Joseph R Walker

Daiichi Sankyo, Parsippany, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (9)137.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This open-label, two-period, randomized, crossover study was designed to determine the effect of CYP2C19 reduced function variants on exposure to active metabolites of, and platelet response to, prasugrel and clopidogrel. Ninety healthy Chinese subjects, stratified by CYP2C19 phenotype, were randomly assigned to treatment with prasugrel 10 mg or clopidogrel 75 mg for 10 days followed by 14 day washout and 10 day treatment with the other drug. Eighty-three subjects completed both treatment periods. Blood samples were collected at specified time points for measurement of each drug's active metabolite (Pras-AM and Clop-AM) concentrations and determination of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) by light transmittance aggregometry. CYP2C19 genotypes were classified into three predicted phenotype groups: rapid metabolizers [RMs (*1/*1)], heterozygous or intermediate metabolizers [IMs (*1/*2, *1/*3)] and poor metabolizers [PMs (*2/*2, *2/*3)]. Pras-AM exposure was similar in IMs and RMs (90% CI 0.85, 1.03) and slightly lower in PMs than IMs (90% CI 0.74, 0.99), whereas Clop-AM exposure was significantly lower in IMs compared with RMs (90% CI 0.62, 0.83), and in PMs compared with IMs (90% CI 0.53, 0.82). IPA was more consistent among RMs, IMs and PMs in prasugrel treated subjects (80.2%, 84.2% and 80.2%, respectively) than in clopidogrel treated subjects (59.7%, 56.2% and 36.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Prasugrel demonstrated higher active metabolite exposure and more consistent pharmacodynamic response across all three predicted phenotype groups compared with clopidogrel, confirming observations from previous research that CYP2C19 phenotype plays an important role in variability of response to clopidogrel, but has no impact on response to prasugrel.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2011; 73(1):93-105. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for CS-917, an oral hypoglycemic prodrug, and its 3 metabolites. The population pharmacokinetic model was used to predict exposure of the active moiety R-125338 and thus to identify potential CS-917 dosage reduction criteria. The dataset included 6 phase I and IIa studies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetic profile of CS-917 and its metabolites was described by a series of linked 1- and 2-compartmental models. Simulations showed that moderate renal impairment has a clinically significant impact on exposure to R-125338. A separate population pharmacokinetic analysis of R-125338 alone revealed similar results. In conclusion, a population pharmacokinetic model fit to the active moiety alone yielded similar predictions and substantially reduced the analysis time compared to the more complex model developed for CS-917 and its metabolites. Increased exposure to R-125338 in the presence of moderate renal impairment may be an important consideration for dose selection.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2011; 52(3):404-15. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel and prasugrel are subject to efflux via P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1, also known as MDR1). ABCB1 polymorphisms, particularly 3435C→T, may affect drug transport and efficacy. We aimed to assess the effect of this polymorphism by itself and alongside variants in CYP2C19 on cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel in TRITON-TIMI 38. We also assessed the effect of genotype on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs in healthy individuals. We genotyped ABCB1 in 2932 patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous intervention who were treated with clopidogrel (n=1471) or prasugrel (n=1461) in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial. We evaluated the association between ABCB1 3435C→T and rates of the primary efficacy endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) until 15 months. We then assessed the combined effect of ABCB1 3435C→T genotype and reduced-function alleles of CYP2C19. 321 healthy individuals were also genotyped, and we tested the association of genetic variants with reduction in maximum platelet aggregation and plasma concentrations of active drug metabolites. In patients treated with clopidogrel, ABCB1 3435C→T genotype was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (p=0·0064). TT homozygotes had a 72% increased risk of the primary endpoint compared with CT/CC individuals (Kaplan-Meier event rates 12·9% [52 of 414] vs 7·8% [80 of 1057 participants]; HR 1·72, 95% CI 1·22-2·44, p=0·002). ABCB1 3435C→T and CYP2C19 genotypes were significant, independent predictors of the primary endpoint, and 681 (47%) of the 1454 genotyped patients taking clopidogrel who were either CYP2C19 reduced-function allele carriers, ABCB1 3435 TT homozygotes, or both were at increased risk of the primary endpoint (HR 1·97, 95% CI 1·38-2·82, p=0·0002). In healthy participants, 3435 TT homozygotes had an absolute reduction in maximum platelet aggregation with clopidogrel that was 7·3 percentage points less than for CT/CC individuals (p=0·0127). ABCB1 genotypes were not significantly associated with clinical or pharmacological outcomes in patients with an acute coronary syndrome or healthy individuals treated with prasugrel, respectively. Individuals with the ABCB1 3435 TT genotype have reduced platelet inhibition and are at increased risk of recurrent ischaemic events during clopidogrel treatment. In patients with acute coronary syndromes who have undergone percutaneous intervention, when both ABCB1 and CYP2C19 are taken into account, nearly half of the population carries a genotype associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events while on standard doses of clopidogrel. Daiichi Sankyo Company Ltd and Eli Lilly and Company.
    The Lancet 10/2010; 376(9749):1312-9. · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2010; 55(10). · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed to correlate physicochemical properties of structurally unrelated drugs with extent of in vitro binding to colesevelam, and predicted values were compared with drug exposure changes in vivo following coadministration. The binding of 17 drugs to colesevelam was determined by an in vitro dissolution drug-binding assay. Data from several clinical studies in healthy volunteers to support administration of colesevelam in diabetic patients were also collected along with existing in vivo literature data and compared with in vitro results. Steric, electronic, and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated for test compounds, and univariate and partial least squares regression approaches were used to derive QSPR models to evaluate which of the molecular descriptors correlated best with in vitro binding. A quadrant analysis evaluated the correlation between predicted/actual in vitro binding results and the in vivo data. The in vitro binding assay exhibited high sensitivity, identifying those compounds with a low probability of producing relevant in vivo drug interactions. Drug lipophilicity was identified as the primary determinant of in vitro binding to colesevelam by the final univariate and partial least squares models (R(2) = 0.69 and 0.98; Q(2) = 0.48 and 0.59). The in vitro assay and in silico models represent predictive tools that may allow investigators to conduct only informative clinical drug interaction studies with colesevelam.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2009; 49(10):1185-95. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess effects of colesevelam on the pharmacokinetics of glyburide, levothyroxine, estrogen estradiol (EE), norethindrone (NET), pioglitazone, and repaglinide in healthy volunteers. Six drugs with a potential to interact with colesevelam were studied in open-label, randomized clinical studies. The presence of a drug interaction was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric least squares mean ratios of AUC(0-t) (AUC(0-48) for levothyroxine) and C(max) fell outside the no-effect limits of (80.0%, 125.0%). Concomitant administration of colesevelam had no effect on the AUC(0-t) or C(max) of pioglitazone but significantly decreased the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of glyburide, levothyroxine, and EE and the C(max) of repaglinide and NET. AUC(0-t) and C(max) of glyburide and EE, but not repaglinide or NET, were significantly decreased when the drug was given 1 hour before colesevelam. When glyburide, EE, or levothyroxine was given 4 hours before colesevelam, no drug interaction was observed. Although colesevelam has a cleaner drug interaction profile than other bile acid sequestrants, it does interfere with absorption of some drugs. A 4-hour window appears sufficient to eliminate these interactions.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2009; 50(5):554-65. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both clopidogrel and prasugrel require biotransformation to active metabolites by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Among persons treated with clopidogrel, carriers of reduced-function CYP2C19 alleles have significantly lower levels of active metabolite, diminished platelet inhibition, and higher rates of adverse cardiovascular events. The effect of CYP polymorphisms on the clinical outcomes in patients treated with prasugrel remains unknown. The associations between functional variants in CYP genes, plasma concentrations of active drug metabolite, and platelet inhibition in response to prasugrel were tested in 238 healthy subjects. We then examined the association of these genetic variants with cardiovascular outcomes in a cohort of 1466 patients with acute coronary syndromes allocated to treatment with prasugrel in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38 trial. Among the healthy subjects, no significant attenuation of the pharmacokinetic or the pharmacodynamic response to prasugrel was observed in carriers versus noncarriers of at least 1 reduced-function allele for any of the CYP genes tested (CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, and CYP1A2). Consistent with these findings, in subjects with acute coronary syndromes treated with prasugrel, no significant associations were found between any of the tested CYP genotypes and risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Common functional CYP genetic variants do not affect active drug metabolite levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation, or clinical cardiovascular event rates in persons treated with prasugrel. These pharmacogenetic findings are in contrast to observations with clopidogrel, which may explain, in part, the different pharmacological and clinical responses to the 2 medications.
    Circulation 06/2009; 119(19):2553-60. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel requires transformation into an active metabolite by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes for its antiplatelet effect. The genes encoding CYP enzymes are polymorphic, with common alleles conferring reduced function. We tested the association between functional genetic variants in CYP genes, plasma concentrations of active drug metabolite, and platelet inhibition in response to clopidogrel in 162 healthy subjects. We then examined the association between these genetic variants and cardiovascular outcomes in a separate cohort of 1477 subjects with acute coronary syndromes who were treated with clopidogrel in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38. In healthy subjects who were treated with clopidogrel, carriers of at least one CYP2C19 reduced-function allele (approximately 30% of the study population) had a relative reduction of 32.4% in plasma exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel, as compared with noncarriers (P<0.001). Carriers also had an absolute reduction in maximal platelet aggregation in response to clopidogrel that was 9 percentage points less than that seen in noncarriers (P<0.001). Among clopidogrel-treated subjects in TRITON-TIMI 38, carriers had a relative increase of 53% in the composite primary efficacy outcome of the risk of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as compared with noncarriers (12.1% vs. 8.0%; hazard ratio for carriers, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.19; P=0.01) and an increase by a factor of 3 in the risk of stent thrombosis (2.6% vs. 0.8%; hazard ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.19 to 8.00; P=0.02). Among persons treated with clopidogrel, carriers of a reduced-function CYP2C19 allele had significantly lower levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel, diminished platelet inhibition, and a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, including stent thrombosis, than did noncarriers.
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2008; 360(4):354-62. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The exposure-response properties of metformin were characterized in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The time course of drug concentration and effects on fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid concentrations were used from a study in which subjects received 500 mg of metformin twice daily for 5 days followed by 850 mg twice daily for 5 days. Pharmacokinetic sampling included morning trough concentrations obtained on days 7 to 9 and rich sampling (15 time points) on day 10. Fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid concentrations were measured on days 0 to 10 and served as biomarkers of therapeutic effect and tolerability, respectively. A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Metformin pharmacokinetics were described using a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption. Population mean estimates (relative standard error [RSE]) of clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution were 79.0 L.h(-1) (6.8%) and 648 L (13.8%), respectively. Covariate analyses revealed that creatinine clearance (CL(CR)) significantly influenced metformin CL/F [CL/F = 79.0.(CL(CR)/80)(0.822)]. An indirect response model was applied to describe the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin. Population mean estimates (RSE) of baseline fasting plasma glucose and the drug concentration producing half-maximal effect were 241 mg.dL(-1) (4.6%) and 4.23 mg.L(-1) (31.0%). An empirical linear model was used to describe a slight progressive increase in fasting lactic acid during metformin treatment with an estimated slope coefficient (RSE) of 0.0005 mM.mL.ng(-1) (38.1%). Model evaluation by predictive check and nonparametric bootstrap analysis suggested that the proposed model is robust, and parameter values were estimated with good precision. Simulations suggested that the clinical utility of metformin was maintained over the dose range evaluated with respect to fasting plasma glucose and lactic acid response.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2008; 48(6):696-707. · 2.84 Impact Factor