiation between SIVD and Alzheimer disease (AD).
Thirteen patients with SIVD (71 +/- 8 years old) and 43 patients with AD of comparable age and dementia severity were studied using MRSI and MRI. Patients were compared to 52 cognitively normal subjects with and without lacunes.
Compared to controls, patients with SIVD had lower NAA by 18% (p < 0.001) in frontal cortex and by 27% (p < 0.003) in parietal cortex, but no significant NAA reduction in white matter and medial temporal lobe. Compared to patients with AD, patients with SIVD had lower NAA by 13% (p < 0.02) in frontal cortex and by 20% (p < 0.002) in left parietal cortex. Cortical NAA decreased in SIVD with increasing white matter lesions (r = 0.54, p < 0.02) and number of lacunes (r = 0.59, p < 0.02). Thalamic lacunes were associated with greater NAA reduction in frontal cortex than were lacunes outside the thalamus (p < 0.02) across groups, after adjusting for cognitive impairments. Adding parietal NAA to MRI-derived hippocampal atrophy improved separation between SIVD and AD (p = 0.02) from 79 to 89%.
These results emphasize the importance of cortical dysfunction as a factor in SIVD and indicate a characteristic pattern of metabolite change that might serve as a basis for improved diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the atrophy rate of entorhinal cortex (ERC) in AD and normal aging and assess the value of rate measurement of ERC atrophy for classifying subjects with AD from cognitively normal (CN) control subjects.
Twenty-one AD patients and 23 CN subjects had MRI scans and clinical evaluations twice within 1.8 +/- 0.6 years. ERC volumes were manually measured on volumetric T1-weighted MR images.
Patients with AD had a greater annual percentage volume change of ERC than CN subjects on both sides (left: 6.8 +/- 4.3%/year for AD vs 1.4 +/- 2.5%/year for CN [F(1,42) = 25.6, p < 0.001]; right: 6.3 +/- 3.3%/year for AD vs 1.4 +/- 2.3%/year for CN [F(1,42) = 25.6, p < 0.001]). Furthermore, increased ERC atrophy rate was correlated (r = -0.56, p = 0.01) with decreased memory performance in AD. CN subjects had on average annual ERC atrophy rates greater than zero (p < 0.01). Baseline volume of ERC predicted atrophy rate of ERC (left: r = -0.53, p < 0.01; right: r = -0.42, p < 0.05) in CN subjects but not in AD subjects. Using ERC baseline volumes alone resulted in 77% overall correct classification (p < 0.01) between AD and CN subjects, with 76% sensitivity and 78% specificity and an area under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.83. Adding annual atrophy rate of ERC to the model accounted for most of the variance (p < 0.01), diminishing contributions from baseline volume and yielding 82% overall classification, with 76% sensitivity and 86% specificity and an area under the ROC curve of 0.93.
ERC volume loss over time may be a better indicator for AD than cross-sectional measurements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this project was to compare MRI measures of hippocampal, entorhinal cortex (ERC), and whole brain longitudinal change in cognitively normal elderly controls (C), non-demented subjects with cognitive impairment (CI), and demented (D) subjects.
16 C, 6 CI, and 7 D subjects of comparable age were studied with MRI twice, at least 1 year apart. Longitudinal change in total brain size was measured by several methods, including computerized segmentation, non-linear warping, and change in the fluid/tissue boundaries between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain. Change in hippocampal volume was measured by semi-automated methods, and ERC volumes were manually measured.
The annual rate of atrophy was greater in D versus C and D versus CI for cortical gray matter (cGM) (P=0.009 and 0.002), hippocampus (P=0.0001 and 0.002), and for the change in the fluid/tissue boundary (P=0.03 and 0.03). The annual rate of atrophy of ERC was greater in both CI and D versus C (P=0.01 and 0.0002). No significant differences between groups were found using non-linear warping.
In CI, the greatest annual rates of atrophy were in ERC, while in D the greatest annual rates of atrophy were in hippocampus and cortex. Progressive ERC atrophy was observed with a greater degree of cognitive impairment, while hippocampal and cortical atrophy were only observed in demented subjects.
Neurobiology of Aging 01/2003; 24(4):537-44. · 6.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine volumetric MRI correlates of longitudinal cognitive decline in normal aging, AD, and subcortical cerebrovascular brain injury (SCVBI).
Previous cross-sectional studies examining the relationship between cognitive impairment and dementia have shown that hippocampal and cortical gray matter atrophy are the most important predictors of cognitive impairment, even in cases with SCVBI. The authors hypothesized that hippocampal and cortical gray matter volume also would best predict rate of cognitive decline in cases with and without SCVBI.
Subjects were recruited for a multicenter study of contributions to dementia of AD and SCVBI. The sample (n = 120) included cognitively normal, cognitively impaired, and demented cases with and without lacunes identified by MRI. Cases with cortical strokes were excluded. Average length of follow-up was 3.0 years. Measures of hippocampal volume, volume of cortical gray matter, presence of subcortical lacunes, and volume of white matter hyperintensity were derived from MRI. Random effects modeling of longitudinal data was used to assess effects of baseline MRI variables on longitudinal change in a measure of global cognitive ability.
Cortical gray matter atrophy predicted cognitive decline regardless of whether lacunes were present. Hippocampal atrophy predicted decline only in those without lacunes. Neither lacunes nor white matter hyperintensity independently predicted decline.
Results suggest that cortical atrophy is an index of disease severity in both AD and subcortical cerebrovascular brain injury and consequently predicts faster progression. Hippocampal volume may index disease severity and predict progression in AD. The absence of this effect in cases with lacunes suggests that this group is etiologically heterogeneous and is not composed simply of cases of AD with incidental stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and AD on entorhinal cortex (ERC) and hippocampus.
Thirty-eight cognitively normal subjects, 18 patients with SIVD, and 22 patients with AD were included. Volumes of ERC and hippocampus were manually measured based on MRI. Global cerebral changes of cortical gray matter, subcortical gray matter, white matter, sulcal CSF, ventricular CSF (vCSF), and white matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) were assessed.
Patients with SIVD had 21.7% (p < 0.01) smaller ERC and 18.2% (p < 0.01) smaller hippocampi than cognitively normal subjects and 24.4% (p < 0.01) larger ERC and 11.1% (p < 0.05) larger hippocampi than patients with AD. In addition, patients with SIVD had less cortical gray matter and white matter and more vCSF and WMSH (all p < 0.01) than cognitively normal subjects and more vCSF and WMSH (p < 0.01) than patients with AD. The volumes of ERC and hippocampus were positively correlated to similar extents (p < 0.01) in SIVD and AD. Cortical gray matter loss was positively correlated (p < 0.01) with hippocampal atrophy, but not with ERC atrophy, in SIVD and AD. Hippocampal volume alone could classify 82% of patients with SIVD from cognitively normal subjects and 63% of patients with SIVD from subjects with AD. Adding global cerebral changes to hippocampus substantially improved the classification to 96% between patients with SIVD and cognitively normal subjects and 83% between subjects with SIVD and those with AD, whereas adding ERC change to hippocampus did not significantly improve the discrimination.
The entorhinal cortex and hippocampus are less affected by subcortical ischemic vascular dementia than by AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of Alzheimer's disease reported hippocampal atrophy that could, to a high degree, distinguish Alzheimer's disease patients from cognitively normal elderly subjects. Additional research has shown that these measurements may not be as accurate at least for patients in mild stages of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Executive dysfunction has been reported in patients with subcortical-frontal pathology, even in the absence of dementia.
This study was undertaken to determine if impairments in executive functioning could be found in non-demented patients with subcortical lacunes.
Cross sectional comparison between older control subjects (n=27) and non-demented patients with one or more subcortical lacunes (n=12). All participants were administered a neuropsychological test battery incorporating three measures of executive functioning, the Stroop interference test, California card sorting test, and the initiation-perseveration subtest of the Mattis dementia rating scale.
No group differences were found on measures of recent verbal memory, language, or spatial ability. Normal controls performed better than patients with lacunes in visual memory. On the Stroop interference test, patients with lacunes performed as well as controls on the colour naming condition but slower on the interference condition. Patients with lacunes also generated fewer correct sorts on the California card sort test and achieved lower scores on the initiation-perseveration subtest. Executive measures were correlated with extent of white matter signal hyperintensity but not number of lacunes.
Subcortical ischaemic vascular disease is associated with subtle declines in executive functioning and visual memory, even in non-demented patients. The pattern of cognitive impairment after subcortical lacunes is consistent with models of subcortical-frontal circuits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Causes of cognitive impairment in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) are less well understood than in AD, but have been thought to result from direct effects of subcortical lacunes and white matter lesions, perhaps related to disruption of important cortical-subcortical pathways.
To examine the relation between cognitive abilities and quantitative MRI measures of subcortical cerebrovascular disease and cortical and hippocampal atrophy.
Subjects were 157 participants in a multicenter study of SIVD and AD who included cognitively normal, cognitively impaired, and demented individuals with and without subcortical lacunar infarcts. Dependent variables were neuropsychological tests of global cognitive function, memory, language, and executive function. Independent variables were quantitative MRI measures of volume of lacunar infarcts in specific subcortical structures, volume of white matter lesion (WML), volume of cortical gray matter (cGM), and total hippocampal volume (HV). Multiple regression analyses were used to identify MRI predictors of cognition.
Subcortical lacunes were not related to cognitive measures independent of effects of other MRI variables. WML was independently related to selected, timed measures. HV and cGM were strong and independent predictors of cognitive variables, with effects that did not differ in subjects with and without subcortical lacunes.
Results suggest that cognitive impairment associated with subcortical ischemic vascular disease is primarily a result of associated hippocampal and cortical changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia are among the most frequently occurring causes of dementia in the world, and their accurate differentiation is important because different pharmaceutical strategies may modify the course of each disease.
To determine which of 10 neuropsychological test scores can accurately differentiate patients with probable AD from those with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) for use in evidence-based clinical practice.
Patients with suspected dementia were referred to the study by family physicians, geriatricians, and neurologists. All participants received a thorough assessment according to standard diagnostic guidelines. Diagnoses of probable AD (n = 31) and probable SIVD (n = 31) were made according to consensus criteria. The diagnosticians were blind to the results of the 10 neuropsychological test scores.
There were no significant differences between the groups in age or Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Logistic regression analyses identified 2 neuropsychological tests that best distinguished the groups (sensitivity = 81%; specificity = 84%; positive likelihood ratio = 5.1). These were the recognition memory subtest of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. The AD group performed better on the oral association test, whereas the SIVD group did better on the recognition memory test.
Patients with probable AD and probable SIVD can be distinguished with a high degree of accuracy using these 2 neuropsychological tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore volume changes of the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with normal cognition (NC); to determine the powers of the ERC and the hippocampus for discrimination between these groups.
This study included 40 subjects with NC, 36 patients with MCI, and 29 patients with AD. Volumes of the ERC and hippocampus were manually measured based on coronal T1 weighted MR images. Global cerebral changes were assessed using semiautomatic image segmentation.
Both ERC and hippocampal volumes were reduced in MCI (ERC 13%, hippocampus 11%, p<0.05) and AD (ERC 39%, hippocampus 27%, p<0.01) compared with NC. Furthermore, AD showed greater volume losses in the ERC than in the hippocampus (p<0.01). In addition, AD and MCI also had cortical grey matter loss (p< 0.01) and ventricular enlargement (p<0.01) when compared with NC. There was a significant correlation between ERC and hippocampal volumes in MCI and AD (both p<0.001), but not in NC. Using ERC and hippocampus together improved discrimination between AD and CN but did not improve discrimination between MCI and NC. The ERC was better than the hippocampus for distinguishing MCI from AD. In addition, loss of cortical grey matter significantly contributed to the hippocampus for discriminating MCI and AD from NC.
Volume reductions in the ERC and hippocampus may be early signs of AD pathology that can be measured using MRI.