Caroline S Blaum

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (57)263.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine whether greater burden of geriatric conditions would have contrasting effects on quality of care (QOC) than nongeriatric, general medical conditions.DesignCross-sectional observation over 1 year of ambulatory care.SettingThe Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders-2 study.ParticipantsOlder adults prospectively screened for falls, incontinence, and dementia (N = 644).MeasurementsParticipant-level QOC in absolute percentage points calculated using 65 ambulatory care care-process quality indicators (QIs) for 13 general medical and geriatric conditions (#QIs provided/#QIs eligible). Secondary outcomes were geriatric QOC (a subset of 38 geriatric care QIs) and medical QOC (the 27 remaining nongeriatric QIs). Exposure variables were number of six medical conditions (medical comorbidity) and six geriatric conditions (geriatric comorbidity), controlling for age, sex, number of primary care visits, and site.ResultsMedical and geriatric comorbidity were unrelated to each other (correlation coefficient = 0.04, P = .27) yet had opposite effects on QOC. Each additional medical condition was associated with a 3.2-percentage point (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3–4.2 percentage point) increment in QOC, and each additional geriatric condition was associated with 4.9-percentage point (95% CI = 3.5–6.5 percentage point) decrement in QOC. Participants with greater geriatric comorbidity received poorer medical and geriatric QOC.Conclusion Greater burden of geriatric conditions, or geriatric multimorbidity, is associated with poorer QOC. Geriatric multimorbidity should be targeted for better care using a comprehensive approach.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 08/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of physical function limitations among a nationally representative sample of adults with prediabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5,991 respondents ≥53 years of age from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. All respondents self-reported physical function limitations and comorbidities (chronic diseases and geriatric conditions). Respondents with prediabetes reported no diabetes and had a measured glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 5.7-6.4%. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare respondents with prediabetes versus diabetes (diabetes history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) or normoglycemia (no diabetes history and HbA1c <5.7%).RESULTSTwenty-eight percent of respondents ≥53 years of age had prediabetes; 32% had mobility limitations (walking several blocks and/or climbing a flight of stairs); 56% had lower-extremity limitations (getting up from a chair and/or stooping, kneeling, or crouching); and 33% had upper-extremity limitations (pushing or pulling heavy objects and/or lifting >10 lb). Respondents with diabetes had the highest prevalence of comorbidities and physical function limitations, followed by those with prediabetes, and then normoglycemia (P < 0.05). Compared with respondents with normoglycemia, respondents with prediabetes had a higher odds of having functional limitations that affected mobility (odds ratio [OR], 1.48), the lower extremities (1.35), and the upper extremities (1.37) (all P < 0.01). The higher odds of having lower-extremity limitations remained after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (1.21, P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS Comorbidities and physical function limitations are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults with prediabetes. Effective lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes must accommodate physical function limitations.
    Diabetes care 06/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop and validate the Geriatric CompleXity of Care Index (GXI), a comorbidity index of medical, geriatric, and psychosocial conditions that addresses disease severity and intensity of ambulatory care for older adults with chronic conditions. Development phase: variable selection and rating by clinician panel. Validation phase: medical record review and secondary data analysis. Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders-2 study. Six hundred forty-four older (≥75) individuals receiving ambulatory care. Development: 32 conditions categorized according to severity, resulting in 117 GXI variables. A panel of clinicians rated each GXI variable with respect to the added difficulty of providing primary care for an individual with that condition. Validation: Modified versions of previously validated comorbidity measures (simple count, Charlson, Medicare Hierarchical Condition Category), longitudinal clinical outcomes (functional decline, survival), intensity of ambulatory care (primary, specialty care visits, polypharmacy, number of eligible quality indicators (NQI)) over 1 year of care. The most-morbid individuals (according to quintiles of GXI) had more visits (7.0 vs 3.7 primary care, 6.2 vs 2.4 specialist), polypharmacy (14.3% vs 0% had ≥14 medications), and greater NQI (33 vs 25) than the least-morbid individuals. Of the four comorbidity measures, the GXI was the strongest predictor of primary care visits, polypharmacy, and NQI (P < .001, controlling for age, sex, function-based vulnerability). Older adults with complex care needs, as measured by the GXI, have healthcare needs above what previously employed comorbidity measures captured. Healthcare systems could use the GXI to identify the most complex elderly adults and appropriately reimburse primary providers caring for older adults with the most complex care needs for providing additional visits and coordination of care.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2013; 61(4):542-50. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the degree to which hyperglycemia predicts the development of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations. Secondary data analysis of longitudinal data collected in a prospective cohort study. Baltimore, Maryland. Three hundred twenty-nine women from the Women's Health and Aging Study II aged 70 to 79 at baseline who had all variables needed for analysis. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline, categorized as less than 5.5%, 5.5% to 5.9%, 6.0% to 6.4%, 6.5% to 7.9%, and 8.0% and greater, was the independent variable. The incidence of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations (based on self-reported walking difficulty, walking speed, and Short Performance Physical Battery score) was determined (follow-up ≈ 9 years). Frailty was assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Covariates included demographic characteristics, body mass index, interleukin-6 level, and clinical history of comorbidities. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models adjusted for important covariates. In time-to-event analyses, HbA1c category was associated with incidence of walking difficulty (P = .049) and low physical performance (P = .001); association with incidence of frailty and low walking speed had a trend toward significance (both P = .10). In regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, HbA1c of 8.0% or greater (vs < 5.5%) was associated with an approximately three-times greater risk of incident frailty and three to five times greater risk of lower extremity mobility limitations (all P < .05). In fully adjusted models, HbA1c of 8.0% or greater (vs < 5.5%) was associated with incident frailty (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-8.93), walking difficulty (HR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.26-9.55), low walking speed (HR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.19-6.71), and low physical performance (HR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.52-8.53). Hyperglycemia is associated with the development of frailty and lower extremity mobility limitations in older women. Future studies should identify mediators of these relationships.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 08/2012; 60(9):1701-7. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults with heart failure (HF). Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 wave of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study linked to 2002 to 2004 Medicare administrative claims. United States, community. Six thousand one hundred eighty-nine individuals aged 67 and older. An algorithm was developed using a combination of self- and proxy report of a heart problem and the presence of one or more Medicare claims in administrative files using standard HF diagnostic codes. On the basis of the algorithm, three categories were created to characterize the likelihood of a HF diagnosis: high or moderate probability of HF, low probability of HF, and no HF. Cognitive function was assessed using a screening measure of cognitive function or according to proxy rating. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment were calculated for the three groups. The prevalence of cognitive impairment consistent with dementia in older adults with HF was 15%, and the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment was 24%. The odds of dementia in those with HF were significantly higher, even after adjustment for age, education level, net worth, and prior stroke (odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.02). Cognitive impairment is common in older adults with HF and is independently associated with risk of dementia. A cognitive assessment should be routinely incorporated into HF-focused models of care.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 08/2012; 60(9):1724-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ensuring the safe transition of patients from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities and from skilled nursing facilities back to the hospital or the community can present significant challenges. The University of Michigan Health System was able to overcome many of these challenges through the implementation of a health system associated Subacute Care Service that consists of the University of Michigan Health System geriatricians and nurse practitioners working in privately operated skilled nursing facilities in our primary market area. We describe the planning process surrounding the development of the Subacute Care Service and report on efforts to date.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 07/2012; 13(6):564-7. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little research has been conducted on the predictors of self-report or patient awareness of heart failure (HF) in a population-based survey. The objective of this study was to (1) test the agreement between Medicare administrative and Health and Retirement Study (HRS) survey data and (2) determine predictors associated with self-report of HF, using a validated Medicare claims algorithm as the reference standard. We hypothesized that those who self-reported HF were more likely to have a higher number of HF-related claims. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2004 wave of the HRS linked to 2002 to 2004 Medicare claims (n=5573 respondents aged ≥ 67 years). Concordance between self-report of HF in the HRS and Medicare claims was calculated. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors associated with self-report HF. HF prevalence by self-report was 4.6%. Self-report of HF and claims agreement was 87% (κ=0.34). The presence of >1 HF inpatient claims was associated with greater odds of self-report (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23-3.00). Greater odds of self-reporting HF was also associated with ≥ 4 HF claims (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.36-5.52). Blacks (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14-0.55) and Hispanics (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.83) were less likely to self-report HF compared with whites in the final model. Self-report of HF is an insensitive method for accurately identifying HF cases, especially in those with less-severe disease and who are nonwhite. There may be limited awareness of HF among older minority patients despite having clinical encounters during which HF is coded as a diagnosis.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 05/2012; 5(3):396-402. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Middle-aged and older adults with diabetes are heterogeneous and may be characterized as belonging to one of three clinical groups: a relatively healthy group, a group having characteristics likely to make diabetes self-management difficult, and a group with poor health status for whom current management targets have uncertain benefit. METHODS: We analyzed waves 2004-2008 of the Health and Retirement Study and the supplemental Health and Retirement Study 2003 Diabetes Study. The sample included adults with diabetes 51 years and older (n = 3,507, representing 13.6 million in 2004). We investigated the mortality outcomes for the three clinical groups, using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The 5-year survival probabilities were Relatively Healthy Group, 90.8%; Self-Management Difficulty Group, 79.4%; and Uncertain Benefit Group, 52.5%. For all age groups and clinical groups, except those 76 years and older in the Uncertain Benefit Group, survival exceeded 50%. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the substantial survival of middle-aged and older adults with diabetes, regardless of health status. These findings have implications for the clinical management of and future research about diabetes patients with multiple comorbidities.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 04/2012; · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and efficacy of adding insulin glargine or neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin to existing oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) regimens in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled analysis of data from five randomized controlled trials with similar designs. Three hundred forty-two centers in more than 30 countries worldwide. Randomly selected individuals aged ≤ 80 with a body mass index ≤ 40 kg/m(2) and a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7.5% to 12.0%. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to compare outcomes after 24 or 28 weeks of treatment (insulin glargine, n = 1,441; NPH insulin, n = 1,254) according to age (≥65, n = 604 vs < 65, n = 2,091) and age based on treatment (e.g., ≥65 receiving insulin glargine vs NPH insulin). Outcomes included change in HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin dose, and hypoglycemia incidence and event rates. At end point, participants aged 65 and older receiving insulin glargine had greater reductions in HbA1c and FBG than those receiving similar doses of NPH insulin. In contrast, for participants younger than 65, there were no statistically significant differences in reductions in HbA1c or FBG between insulin glargine and NPH insulin. Daytime hypoglycemia rates were similar in all groups, although the rates of nocturnal symptomatic and severe hypoglycemia were lower with insulin glargine than NPH insulin. Addition of insulin glargine to oral antidiabetic drugs in older adults with poor glycemic control may have modestly better glycemic benefits than adding NPH insulin, with low risk of hypoglycemia.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 01/2012; 60(1):51-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While key components of the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) have been described, improved patient outcomes and efficiencies have yet to be conclusively demonstrated. We describe the rationale, conceptual framework, and progress to date as part of the VA Ann Arbor Patient-Aligned Care Team (PACT) Demonstration Laboratory, a clinical care-research partnership designed to implement and evaluate PCMH programs. Evidence and experience underlying this initiative is presented. Key components of this innovation are: (a) a population-based registry; (b) a navigator system that matches veterans to programs; and (c) a menu of self-management support programs designed to improve between-visit support and leverage the assistance of patient-peers and informal caregivers. This approach integrates PCMH principles with novel implementation tools allowing patients, caregivers, and clinicians to improve disease management and self-care. Making changes within a complex organization and integrating programmatic and research goals represent unique opportunities and challenges for evidence-based healthcare improvements in the VA.
    Translational behavioral medicine. 12/2011; 1(4):615-623.
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    ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of blood pressure (BP) in adults with diabetes and investigate the association of trajectory patterns with mortality. A nonconcurrent longitudinal design was used to monitor 3,766 Medicare patients with diabetes from 2005 through 2008. Data were extracted from a registry of Medicare beneficiaries, which was developed by a large academic practice that participated in the Physician Group Practice Medicare Demonstration. The relationship between BP trajectories and all-cause mortality was modeled using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. During the 4-year study period, 10.7% of the patients died, half of whom were aged≥75 years. The crude and adjusted models both showed a greater decline in systolic and diastolic BP in patients who died than in those who did not die. In a model adjusted for age, sex, race, medications, and comorbidities, the mean systolic BP decreased by 3.2 mmHg/year (P<0.001) in the years before death and by 0.7 mmHg/year (P<0.001) in those who did not die (P<0.001 for the difference in slopes). Similarly, diastolic BP declined by 1.3 mmHg/year for those who died (P<0.001) and by 0.6 mmHg/year for those who did not die (P<0.001); the difference in slopes was significant (P=0.021). Systolic and diastolic BP both declined more rapidly in the 4 years before death than in patients who remained alive.
    Diabetes care 07/2011; 34(7):1534-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to a shortage of studies focusing on older adults, clinicians and policy makers frequently rely on clinical trials of the general population to provide supportive evidence for treating complex, older patients. To examine the inclusion and analysis of complex, older adults in randomized controlled trials. A PubMed search identified phase III or IV randomized controlled trials published in 2007 in JAMA, NEJM, Lancet, Circulation, and BMJ. Therapeutic interventions that assessed major morbidity or mortality in adults were included. For each study, age eligibility, average age of study population, primary and secondary outcomes, exclusion criteria, and the frequency, characteristics, and methodology of age-specific subgroup analyses were reviewed. Of the 109 clinical trials reviewed in full, 22 (20.2%) excluded patients above a specified age. Almost half (45.6%) of the remaining trials excluded individuals using criteria that could disproportionately impact older adults. Only one in four trials (26.6%) examined outcomes that are considered highly relevant to older adults, such as health status or quality of life. Of the 42 (38.5%) trials that performed an age-specific subgroup analysis, fewer than half examined potential confounders of differential treatment effects by age, such as comorbidities or risk of primary outcome. Trials with age-specific subgroup analyses were more likely than those without to be multicenter trials (97.6% vs. 79.1%, p < 0.01) and funded by industry (83.3% vs. 62.7%, p < 0.05). Differential benefit by age was found in seven trials (16.7%). Clinical trial evidence guiding treatment of complex, older adults could be improved by eliminating upper age limits for study inclusion, by reducing the use of eligibility criteria that disproportionately affect multimorbid older patients, by evaluating outcomes that are highly relevant to older individuals, and by encouraging adherence to recommended analytic methods for evaluating differential treatment effects by age.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 02/2011; 26(7):783-90. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Geriatric conditions, collections of symptoms common in older adults and not necessarily associated with a specific disease, increase in prevalence with advancing age. These conditions are important contributors to the complex health status of older adults. Diabetes mellitus is known to co-occur with geriatric conditions in older adults and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some conditions. To investigate the prevalence and incidence of geriatric conditions in middle-aged and older-aged adults with diabetes. Secondary analysis of nationally-representative, longitudinal health interview survey data (Health and Retirement Study waves 2004 and 2006). Respondents 51 years and older in 2004 (n=18,908). Diabetes mellitus. Eight geriatric conditions: cognitive impairment, falls, incontinence, low body mass index, dizziness, vision impairment, hearing impairment, pain. Adults with diabetes, compared to those without, had increased prevalence and increased incidence of geriatric conditions across the age spectrum (p< 0.01 for each age group from 51-54 years old to 75-79 years old). Differences between adults with and without diabetes were most marked in middle-age. Diabetes was associated with the two-year cumulative incidence of acquiring new geriatric conditions (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 1.6-2.0). A diabetes-age interaction was discovered: as age increased, the association of diabetes with new geriatric conditions decreased. Middle-aged, as well as older-aged, adults with diabetes are at increased risk for the development of geriatric conditions, which contribute substantially to their morbidity and functional impairment. Our findings suggest that adults with diabetes should be monitored for the development of these conditions beginning at a younger age than previously thought.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 09/2010; 26(3):272-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients with diabetes may have health status characteristics that could make diabetes self-management (DSM) difficult and lead to inadequate glycemic control, or limit the benefit of some diabetes management interventions. To investigate how many older and middle-aged adults with diabetes have such health status characteristics. Secondary data analysis of a nationally representative health interview survey, the Health and Retirement Study, and its diabetes mail-out survey. Americans aged 51 and older with diabetes (n = 3506 representing 13.6 million people); aged 56 and older in diabetes survey (n = 1132, representing 9.9 million). Number of adults with diabetes and (a) relatively good health; (b) health status that could make DSM difficult (eg, comorbidities, impaired instrumental activities of daily living; and (c) characteristics like advanced dementia and activities of daily living dependency that could limit benefit of some diabetes management. Health and Retirement Study measures included demographics. Diabetes Survey included self-measured HbA1c. Nearly 22% of adults > or =51 with diabetes (about 3 million people) have health characteristics that could make DSM difficult. Another 10% (1.4 million) may receive limited benefit from some diabetes management. Mail-out respondents with health characteristics that could make DSM difficult had significantly higher mean HbA1c compared with people with relatively good health (7.6% vs. 7.3%, P < 0.04.). Some middle-aged as well as older adults with diabetes have health status characteristics that might make DSM difficult or of limited benefit. Current diabetes quality measures, including measures of glycemic control, may not reflect what is possible or optimal for all patient groups.
    Medical care 04/2010; 48(4):327-34. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death as well as a leading cause of disability and impaired quality of life in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, preventing cardiovascular events in this population is an important goal of care. Available evidence supports the use of lipid-lowering agents and treatment of hypertension as effective measures to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults with diabetes. Glucose control, smoking cessation, weight control, regular physical activity, and a prudent diet are also recommended, although data supporting the efficacy of these interventions are limited. While reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains a primary objective of preventive cardiology in older adults with diabetes, the impact of these interventions on functional well-being, cognition, and other geriatric syndromes requires further study.
    Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 11/2009; 25(4):607-41, vii-viii. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty in older adults, defined as a constellation of signs and symptoms, is associated with abnormal levels in individual physiological systems. We tested the hypothesis that it is the critical mass of physiological systems abnormal that is associated with frailty, over and above the status of each individual system, and that the relationship is nonlinear. Using data on women aged 70-79 years from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II, multiple analytic approaches assessed the cross-sectional association of frailty with eight physiological measures. Abnormality in each system (anemia, inflammation, insulin-like growth factor-1, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, hemoglobin A1c, micronutrients, adiposity, and fine motor speed) was significantly associated with frailty status. However, adjusting for the level of each system measure, the mean number of systems impaired significantly and nonlinearly predicted frailty. Those with three or more systems impaired were most likely to be frail, with odds of frailty increasing with number of systems at abnormal level, from odds ratios (ORs) of 4.8 to 11 to 26 for those with one to two, three to four, and five or more systems abnormal (p < .05 for all). Finally, two subgroups were identified, one with isolated or no systems abnormal and a second (in 30%) with multiple systems abnormal. The latter group was independently associated with being frail (OR = 2.6, p < .05), adjusting for confounders and chronic diseases and then controlling for individual systems. Overall, these findings indicate that the likelihood of frailty increases nonlinearly in relationship to the number of physiological systems abnormal, and the number of abnormal systems is more predictive than the individual abnormal system. These findings support theories that aggregate loss of complexity, with aging, in physiological systems is an important cause of frailty. Implications are that a threshold loss of complexity, as indicated by number of systems abnormal, may undermine homeostatic adaptive capacity, leading to the development of frailty and its associated risk for subsequent adverse outcomes. It further suggests that replacement of any one deficient system may not be sufficient to prevent or ameliorate frailty.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 07/2009; 64(10):1049-57. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether hyperglycemia is related to prevalent frailty status in older women. Secondary data analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study. Baltimore, Maryland. Five hundred forty-three women aged 70 to 79. Research used baseline data from 543 participants in the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II aged 70 to 79 who had all variables needed for analyses. The dependent variable was baseline frailty status (not frail, prefrail, frail), measured using an empirically derived model defining frailty according to weight loss, slow walking speed, weakness, exhaustion, and low activity (1-2 characteristics present=prefrail, > OR =3 =frail). Covariates included body mass index (BMI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), age, race, and several chronic diseases. Analyses included descriptive methods and multinomial logistic regression to adjust for key covariates. A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% or greater in older women was significantly associated with higher likelihood of prefrail and frail status (normal HbA1c <6.0% was reference). The association between HbA1C levels of 6.0% to 6.5% and frailty status was not different from that of normal HbA1c, but HbA1c levels of 6.5% to 6.9% had nearly twice the likelihood of frailty (odds ratio (OR)=1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-2.59) as normal HbA1c. A HbA1c level of 9.0% or greater was also strongly associated (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.99,3.32). Significant associations were also seen between baseline prefrail and frail status and low (18.5-20.0 kg/m2) and high (430.0 kg/m2) body mass index (BMI), interleukin-6, and all chronic diseases evaluated, but controlling for these covariates only minimally attenuated the independent association between HbA1c and frailty status. Hyperglycemia is associated with greater prevalence of prefrail and frail status; BMI, inflammation, and comorbidities do not explain the association. Longitudinal research and study of alternative pathways are needed.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 05/2009; 57(5):840-7. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To operationalize and compare three models of frailty, each representing a distinct theoretical view of frailty: as deficiencies in function (Functional Domains model), as an index of health burden (Burden model), and as a biological syndrome (Biologic Syndrome model). Cross-sectional analysis. 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal health interview survey. Adults aged 65 and older (N=11,113) living in the community and in nursing homes in the United States. The outcome measure was the presence of frailty, as defined according to each frailty model. Covariates included chronic diseases and sociodemographic characteristics. Almost one-third (30.2%) of respondents were frail according to at least one model; 3.1% were frail according to all three models. The Functional Domains model showed the least overlap with the other models. In contrast, 76.1% of those classified as frail according to the Biologic Syndrome model and 72.1% of those according to the Burden model were also frail according to at least one other model. Older adults identified as frail according to the different models differed in sociodemographic and chronic disease characteristics. For example, the Biologic Syndrome model demonstrated substantial associations with older age (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=10.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.1-18.5), female sex (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2-2.5), and African-American ethnicity (OR=2.1, % CI=1.0-4.4). Different models of frailty, based on different theoretical constructs, capture different groups of older adults. The different models may represent different frailty pathways or trajectories to adverse outcomes such as disability and death.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 05/2009; 57(5):830-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Christine T. Cigolle, Caroline S. Blaum
    Diabetes in Old Age, Third Edition, 04/2009: pages 403 - 415; , ISBN: 9780470744093
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    Pearl G Lee, Christine Cigolle, Caroline Blaum
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the co-occurrence, in adults aged 65 and older, of five conditions that are highly prevalent, lead to substantial morbidity, and have evidence-based guidelines for management and well-developed measures of medical care quality. Secondary data analysis of the 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Nationally representative health interview survey. Respondents in the 2004 wave of the HRS aged 65 and older. Self-reported presence of five index conditions (three chronic diseases (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus) and two geriatric syndromes (urinary incontinence and injurious falls)) and demographic information (age, sex, race, living situation, net worth, and education). Eleven thousand one hundred thirteen adults, representing 37.1 million Americans aged 65 and older, were interviewed. Forty-five percent were aged 76 and older, 58% were female, 8% were African American, and 4% resided in a nursing home. Respondents with more conditions were older and more likely to be female, single, and residing in a nursing home (all P<.001). Fifty-six percent had at least one of the five index conditions, and 23% had two or more. Of respondents with one condition, 20% to 55% (depending on the index condition) had two or more additional conditions. Five common conditions (3 chronic diseases, 2 geriatric syndromes) often co-occur in older adults, suggesting that coordinated management of comorbid conditions, both diseases and geriatric syndromes, is important. Care guidelines and quality indicators, rather than considering one condition at a time, should be developed to address comprehensive and coordinated management of co-occurring diseases and geriatric syndromes.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 01/2009; 57(3):511-6. · 4.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
263.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1994–2010
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Family Medicine
      • • Medical School
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Division of General Medicine
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Bedfordshire
      Luton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Nutritional Sciences
      Ithaca, NY, United States
    • Universita degli studi di Ferrara
      • Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine
      Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2003–2005
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • • Department of Biobehavioral Health
      • • Department of Medicine
      University Park, MD, United States
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography and Biometry (LEDB)
      Baltimore, MD, United States