[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Owing at least in part to oxysterol components that can induce apoptosis, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is cytotoxic to mammalian cells with receptors that can internalize it. Vascular cells possess such receptors, and it appears that the apoptotic response of vascular cells to the oxysterols borne by oxLDL is an important part of the atherogenic effects of oxLDL. Thus, an analysis of the signaling pathway of apoptotic induction by oxysterols is of value in understanding the development of atherosclerotic plaque. In a prior study, we demonstrated an induction of calcium ion flux into cells treated with 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and showed that this response is essential for 25-OHC-induced apoptosis. One possible signal transduction pathway initiated by calcium ion fluxes is the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). In the current study, we demonstrate that activation of cPLA2 does occur in both macrophages and fibroblasts treated with 25-OHC or oxLDL. Activation is evidenced by 25-OHC-induced relocalization of cPLA2 to the nuclear envelope and arachidonic acid release. Loss of cPLA2 activity, either through genetic knockout in mice, or by treatment with a cPLA2 inhibitor, results in an attenuation of arachidonic acid release as well as of the apoptotic response to oxLDL in peritoneal macrophages or to 25-OHC in cultured fibroblast and macrophage cell lines.
The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2001; 42(10):1678-86. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain subjected to acute ischemic attack caused by an arterial blockage needs immediate arterial recanalization. However, restoration of cerebral blood flow can cause tissue injury, which is termed reperfusion injury. It is important to inhibit reperfusion injury to achieve greater brain protection. Because oxidative stress has been shown to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and because oxidative stress contributes to reperfusion injury, MAPK may be a potential target to inhibit reperfusion injury after brain ischemia. Here, we demonstrate that reperfusion after forebrain ischemia dramatically increases phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in the gerbil hippocampus. In addition, i.v. administration of U0126 (100-200 mg/kg), a specific inhibitor of MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase), protects the hippocampus against forebrain ischemia. Moreover, treatment with U0126 at 3 h after ischemia significantly reduces infarct volume after transient (3 h) focal cerebral ischemia in mice. This protection is accompanied by reduced phosphorylation level of ERK2, substrates for MEK, in the damaged brain areas. Furthermore, U0126 protects mouse primary cultured cortical neurons against oxygen deprivation for 9 h as well as nitric oxide toxicity. These results provide further evidence for the role of MEK/ERK activation in brain injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion, and indicate that MEK inhibition may increase the resistance of tissue to ischemic injury.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2001; 98(20):11569-74. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzymes may play a role in cellular injury due to ATP depletion. Renal Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were subjected to ATP depletion to assess the effects of cellular energy metabolism on cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) regulation. ATP depletion results in a decrease in soluble cPLA(2) activity and an increase in membrane-associated activity, which is reversed upon restoration of ATP levels by addition of dextrose. In ATP-depleted cells cPLA(2) mass shifts from cytosol to nuclear fractions. GFP-cPLA(2) is localized at the nuclear membrane of stably transfected ATP-depleted LLC-PK(1) cells under conditions where [Ca(2+)](i) is known to increase. cPLA(2) translocation does not occur if the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) increase is inhibited. If [Ca(2+)](i) is allowed to increase when ATP is depleted and the cells are then lysed, cPLA(2) remains associated with nuclear fractions even if the homogenate [Ca(2+)] is markedly reduced. In contrast, cPLA(2), which becomes associated with the nucleus when [Ca(2+)](i) is increased using ionophore, readily dissociates from the nuclear fractions of ATP-replete cells upon reduction of homogenate [Ca(2+)]. Okadaic acid inhibits the ATP depletion-induced association of cPLA(2) with nuclear fractions. Thus energy deprivation results in [Ca(2+)]-induced nuclear translocation, which is partially prevented by a phosphatase inhibitor.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2001; 276(32):29899-905. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) has been localized to the nucleus (M. R. Sierra-Honigmann, J. R. Bradley, and J. S. Pober, Lab. Investig. 74:684-695, 1996) and is known to translocate from the cytosolic compartment to the nuclear membrane (S. Glover, M. S. de Carvalho, T. Bayburt, M. Jonas, E. Chi, C. C. Leslie, and M. H. Gelb, J. Biol. Chem. 270:15359-15367, 1995; A. R. Schievella, M. K. Regier, W. L. Smith, and L. L. Lin, J. Biol. Chem. 270:30749-30754, 1995). We hypothesized that nuclear proteins interact with cPLA(2) and participate in the functional effects of this translocation. We have identified a nuclear protein, cPLA(2)-interacting protein (PLIP), a splice variant of human Tip60, which interacts with the amino terminal region of cPLA(2). Like Tip60, PLIP cDNA includes the MYST domain containing a C2HC zinc finger and well-conserved similarities to acetyltransferases. Both PLIP and Tip60 coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize with cPLA(2) within the nuclei of transfected COS cells. A polyclonal antibody raised to PLIP recognizes both PLIP and Tip60. Endogenous Tip60 and/or PLIP in rat mesangial cells is localized to the nucleus in response to serum deprivation. Nuclear localization coincides temporally with apoptosis. PLIP expression, mediated by adenoviral gene transfer, potentiates serum deprivation-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production and apoptosis in mouse mesangial cells from cPLA(2)(+/+) mice but not in mesangial cells derived from cPLA(2)(-/-) mice. Thus PLIP, a splice variant of Tip60, interacts with cPLA(2) and potentiates cPLA(2)-mediated PGE(2) production and apoptosis.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/2001; 21(14):4470-81. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal ischemia, we previously showed that the expression and distribution of fibronectin (FN), a major glycoprotein of plasma and the extracellular matrix, dramatically changes in response to ischemia-reperfusion. In the distal nephron in particular, FN accumulates in tubular lumens, where it may contribute to obstruction. In the present study, we examine whether the tubular FN is the plasma or cellular form, each of which is produced by alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. We demonstrate that FN in tubular lumens does not contain the extra type III A (EIIIA) and/or the extra type III B (EIIIB) region, both of which are unique to cellular FN. It does, however, contain the V95 region, which in the rat is a component of FNs in both plasma and the extracellular matrix. Expression of FN containing EIIIA increases dramatically in the renal interstitium after ischemic injury and continues to be produced at high levels 6 wk later. V95-containing FN also increases in the interstitial space, albeit more slowly and at lower levels than FN containing EIIIA; it also persists 6 wk later. FN containing the EIIIB region is not expressed in the injured kidney. The presence of V95 but not the EIIIA or EIIIB regions of FN in tubular lumens identifies the origin of FN in this location as the plasma; tubular FN is ultimately voided in the urine. The data indicate that both plasma and cellular FNs containing the V95 and/or EIIIA regions may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute renal failure and to the repair of the injured kidney.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 07/2001; 280(6):F1037-53. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eicosanoids regulate various cellular functions that are important in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Arachidonic acid is released from membranes by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity. Activated macrophages derived from mice lacking the 85-kDa group IV cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) have a markedly reduced release of prostaglandin E(2) and leukotrienes B(4) and C(4). Under basal conditions and after furosemide, urinary prostaglandin E(2) excretion is reduced in cPLA(2)-knockout (cPLA(2)(-/-)) mice. Serum creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) concentrations, glomerular filtration rate, and fractional excretion of Na(+) and K(+) are not different in cPLA(2)(-/-) and cPLA(2)(+/+) mice. Maximal urinary concentration is lower in 48-h water-deprived cPLA(2)(-/-) mice compared with cPLA(2)(+/+) animals (1,934 +/- 324 vs. 3,541 +/- 251 mmol/kgH(2)O). Plasma osmolality is higher (337 +/- 5 vs. 319 +/- 3 mmol/kgH(2)O) in cPLA(2)(-/-) mice that lose a greater percentage of their body weight (20 +/- 2 vs. 13 +/- 1%) compared with cPLA(2)(+/+) mice after water deprivation. Vasopressin does not correct the concentrating defect. There is progressive reduction in urinary osmolality with age in cPLA(2)(-/-) mice. Membrane-associated aquaporin-1 (AQP1) expression, identified by immunocytochemical techniques, is reduced markedly in proximal tubules of older cPLA(2)(-/-) animals but is normal in thin descending limbs. However, Western blot analysis of kidney cortical samples revealed an equivalent AQP1 signal intensity in cPLA(2)(+/+) and cPLA(2)(-/-) animals. Young cPLA(2)(-/-) mice have normal proximal tubule AQP1 staining. Collecting duct AQP2, -3, and -4 were normally expressed in the cPLA(2)(-/-) mice. Thus mice lacking cPLA(2) develop an age-related defect in renal concentration that may be related to abnormal trafficking and/or folding of AQP1 in the proximal tubule, implicating cPLA(2) in these processes.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2001; 280(4):F607-18. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAPK activities, including JNK, p38, and ERK, are markedly enhanced after ischemia in vivo and chemical anoxia in vitro. The relative extent of JNK, p38, or ERK activation has been proposed to determine cell fate after injury. A mouse model was established in which prior exposure to ischemia protected against a second ischemic insult imposed 8 or 15 days later. In contrast to what was observed after 30 min of bilateral ischemia, when a second period of ischemia of 30- or 35-min duration was imposed 8 days later, there was no subsequent increase in plasma creatinine, decrease in glomerular filtration rate, or increase in fractional excretion of sodium. A shorter period of prior ischemia (15 min) was partially protective against subsequent ischemic injury 8 days later. Unilateral ischemia was also protective against a subsequent ischemic insult to the same kidney, revealing that systemic uremia is not necessary for protection. The ischemia-related activation of JNK and p38 and outer medullary vascular congestion were markedly mitigated by prior exposure to ischemia, whereas preconditioning had no effect on post-ischemic activation of ERK1/2. The phosphorylation of MKK7, MKK4, and MKK3/6, upstream activators of JNK and p38, was markedly reduced by ischemic preconditioning, whereas the post-ischemic phosphorylation of MEK1/2, the upstream activator of ERK1/2, was unaffected by preconditioning. Pre- and post-ischemic HSP-25 levels were much higher in the preconditioned kidney. In summary, post-ischemic JNK and p38 (but not ERK1/2) activation was markedly reduced in a model of kidney ischemic preconditioning that was established in the mouse. The reduction in JNK and p38 activation can be accounted for by reduced activation of upstream MAPK kinases. The post-ischemic activation patterns of MAPKs may explain the remarkable protection against ischemic injury observed in this model.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2001; 276(15):11870-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) show great promise as therapies for colon cancer, a dispute remains regarding their mechanism of action. NSAIDs are known to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which convert arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins (PGs). Therefore, NSAIDs may suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting PG synthesis. However, various experimental studies have suggested the possibility of PG-independent mechanisms. Notably, disruption of the mouse group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) locus (Pla2g2a), a potential source of AA for COX-2, increases tumor number despite the fact that the mutation has been predicted to decrease PG production. Some authors have attempted to reconcile the results by suggesting that the level of the precursor (AA), not the products (PGs), is the critical factor. To clarify the role of AA in tumorigenesis, we have examined the effect of deleting the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) locus (Pla2g4). We report that Apc(Min/+), cPLA(2)(-/-) mice show an 83% reduction in tumor number in the small intestine compared with littermates with genotypes Apc(Min/+), cPLA(2)(+/-) and Apc(Min/+), cPLA(2)(+/+). This tumor phenotype parallels that of COX-2 knockout mice, suggesting that cPLA(2) is the predominant source of AA for COX-2 in the intestine. The protective effect of cPLA(2) deletion is thus most likely attributed to a decrease in the AA supply to COX-2 and a resultant decrease in PG synthesis. The tumorigenic effect of sPLA(2) mutations is likely to be through a completely different pathway.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2001; 98(7):3935-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation causes the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), leading to the release of prostanoids, which sensitize peripheral nociceptor terminals and produce localized pain hypersensitivity. Peripheral inflammation also generates pain hypersensitivity in neighbouring uninjured tissue (secondary hyperalgesia), because of increased neuronal excitability in the spinal cord (central sensitization), and a syndrome comprising diffuse muscle and joint pain, fever, lethargy and anorexia. Here we show that Cox-2 may be involved in these central nervous system (CNS) responses, by finding a widespread induction of Cox-2 expression in spinal cord neurons and in other regions of the CNS, elevating prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. The major inducer of central Cox-2 upregulation is interleukin-1beta in the CNS, and as basal phospholipase A2 activity in the CNS does not change with peripheral inflammation, Cox-2 levels must regulate central prostanoid production. Intraspinal administration of an interleukin-converting enzyme or Cox-2 inhibitor decreases inflammation-induced central PGE2 levels and mechanical hyperalgesia. Thus, preventing central prostanoid production by inhibiting the interleukin-1beta-mediated induction of Cox-2 in neurons or by inhibiting central Cox-2 activity reduces centrally generated inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytosolic 85 kDa phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is a unique member of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) superfamily. Because PLA(2) activity and eicosanoid production are important in normal and pathophysiological states we and the laboratory of Shimizu created a mouse deficient in cPLA(2) (cPLA(2)(-/-) mouse). cPLA(2)(-/-) mice develop normally but the females have severe reproductive defects. cPLA(2)(-/-) mice suffer smaller infarcts and fewer neurological deficits after transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and have less injury after administration of a dopaminergic selective neurotoxin. cPLA(2)(-/-) mice have a more rapid recovery from allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and have no airway hyperresponsiveness. Peritoneal macrophages from cPLA(2)(-/-) mice fail to produce prostaglandins, leukotriene B(4) and cysteinyl leukotrienes after stimulation. Bone marrow-derived mast cells from cPLA(2)(-/-) mice fail to produce eicosanoids in either immediate or delayed phase responses. Thus the cPLA(2) knockout mouse has revealed important roles of cPLA(2) in normal fertility, generation of eicosanoids from inflammatory cells, brain injuries and allergic responses. Furthermore the cPLA(2)(-/-) mouse reveals that the many other forms of PLA(2) cannot replace many functions of cPLA(2). The importance of cPLA(2) in inflammation and tissue injury suggests that pharmacological targeting of this enzyme may have important therapeutic benefits.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2000; 1488(1-2):139-48. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of acute renal failure has been attributed to persistent vasoconstriction and leukocyte-endothelial interactions, resulting in inflammation and compromise of local blood flow to the outer medulla, the loss of tubular epithelial cell polarity with multiple functional sequelae, necrosis or apoptosis of epithelial cells, and the de-differentiation, migration and proliferation of surviving cells. In this paper, the authors present their views of pathophysiology of ischemic acute renal failure.
Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 08/2000; 9(4):427-34. · 3.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic stresses, including the mechanical strain caused by hypertension or excess pulmonary ventilation pressure, lead to important clinical consequences, including hypertrophy and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pathologic hypertrophy contributes to decreased organ function and, ultimately, organ failure; and cardiac and diabetic renal hypertrophy are major causes of morbidity and morality in the developed world. Likewise, acute respiratory distress syndrome is a serious potential side effect of mechanical pulmonary ventilation. Whereas the deleterious effects of chronic stress are well established, the molecular mechanisms by which these stresses affect cell function are still poorly characterized. gene 33 (also called mitogen-inducible gene-6, mig-6) is an immediate early gene that is transcriptionally induced by a divergent array of extracellular stimuli. The physiologic function of Gene 33 is unknown. Here we show that gene 33 mRNA levels increase sharply in response to a set of commonly occurring chronic stress stimuli: mechanical strain, vasoactive peptides, and diabetic nephropathy. Induction of gene 33 requires the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases. This expression pattern suggests that gene 33 is a potential marker for diabetic nephropathy and other pathologic responses to persistent sublethal stress. The structure of Gene 33 indicates an adapter protein capable of binding monomeric GTPases of the Rho subfamily. Consistent with this, Gene 33 interacts in vivo and, in a GTP-dependent manner, in vitro with Cdc42Hs; and transient expression of Gene 33 results in the selective activation of the SAPKs. These results imply a reciprocal, positive feedback relationship between Gene 33 expression and SAPK activation. Expression of Gene 33 at sufficient levels may enable a compensatory reprogramming of cellular function in response to chronic stress, which may have pathophysiological consequences.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2000; 275(23):17838-47. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) mediates agonist-induced arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid production. Calcium and phosphorylation on Ser-505 by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate cPLA(2). Arachidonic acid release and eicosanoid production induced by stimuli that do (A23187, zymosan) or do not (phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), okadaic acid) mobilize calcium were quantitatively suppressed in cPLA(2)-deficient mouse peritoneal macrophages. The contribution of MAPKs to cPLA(2)-mediated arachidonic acid release was investigated. Both extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 contributed to cPLA(2) phosphorylation on Ser-505. However, although ERK inhibition did not affect A23187-induced arachidonic acid release, it suppressed zymosan-, PMA-, and okadaic acid-induced arachidonic acid release under conditions where phosphorylation of cPLA(2) on Ser-505 was unaffected. This indicates an additional regulatory mechanism for the ERK pathway. A role for transcriptional regulation is suggested by data showing that cycloheximide and actinomycin D inhibited arachidonic acid release induced by zymosan, PMA and, okadaic acid but not by A23187. Our results show that MAPK pathways contribute to arachidonic acid release in macrophages through alternative mechanisms in addition to their ability to phosphorylate cPLA(2) on Ser-505 and suggest a role for new protein synthesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2000; 275(26):20146-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) regulate hydrolysis of fatty acids, including arachidonic acid, from the sn-2 position of phospholipid membranes. PLA2 activity has been implicated in neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative processes secondary to ischemia and reperfusion and other oxidative stresses. The PLA2s constitute a superfamily whose members have diverse functions and patterns of expression. A large number of PLA2s have been identified within the central nervous systems of rodents and humans. We postulated that group IV large molecular weight, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) has a unique role in neurotoxicity associated with ischemic or toxin stress. We created mice deficient in cPLA2 and tested this hypothesis in two injury models, ischemia/reperfusion and MPTP neurotoxicity. In each model cPLA2 deficient mice are protected against neuronal injury when compared to their wild type littermate controls. These experiments support the hypothesis that cPLA2 is an important mediator of ischemic and oxidative injuries in the brain.
Neurochemical Research 06/2000; 25(5):745-53. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mxi2 is one of three known alternative spliced forms of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (CSBP). Mxi2 was originally identified as a Max-interacting protein and is the smallest member of the family of stress-activated kinases isolated to date. Mxi2 lacks most of the XI domain found in p38 and instead has a distinct COOH-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids. Here we present the genomic structure of the Mxi2/p38 locus on human chromosome 6q21.2/21.3 and establish the origin of the three spliced forms of p38. Using Mxi2-specific antibodies in mouse organs, we found the Mxi2 protein to be present exclusively in the kidney. Mxi2 is present predominantly in the distal tubule of the nephron and the level of the protein decreased during kidney ischemia-reperfusion. Stress signals or other known activators of the p38 pathway including MAP kinase-kinase 3 and MAP kinase-kinase 6 did not induce the kinase activity of Mxi2 using ATF-2 as a substrate. With the use of hybrid proteins encoding different portions of Mxi2 and p38 polypeptides, the different properties of Mxi2 can be assigned to its unique COOH terminus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular growth and differentiation are controlled by multiple extracellular signals, many of which activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Components of the MAP kinase pathways also cause oncogenic transformation in their constitutively active forms. Moreover, expression of activated ras can confer metastatic potential upon some cells. Activation of MAP kinases requires phosphorylation of both Thr and Tyr in the catalytic domain by a family of dual-specificity kinases, called MEKs (MAP kinase/ERK kinase). MEK1 is activated by phosphorylation at Ser218 and Ser222 by Raf. Mutation of these two sites to acidic residues, specifically [Asp218], [Asp218, Asp222], and [Glu218, Glu222], results in constitutively active MEK1. Using these mutant variants of MEK1, we showed previously that transfection of NIH/3T3 or Swiss 3T3 cells causes morphological transformation and increases growth on soft agar, independent of ERK activity. The transformed cell lines show increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and cathepsin L, proteinases that have been implicated in the metastatic process. We tested NIH3T3 cells transfected with the [Asp218] or [Asp218, Asp222] for metastatic potential after i.v. injection into athymic mice. Parental 3T3 cells formed no tumors grossly or histologically. However, all MEK1 mutant transformants formed macroscopic metastases. Thus, like activated Ras, MEK1 can confer both tumorigenic and metastatic potential upon NIH3T3 cells. These results refine the mechanism through which ras could confer tumorigenic and metastatic potential (ie., the critical determinants of tumorigenic and metastatic potential are downstream of MEK1).
Cancer Research 04/2000; 60(6):1552-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding the novel mammalian serine protease Omi. Omi protein consists of 458 amino acids and has homology to bacterial HtrA endoprotease, which acts as a chaperone at low temperatures and as a proteolytic enzyme that removes denatured or damaged substrates at elevated temperatures. The carboxyl terminus of Omi has extensive homology to a mammalian protein called L56 (human HtrA), but unlike L56, which is secreted, Omi is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Omi has several novel putative protein-protein interaction motifs, as well as a PDZ domain and a Src homology 3-binding domain. Omi mRNA is expressed ubiquitously, and the gene is localized on human chromosome 2p12. Omi interacts with Mxi2, an alternatively spliced form of the p38 stress-activated kinase. Omi protein, when made in a heterologous system, shows proteolytic activity against a nonspecific substrate beta-casein. The proteolytic activity of Omi is markedly up-regulated in the mouse kidney following ischemia/reperfusion.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2000; 275(4):2581-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MEK1 (MAP kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-responsive kinase) pathway has been implicated in cell growth and differentiation [Seger, R. & Krebs, E. G. (1995) FASEB J. 9, 726-735]. Here we show that the MEK/ERK pathway is activated during focal cerebral ischemia and may play a role in inducing damage. Treatment of mice 30 min before ischemia with the MEK1-specific inhibitor PD98059 [Alessi, D. R., Cuenda, A., Cohen, P. , Dudley, D. T. & Saltiel, A. R. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27489-27494] reduces focal infarct volume at 22 hr after ischemia by 55% after transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. This is accompanied by a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 immunohistochemical staining. MEK1 inhibition also results in reduced brain damage 72 hr after ischemia, with focal infarct volume reduced by 36%. This study indicates that the MEK1/ERK pathway contributes to brain injury during focal cerebral ischemia and that PD98059, a MEK1-specific antagonist, is a potent neuroprotective agent.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1999; 96(22):12866-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor