Rowan T Chlebowski

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (397)3921.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3647-1 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Marian L Neuhouser · Rowan T Chlebowski · Garnet L Anderson ·

    11/2015; 1(8):1171. DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.3313
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin trial, after 5.6 years' intervention and 8 years' median follow-up, more women died from lung cancer in the hormone therapy group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.52; P = .01). Now after 14 years' median follow-up, we reexamined combined hormone therapy effects on lung cancer mortality. Patients and methods: In the WHI placebo-controlled trial, 16,608 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years and with an intact uterus were randomly assigned to once-daily 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). Incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer were assessed from multivariant proportional hazard models. Results: After 14 years' cumulative follow-up, there were 219 lung cancers (0.19% per year) in the estrogen plus progestin group and 184 (0.17%) in the placebo group (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92-1.37; P = .24). While there were more deaths from lung cancer with combined hormone therapy (153 [0.13%] vs. 132 [0.12%], respectively), the difference was not statistically significant (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.87-1.38; P = .45). The statistically significant increase in deaths from lung cancer observed during intervention in women assigned to estrogen plus progestin was attenuated after discontinuation of study pills (linear trend over time, P = .042). Conclusion: The increased risk of death from lung cancer observed during estrogen plus progestin use was attenuated after discontinuation of combined hormone therapy.
    Clinical Lung Cancer 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cllc.2015.09.004 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity-breast cancer relation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 09/2015; 107(9). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djv169 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens are important immunomodulators, exerting significant effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Estrogen receptors are expressed on normal B and T lymphocytes, bone marrow and in leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. Epidemiologic evidence for the association of menopausal hormone use with risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been mixed; however, all of the investigations have been observational. We analyzed the data from Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials where conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 2.5 mg/d) (n=16654) or CEE alone (women with prior hysterectomy) (n=10685) were tested against placebos and the intervention lasted a median of 5.6 years in the CEE + MPA trial and 7.2 years in the CEE alone trial. During 13 years of follow-up through September 20, 2013 383 incident NHL cases were identified. We used the intent-to-treat approach to calculate incidence rates of NHL, hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) by treatment group. Incidence of NHL was virtually the same in the treatment and placebo groups. The HR was 1.02 (95%CI 0.74-1.39) for CEE alone, 0.98 (95% CI 0.76-1.28) for CEE+MPA, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.82-1.22) for both combined. There were no specific NHL subtypes associated with either type of the treatment, except a marginally decreased risk of plasma cell neoplasms (HR= 0.53 95% CI 0.27-1.03) in the CEE-alone group. These results do not support a role of estrogen alone or combined with progestin in the development of NHL among postmenopausal women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cancer 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/ijc.29819 · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • J Luo · M Hendryx · B Virnig · S Wen · R Chlebowski · C Chen · T Rohan · L Tinker · J Wactawski-Wende · L Lessin · K L Margolis ·
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes on breast cancer prognosis. Women (n=2833) with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative, who were linked to Medicare claims data (CMS) were followed from the date of breast cancer diagnosis to date of death or 20 September 2013. Information on diabetes was identified through the CMS Chronic Condition Warehouse algorithm. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for overall mortality. A competing risks model (proportional subdistribution) model was used to estimate hazard ratios for breast cancer-specific mortality. Women with diabetes were more likely to have factors related to delayed diagnosis (less recent mammograms, and more advanced cancer stage) and were less likely to receive radiation therapy. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes had significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.23-2.01) and had nonsignificantly increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.36, 95% CI: 0.86-2.15) before adjustment for factors related to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Adjustment for these factors resulted in a little change in the association of diabetes with overall mortality risk, but further attenuated the point estimate for breast cancer-specific mortality. Our study provides additional evidence that pre-existing diabetes increases the risk of total mortality among women with breast cancer. Very large studies with data on breast cancer risk factors, screening and diagnostic delays, treatment choices, and the biological influence of diabetes on breast cancer will be needed to determine whether diabetes also increases the risk for breast cancer-specific mortality.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication: 9 July 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.249
    British Journal of Cancer 07/2015; 113(5). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.249 · 4.84 Impact Factor
  • Rowan T Chlebowski · Aaron K Aragaki · Garnet L Anderson ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Woman's Health Initiative has conducted 2 full-scale, placebo-controlled clinical trials to determine the influence of menopausal therapy on breast cancer incidence and outcome. Estrogen plus progestin use in postmenopausal women with a uterus increases breast cancer incidence and deaths from breast cancer. Despite a short-term reduction in risk after stopping estrogen plus progestin use, an increase in breast cancer risk persists postintervention. Estrogen-alone use in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy reduces breast cancer incidence and reduces deaths from breast cancer. The reduced breast cancer risk persists for several years after stopping estrogen-alone use but is lost in late postintervention. These findings suggest recalibration of breast cancer risk and benefit consideration for both regimens, with estrogen plus progestin use associated with greater risk and estrogen-alone use associated with greater benefit. Use of either regimen in clinical practice requires careful consideration of all clinical risks and benefits. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
    Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN 07/2015; 13(7):917-24. · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical hyperplasia of the breast (AH) is associated with increased risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer, yet little is known about the etiology of AH. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may contribute to the development of AH due to its proliferative effects on mammary tissue. We conducted a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women enrolled in Women’s Health Initiative-Clinical Trial. Cases were 275 women who developed incident AH during follow-up, individually (1 : 1) matched to controls. Levels of IGFBP-2 were determined from fasting serum collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the association of IGFBP-2 with risk of AH. Serum IGFBP-2 was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in risk for AH, when comparing the highest quartile to lowest quartile (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.32–1.31). This decrease in risk was most evident when analyses were restricted to nondiabetic, nonusers of hormone therapy (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.86, p trend = 0.06) and nondiabetic women who were overweight or obese (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.18–1.03, p trend = 0.05). Results from this study provide some support for an inverse association between serum IGFBP2 levels and risk of AH, particularly in nondiabetic women who are overweight or obese. Further studies are required to confirm these results.
    Journal of Cancer Epidemiology 06/2015; 2015(24):1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/203284
  • Rowan T Chlebowski ·

    The Lancet Oncology 06/2015; 16(7). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00052-2 · 24.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More than two-thirds of US women are overweight or obese, placing them at increased risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. To investigate in this secondary analysis the associations of overweight and obesity with risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer after extended follow-up in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. The WHI clinical trial protocol incorporated measured height and weight, baseline and annual or biennial mammography, and adjudicated breast cancer end points in 67 142 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years at 40 US clinical centers. The women were enrolled from 1993 to 1998 with a median of 13 years of follow-up through 2010; 3388 invasive breast cancers were observed. Height and weight were measured at baseline, and weight was measured annually thereafter. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, and personal habits (smoking, physical activity). Women underwent annual or biennial mammograms. Breast cancers were verified by medical records reviewed by physician adjudicators. Women who were overweight and obese had an increased invasive breast cancer risk vs women of normal weight. Risk was greatest for obesity grade 2 plus 3 (body mass index [BMI], calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, >35.0) (hazard ratio [HR] for invasive breast cancer, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.40-1.79). A BMI of 35.0 or higher was strongly associated with risk for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancers (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.60-2.17) but was not associated with estrogen receptor-negative cancers. Obesity grade 2 plus 3 was also associated with advanced disease, including larger tumor size (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.67-2.69; P = .02), positive lymph nodes (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.46-2.45; P = .06), regional and/or distant stage (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.52-2.47; P = .05), and deaths after breast cancer (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57-2.84; P < .001). Women with a baseline BMI of less than 25.0 who gained more than 5% of body weight over the follow-up period had an increased breast cancer risk (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.1-1.65), but among women already overweight or obese we found no association of weight change (gain or loss) with breast cancer during follow-up. There was no effect modification of the BMI-breast cancer relationship by postmenopausal hormone therapy, and the direction of association across BMI categories was similar for never, past, and current hormone therapy use. Obesity is associated with increased invasive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. These clinically meaningful findings should motivate programs for obesity prevention. Identifier: NCT00000611.
    06/2015; 1(5). DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.1546
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    ABSTRACT: The use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) continues in clinical practice, but reports are conflicting concerning the longer-term breast cancer effects of relatively short-term use. To report the longer-term influence of menopausal HT on breast cancer incidence in the 2 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trials. A total of 27 347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled at 40 US centers from 1993 to 1998 and followed up for a median of 13 years through September 2010. A total of 16 608 women with a uterus were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg/d [estrogen]) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg/d [progestin]) (E + P) or placebo with a median intervention duration of 5.6 years, and 10 739 women with prior hysterectomy were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens alone (0.625 mg/d) or placebo with a median intervention duration of 7.2 years. Time-specific invasive breast cancer incidence rates and exploratory analyses of breast cancer characteristics by intervention and postintervention phases in the 2 HT trials. In the E + P trial, hazard ratios (HRs) for the influence of combined HT on breast cancer were lower than 1 for 2 years (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47-1.08) and steadily increased throughout intervention, becoming significantly increased for the entire intervention phase (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53). In the early postintervention phase (within 2.75 years from intervention), there was a sharp decrease in breast cancer incidence in the combined HT group, though the HR remained higher than 1 (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.90-1.70). During the late postintervention phase (requiring patient re-consent), the HR for breast cancer risk remained higher than 1 through 5.5 years (median) of additional follow-up (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.06-1.77). In the estrogen alone trial, the HR for invasive breast cancer risk was lower than 1 throughout the intervention phase (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02) and remained lower than 1 in the early postintervention phase (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89), but risk reduction was not observed during the late postintervention follow-up (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.73-1.87). Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed during early and late postintervention phases differed in both trials. In the E + P trial, the higher breast cancer risk seen during intervention was followed by a substantial drop in risk in the early postintervention phase, but a higher breast cancer risk remained during the late postintervention follow-up. In the estrogen alone trial, the lower breast cancer risk seen during intervention was sustained in the early postintervention phase but was not evident during the late postintervention follow-up.
    06/2015; 1(3). DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0494
  • R T Chlebowski · G L Anderson · R L Prentice · J E Rossouw · A K Aragaki · J E Manson ·
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    ABSTRACT: In an invited editorial, Dr Shapiro proposes that vaginal bleeding leading to unblinding and subsequent detection bias explains the breast cancer increase seen with estrogen plus progestin in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial (1) . In the context of a uniform detection program of protocol-mandated annual mammography and breast examinations, such a proposal is medically implausible. Dr Shapiro suggests detection bias would identify a larger number of 'slowly growing tumors that would otherwise remain clinically silent'. The findings of more advanced cancers with increased deaths from breast cancer in the estrogen plus progestin group refute this conjecture. During early post-intervention phases of both WHI hormone therapy trials, when breast cancer detection bias is asserted by Dr Shapiro because participants had been informed of randomization assignment, breast cancer incidence rates were lower (rather than higher) than during intervention. Thus, Dr Shapiro's claims are directly refuted by findings from the WHI randomized clinical trials. Health-care providers should be aware that randomized clinical trial evidence supports estrogen plus progestin increasing breast cancer incidence and deaths from breast cancer. In contrast, among women with prior hysterectomy, randomized clinical trial evidence supports estrogen alone reducing breast cancer incidence and deaths from breast cancer.
    Climacteric 06/2015; 18(3):336-8. DOI:10.3109/13697137.2015.1038770 · 2.26 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P6-10-04-P6-10-04. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P6-10-04 · 9.33 Impact Factor

  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):PD4-2-PD4-2. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-PD4-2 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The preponderance of observational studies describe an association between the use of estrogen alone and a lower incidence of colorectal cancer. In contrast, no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer was seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized, placebo-controlled trial with estrogen alone after a mean intervention of 7.1 years and cumulative follow-up of 13.2 years. This study extends these findings by providing detailed analyses of the effects of estrogen alone on the histology, grade, and stage of colorectal cancer, relevant subgroups, and deaths from and after colorectal cancer.METHODS The WHI study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy. Participants were assigned to conjugated equine estrogen at 0.625 mg/d (n = 5279) or a matching placebo (n = 5409). Rates of colorectal cancer diagnoses and deaths from and after colorectal cancer were assessed throughout the study.RESULTSColorectal cancer rates in the estrogen-alone and placebo groups were comparable: 0.14% and 0.12% per year, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.58; P = .43). Bowel screening examinations were comparable between the 2 groups throughout the study. The grade, stage, and location of colorectal cancer did not differ between the randomization groups. There were more colorectal cancer deaths in the estrogen-alone group (34 [0.05%] vs 24 [0.03%]; HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.86-2.46; P = .16), but the difference was not statistically significant. The colorectal cancer incidence was higher for participants with a history of colon polyp removal in the estrogen-alone group (0.23% vs 0.02%; HR, 13.47; nominal 95% CI, 1.76-103.0; P < .001).CONCLUSIONS The use of estrogen alone in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy does not influence the incidence of colorectal cancer or deaths from or after colorectal cancer. A possibly higher risk of colorectal cancer in women with prior colon polyp removal who use estrogen alone requires confirmation. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 05/2015; 121(18). DOI:10.1002/cncr.29464 · 4.89 Impact Factor

  • 04/2015; 2(2):88. DOI:10.17294/2330-0698.1079
  • Rowan T Chlebowski · Garnet L Anderson ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) has conducted two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials to evaluate the influence of menopausal hormone therapy on chronic disease risk. Estrogen plus progestin was evaluated in 16,608 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy during 5.6 years’ intervention. In that setting, combined hormone therapy use significantly increased breast cancer incidence and interfered with breast cancer detection. The breast cancers were not limited to estrogen receptor positive, favorable prognosis cancers and were identified at more advanced stage. As a result, deaths from breast cancer were significantly increased by estrogen plus progestin use. While the absolute breast cancer risk for relatively short term (2-4 years) use of combined hormone therapy is small, on a population basis a therapy which nearly doubles deaths from breast cancer requires cautious use. Estrogen alone was evaluated in 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy during 7.1 years’ intervention. There was an overall reduction of breast cancer incidence seen with estrogen alone use and a suggestion that the effect on risk was more pronounced in women initiating hormone therapy further from menopause. Nonetheless, women with prior hysterectomy can be assured that short duration estrogen alone use for climacteric symptom management is relatively safe. Neither estrogen plus progestin nor estrogen alone should be used for chronic disease risk reduction. The safety of duration of use on chronic disease risk longer than in the WHI clinical trials is not defined.
    Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety 04/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.1177/2042098614568300
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    ABSTRACT: Results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials (CT) demonstrated no increase in the risk of lung cancer in postmenopausal women treated with hormone therapy. We conducted a joint analysis of the WHI observational study data and CT data to further explore the association between estrogen and estrogen-related reproductive factors and lung cancer risk. Reproductive history, oral contraceptive (OC) use, and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) was evaluated in 160,855 women with known HT exposures. Follow-up for lung cancer was through September 17, 2012; 2,467 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained, with median follow-up of 14 years. For all lung cancers, women with previous use of estrogen plus progestin of < 5 years (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.71-0.99) were at reduced risk. A limited number of reproductive factors demonstrated associations with risk. There was a trend towards decreased risk with increasing age at menopause (ptrend=0.04) and a trend towards increased risk with increasing number of live births (ptrend=0.03). Reduced risk of non-small cell lung cancer was associated with age 20-29 at first live birth. Risk estimates varied with smoking history, years of HT use and previous bilateral oophorectomy. Indirect measures of estrogen exposure to lung tissue, as used in this study, provide only weak evidence for an association between reproductive history or HT use and risk of lung cancer. More detailed mechanistic studies and evaluation of risk factors in conjunction with ER expression in the lung should continue as a role for estrogen can't be ruled out and may hold potential for prevention and treatment strategies.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 04/2015; 10(7). DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000558 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    Rowan T Chlebowski · Joanne E Schottinger · Jiaxiao Shi · Joanie Chung · Reina Haque ·
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    ABSTRACT: The risks of both endometrial cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer are increased by obesity and higher endogenous estrogen levels. Although aromatase inhibitors reduce breast cancer incidence, their influence on endometrial cancer is uncertain. The authors investigated this issue in a cohort of 17,064 women who were diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in an integrated group practice health plan. Information on demographics, comorbidities, and the receipt of adjuvant endocrine therapy was available from electronic medical records and pharmacy records, respectively. Endometrial cancer information was obtained from the health plan's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-affiliated tumor registry, and rates were compared across endocrine therapy groups (aromatase inhibitor, n = 5303; tamoxifen, n = 5155; switchers: both [n = 3787] or none [n = 2819]) using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models. Endometrial cancer incidence was a statistically significant 48% lower in the aromatase inhibitor group versus the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.87; P = .01). Endometrial cancer incidence was 29% lower in the aromatase inhibitor group versus the no endocrine therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-1.35; P = .30) and 33% lower in the aromatase inhibitor group versus the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.06; P = .08), but neither difference was statistically significant. Associations were stronger among those with good drug adherence. In a community-based, integrated health plan setting, endometrial cancer incidence was lower in women who were receiving an aromatase inhibitor compared with those who were receiving tamoxifen. In addition, aromatase inhibitors may mitigate the incidence of tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer. Although there were somewhat fewer endometrial cancers in the aromatase inhibitor group versus the no endocrine therapy group, further studies are needed for the definitive assessment of this potential association. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 03/2015; 121(13). DOI:10.1002/cncr.29332 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between statins and breast cancer stage and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative. The study population included 128,675 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years, out of which there were 7,883 newly diagnosed cases of in situ (19 %), local (61 %)-, regional (19 %)- and distant (1 %)-stage breast cancer and 401 deaths due to breast cancer after an average of 11.5 (SD = 3.7) years of follow-up. Stage was coded using SEER criteria and was stratified into early (in situ and local)- versus late (regional and distant)-stage disease. Information on statins and other risk factors were collected by self- and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Cause of death was based on medical record review. Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) evaluating the relationship between statin use (at baseline only and in a time-dependent manner) and diagnosis of late-stage breast cancer and breast cancer-specific mortality were computed from Cox proportional hazards analyses after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Statins were used by 10,474 women (8 %) at baseline. In the multivariable-adjusted time-dependent model, use of lipophilic statins was associated with a reduction in diagnosis of late-stage breast cancer (HR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.64-0.98, p = 0.035) which was also significant among women with estrogen receptor-positive disease (HR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.56-0.93, p = 0.012). Breast cancer mortality was marginally lower in statin users compared with nonusers (HR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.32-1.06, p = 0.075). Prior statin use is associated with lower breast cancer stage at diagnosis.
    Cancer Causes and Control 03/2015; 26(4). DOI:10.1007/s10552-015-0530-7 · 2.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21k Citations
3,921.35 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1987-2015
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1980-2015
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2012-2014
    • Torrance Memorial Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1980-2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
    • University of Balamand
      • Faculty of Health Sciences
      Amiun, Liban-Nord, Lebanon
  • 2003-2010
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2008
    • Maine Medical Center
      Portland, Maine, United States
  • 2006
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 1999
    • American Society of Clinical Oncology
      Alexandria, Virginia, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 1990
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1980-1982
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, California, United States