Xavier Montalban

Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (476)2930.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a transcriptional regulator that is receiving increasing attention in autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigated the role of HMGB1 in the peripheral blood compartment from MS patients. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels were determined by PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 29 healthy controls and 57 untreated MS patients (26 with relapsing-remitting MS - RRMS, 13 with secondary progressive MS - SPMS, and 18 with primary progressive MS - PPMS). HMGB1 protein levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples from 18 HC and 37 untreated MS patients (13 with RRMS, 14 with SPMS, and 10 with PPMS). HMGB1 expression levels were increased in PBMC from the whole MS group compared with controls (P = 0.03). Further stratification of the MS group revealed higher expression levels in PBMC from patients with relapse-onset MS, and differences were statistically significant for RRMS patients compared with PPMS patients and controls (P = 4 × 10(-5) and P = 0.005, respectively) and also for SPMS patients compared with PPMS patients (P = 0.001). HMGB1 serum levels were increased in the whole MS group compared with controls (P = 2 × 10(-4)). In MS clinical forms, the highest HMGB1 serum levels were observed in RRMS patients, and differences were statistically significant compared to PPMS patients (P = 5 × 10(-5)), SPMS patients (P = 0.001), and controls (P = 0.001). These results point to a role of HMGB1 mRNA and protein levels as disease activity biomarkers to discriminate the more inflammatory relapse-onset MS forms, particularly RRMS, from the less inflammatory PPMS form of the disease.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 12/2015; 12(1):269. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0269-9 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 12-month (M), phase 3, double-blind, randomised TRANSFORMS study demonstrated significant benefits of fingolimod 0.5 or 1.25 mg over interferon β-1a (IFNβ-1a) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We report the results of long-term (up to 4.5 years) extension of TRANSFORMS. Patients randomised to fingolimod (0.5/1.25 mg) in the core phase continued the same dose (continuous-fingolimod) in the extension, whereas those on IFNβ-1a were re-randomised (1:1) to fingolimod (IFN-switch; IFN: 0.5/1.25 mg). Outcomes included annualised relapse rate (ARR), confirmed disability progression and MRI measures. Results are presented here for the continuous-fingolimod 0.5 mg and pooled IFN-switch groups. Of the 1027 patients who entered the extension, 772 (75.2%) completed the study. From baseline to the end of the study (EOS), ARR in patients on continuous-fingolimod 0.5 mg was significantly lower than in the IFN-switch group (M0-EOS: 0.17 vs 0.27). After switching to fingolimod (M0-12 vs M13-EOS), patients initially treated with IFN had a 50% reduction in ARR (0.40 vs 0.20), reduced MRI activity and a lower rate of brain volume loss. In a post hoc analysis, the proportion of IFN-switch patients with no evidence of disease activity increased by approximately 50% in the first year after switching to fingolimod treatment (44.3% to 66.0%). The safety profile was consistent with that observed in the core phase. These results support a continued effect of long-term fingolimod therapy in maintaining a low rate of disease activity and sustained improved efficacy after switching from IFNβ-1a to fingolimod. NCT00340834. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2015-310597 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence points to a role for chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we aimed to explore the potential involvement of CHI3L1 in the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by immunization with MOG35-55 peptide in wild-type (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice for breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39), the mouse homolog of human CHI3L1. Immunological responses in splenocytes were assessed by means of polyclonal and antigen-specific proliferation assays. Central nervous system pathology and chitinase gene expression were also investigated. BRP-39 expression was increased in WT MOG35-55-immunized mice compared to saline-immunized controls. No differences were found between WT and BRP-39 KO mice regarding EAE clinical course, day of disease onset, mortality rate, splenocyte proliferative responses or histopathological findings. These results do not support a role of BRP-39 in the pathogenesis of EAE. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Clinical Immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2015.06.004 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system with a complex and heterogeneous pathology that may ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and brain atrophy. Brain volume loss in MS is known to occur early in the disease course and to be clinically relevant, as it has been related to disability progression. Nowadays, brain volume loss is relatively easy to measure with different automated, reproducible and accurate software tools. Therefore, most of (if not all) the newest clinical trials have incorporated brain volume outcomes as a measure of treatment effect. With this review, we aimed to update and summarize all existing data regarding brain volume and RRMS treatment in clinical trials as well as in open-label observational studies of drugs with positive results in its primary outcome in at least one phase III trial as of March 2014.
    Journal of Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7798-0 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of different natalizumab washout (WO) periods on recurrence of MRI and clinical disease activity in patients switching from natalizumab to fingolimod. In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (TOFINGO), patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were randomized 1:1:1 to 8-, 12-, or 16-week WO followed by fingolimod treatment over 32 weeks from last natalizumab infusion (LNI). Brain MRI was performed at baseline and weeks 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. Of 142 enrolled and randomized patients, 112 (78.9%) completed the study (8 weeks, n = 41/50; 12 weeks, n = 31/42; 16 weeks, n = 40/50). Number (95% confidence interval [CI]) of active (new/newly enlarged T2) lesions from LNI through 8 weeks of fingolimod treatment (primary outcome) was similar in the 8-week (2.1 [1.7-2.6]) and 12-week WO groups (1.7 [1.3-2.2]) and higher in the 16-week WO group (8.2 [7.3-9.1]). During the WO period only, the number (95% CI) of active lesions increased with increasing WO duration (8 weeks, 0.4 [0.2-0.6]; 12 weeks, 2.1 [1.6-2.6]; 16 weeks, 3.6 [3.0-4.2]). Over the 24 weeks from LNI, gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesion counts were lower in the 8-week WO group (14.1 [5.67-22.53]) than in the 12-week (21.3 [1.41-41.19]) or 16-week (18.5 [8.40-28.60]) WO groups. More patients were relapse-free in the 8-week (88%) and 12-week (91%) WO groups than the 16-week WO group (84%). Sixty-eight percent of patients experienced adverse events (mostly mild/moderate), with similar incidence across groups. No unusually severe relapses or opportunistic infections occurred. Initiating fingolimod therapy 8-12 weeks after natalizumab discontinuation is associated with a lower risk of MRI and clinical disease reactivation than initiation after 16-week WO. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with RRMS switching from natalizumab to fingolimod, shorter natalizumab WO periods are associated with less MRI disease activity than are longer WO periods. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 05/2015; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001706 · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • Ethel Ciampi, Carmen Tur, Xavier Montalban
    Multiple Sclerosis 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458515586090 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that cognitive reserve modulates the adverse effects of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology on cognitive functioning; however, the protective effects of education in MS are still unclear. To explore education as an indicator of cognitive reserve, while controlling for demographic, clinical and genetic features. A total of 419 MS patients and 159 healthy comparison (HC) subjects underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and answered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Based on the HC data, MS patients' NP scores were adjusted for sex, age and education; and the estimated 5(th) percentile (or 95(th) percentile, when appropriate) was used to identify any deficits. Patients also performed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); and their human leucocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes were investigated. Patients with higher education were less likely (p < 0.05) to have cognitive deficits than those with lower education, even when controlling for other covariates. Other significant predictors of cognitive deficit were: age, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), and a progressive course. No significant association was found with the HLA-DRB1*15:01 or ApoE ε4 alleles. These results provide support to the use of education as a proxy of cognitive reserve in MS and stress the need to take into account education when approaching cognition in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.
    Multiple Sclerosis 05/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458515581874 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 05/2015; 18(3):A279-A280. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2015.03.1633 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural history studies have identified factors that predict evolution to multiple sclerosis or risk of disability accumulation over time. Although these studies are based on large multicentre cohorts with long follow-ups, they have limitations such as lack of standardized protocols, a retrospective data collection or lack of a systematic magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis protocol, often resulting in failure to take magnetic resonance and oligoclonal bands into account as joint covariates in the prediction models. To overcome some of these limitations, the aim of our study was to identify and stratify baseline demographic, clinical, radiological and biological characteristics that might predict multiple sclerosis development and disability accumulation using a multivariate approach based on a large prospective cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes. From 1995 to 2013, 1058 patients with clinically isolated syndromes were included. We evaluated the influence of baseline prognostic factors on the risk for developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis, McDonald multiple sclerosis, and disability accumulation (Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3.0) based on univariate (hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) Cox regression models. We ultimately included 1015 patients followed for a mean of 81 (standard deviation = 57) months. Female/male ratio was 2.1. Females exhibited a similar risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and of disability accumulation compared to males. Each younger decade at onset was associated with a greater risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and with a protective effect on disability. Patients with optic neuritis had a lower risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [hazard ratio 0.6 (0.5-0.8)] and disability progression [hazard ratio 0.5 (0.3-0.8)]; however, this protective effect remained marginal only for disability [adjusted hazard ratio 0.6 (0.4-1.0)] in adjusted models. The presence of oligoclonal bands increased the risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 (1.0-1.8)] and of disability [adjusted hazard ratio 2.0 (1.2-3.6)] independently of other factors. The presence of 10 or more brain lesions on magnetic resonance increased the risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [adjusted hazard ratio 11.3 (6.7-19.3)] and disability [adjusted hazard ratio 2.9 (1.4-6.0)]. Disease-modifying treatment before the second attack reduced the risk of McDonald multiple sclerosis [adjusted hazard ratio 0.6 (0.4-0.9)] and disability accumulation [adjusted hazard ratio 0.5 (0.3-0.9)]. We conclude that the demographic and topographic characteristics are low-impact prognostic factors, the presence of oligoclonal bands is a medium-impact prognostic factor, and the number of lesions on brain magnetic resonance is a high-impact prognostic factor. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Brain 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv105 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several autoimmune diseases (ADs) can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, testing for auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) is often included in the diagnostic work-up of patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The purpose was to study how useful it was to systematically determine antinuclear-antibodies, anti-SSA and anti-SSB in a non-selected cohort of CIS patients, regarding the identification of other ADs that could represent an alternative diagnosis. From a prospective CIS cohort, we selected 772 patients in which auto-Ab levels were tested within the first year from CIS. Baseline characteristics of auto-Ab positive and negative patients were compared. A retrospective revision of clinical records was then performed in the auto-Ab positive patients to identify those who developed ADs during follow-up. One or more auto-Ab were present in 29.4% of patients. Only 1.8% of patients developed other ADs during a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. In none of these cases the concurrent AD was considered the cause of the CIS. In all cases the diagnosis of the AD resulted from the development of signs and/or symptoms suggestive of each disease. Antinuclear-antibodies, anti-SSA and anti-SSB should not be routinely determined in CIS patients but only in those presenting symptoms suggestive of other ADs. © The Author(s), 2015.
    Multiple Sclerosis 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458515575338 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MS-Line! was created to provide an effective treatment for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To assess the efficacy of MS-Line!. A randomized, controlled, single-blind, 6-month pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (cognitive rehabilitation with the programme) or to a control group (no cognitive rehabilitation). Randomization was stratified by cognitive impairment level. Cognitive assessment included: selective reminding test, 10/36 spatial recall test (10/36 SPART), symbol digit modalities test, paced auditory serial addition test, word list generation (WLG), FAS test, subtests of WAIS-III, Boston naming test (BNT), and trail making test (TMT). Forty-three patients (22 in the experimental group, 21 in the control group) were analyzed. Covariance analysis showed significant differences in 10/36 SPART (P=0.0002), 10/36 SPART delayed recall (P=0.0021), WLG (P=0.0123), LNS (P=0.0413), BNT (P=0.0007) and TMT-A (P=0.010) scores between groups. The study showed a significant improvement related to learning and visual memory, executive functions, attention and information processing speed, and naming ability in those patients who received cognitive rehabilitation. The results suggest that MS-Line! is effective in improving cognitive impairment in MS patients. © The Author(s), 2015.
    Multiple Sclerosis 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458515572405 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 36-week ATON study compared the efficacy and safety of atacicept with matching placebo in 34 patients with unilateral optic neuritis as a clinically isolated syndrome. Atacicept (150mg) was administered twice weekly for 4weeks (loading period), then once weekly for 32weeks. The ATON study was terminated prematurely by the sponsor when an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board review observed increased multiple sclerosis (MS)-related disease activity in the atacicept arms of the concurrent ATAcicept in MS (ATAMS) study. Analysis of the prematurely terminated ATON study showed that the mean (standard deviation) change from baseline in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness at last observed value in the affected eye was -8.6 (10.1) μm in patients treated with atacicept (n=15) compared with -17.3 (15.2) μm in patients treated with placebo (n=16). In the atacicept treatment group, a higher proportion of patients converted to clinically definite MS during the double-blind period compared with placebo (35.3% [6/17] vs 17.6% [3/17]). Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar across both treatment groups in the double-blind period. A dichotomy emerged with more atacicept-treated patients converting to relapsing-remitting MS compared with placebo-treated patients, despite the same patients experiencing less axonal loss after an optic neuritis event. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 02/2015; 351(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.02.019 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. Natalizumab is a drug used in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its main side effect is the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Since this is potentially fatal or disabling, treatment must be stopped immediately if it is suspected, taking into account the possible later development of immune reconstitution syndrome or renewed exacerbation of MS. CASE REPORT. We report a case of initially asymptomatic PML within the context of treatment with natalizumab in a female patient with MS. High antibody titers to the John Cunningham virus (JCV) and over two years' treatment were established as risk factors. The polymerase chain reaction for the JCV in cerebrospinal fluid was negative in two determinations. The interval between the radiological diagnosis and the onset of the clinical features was two months. During the course of the disease, the patient developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and relapses, or renewed exacerbation, of her MS. She responded well after beginning treatment with fingolimod, once the PML had become stabilised. CONCLUSIONS. This case indicates the importance of close clinico-radiological monitoring in patients with MS treated with natalizumab, especially when they present risk factors for the development of PML, as well as its potential incidence on survival and final functional status.
    Revista de neurologia 02/2015; 60(4):164-8. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explored which clinical and biochemical variables predict conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in a large international cohort. Thirty-three centres provided serum samples from 1047 CIS cases with at least two years' follow-up. Age, sex, clinical presentation, T2-hyperintense lesions, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands (OCBs), CSF IgG index, CSF cell count, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D), cotinine and IgG titres against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and cytomegalovirus were tested for association with risk of CDMS. At median follow-up of 4.31 years, 623 CIS cases converted to CDMS. Predictors of conversion in multivariable analyses were OCB (HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.71-2.77, p < 0.001), number of T2 lesions (two to nine lesions vs 0/1 lesions: HR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.52-2.55, p < 0.001; >9 lesions vs 0/1 lesions: HR = 2.74, 95% CI = 2.04-3.68, p < 0.001) and age at CIS (HR per year inversely increase = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99, p < 0.001). Lower 25-OH-D levels were associated with CDMS in univariable analysis, but this was attenuated in the multivariable model. OCB positivity was associated with higher EBNA-1 IgG titres. We validated MRI lesion load, OCB and age at CIS as the strongest independent predictors of conversion to CDMS in this multicentre setting. A role for vitamin D is suggested but requires further investigation. © The Author(s), 2015.
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    ABSTRACT: Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who remained as clinically isolated syndrome. Here, we aimed to validate CHI3L1 as a prognostic biomarker in a large cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. This is a longitudinal cohort study of clinically isolated syndrome patients with clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data prospectively acquired. A total of 813 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinically isolated syndrome were recruited from 15 European multiple sclerosis centres. Cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels and time to conversion to multiple sclerosis and time to reach Expanded Disability Status Scale 3.0. CHI3L1 levels were higher in patients who converted to clinically definite multiple sclerosis compared to patients who continued as clinically isolated syndrome (P = 8.1 × 10(-11)). In the Cox regression analysis, CHI3L1 levels were a risk factor for conversion to multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.7; P = 1.1 × 10(-5) using Poser criteria; hazard ratio = 1.6; P = 3.7 × 10(-6) for McDonald criteria) independent of other covariates such as brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and presence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, and were the only significant independent risk factor associated with the development of disability (hazard ratio = 3.8; P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). High CHI3L1 levels were associated with shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 3.2 × 10(-9) using Poser criteria; P = 5.6 × 10(-11) for McDonald criteria) and more rapid development of disability (P = 1.8 × 10(-10)). These findings validate cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 as a biomarker associated with the conversion to multiple sclerosis and development of disability and reinforce the prognostic role of CHI3L1 in patients with clinically isolated syndrome. We propose that determining cerebrospinal fluid chitinase 3-like 1 levels at the time of a clinically isolated syndrome event will help identify those patients with worse disease prognosis. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
  • Georgina Arrambide, Carmen Tur, Xavier Montalban
    Multiple Sclerosis 02/2015; 21(5). DOI:10.1177/1352458514551457 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near SOCS1 are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the most important SNPs in the area and mechanisms by which they influence the disease are unknown. A haplotype-tagging association study was performed covering 60.5kbp around SOCS1, and the index SNP was validated in a total of 2292 individuals. mRNA expression of SOCS1 and nearby genes was measured in MS patients with different disease courses and healthy controls. SOCS1 protein expression was studied by flow cytometry in a separate cohort of patients and controls. Differentiation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were also studied. One SNP, rs423674, reached genome-wide significance. No genotype-specific mRNA expression differences were seen, but, by flow cytometry, significant interactions were observed between genotypes for rs423674 and disease activity (relapse or remission) in B cells and regulatory T cells. Furthermore, homozygotes for the risk allele (GG) showed higher levels of CD1a and CD86 than carriers of the protective allele (GT) in immature moDCs and a greater increase of HLA-DR+ cell percentage than GT heterozygotes upon maturation. rs423674, or its genetic proxies, may influence MS risk by modulating SOCS1 expression in a cell-specific manner and by influencing dendritic cell function. © The Author(s), 2015.
    Multiple Sclerosis 01/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458514566418 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis include the production of antibodies in the central nervous system, expressed as presence of oligoclonal bands and/or an increased immunoglobulin G index-the level of immunoglobulin G in the cerebrospinal fluid compared to serum. However, the underlying differences between oligoclonal band-positive and -negative patients with multiple sclerosis and reasons for variability in immunoglobulin G index are not known. To identify genetic factors influencing the variation in the antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, we have performed a genome-wide association screen in patients collected from nine countries for two traits, presence or absence of oligoclonal bands (n = 3026) and immunoglobulin G index levels (n = 938), followed by a replication in 3891 additional patients. We replicate previously suggested association signals for oligoclonal band status in the major histocompatibility complex region for the rs9271640*A-rs6457617*G haplotype, correlated with HLA-DRB1*1501, and rs34083746*G, correlated with HLA-DQA1*0301 (P comparing two haplotypes = 8.88 x 10-16). Furthermore, we identify a novel association signal of rs9807334, near the ELAC1/SMAD4 genes, for oligoclonal band status (P = 8.45 x 10-7). The previously reported association of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus with immunoglobulin G index reaches strong evidence for association in this data set (P = 3.79 x 10-37). We identify two novel associations in the major histocompatibility complex region with immunoglobulin G index: the rs9271640*A-rs6457617*G haplotype (P = 1.59 x 10-22), shared with oligoclonal band status, and an additional independent effect of rs6457617*G (P = 3.68 x 10-6). Variants identified in this study account for up to 2-fold differences in the odds of being oligoclonal band positive and 7.75% of the variation in immunoglobulin G index. Both traits are associated with clinical features of disease such as female gender, age at onset and severity. This is the largest study population so far investigated for the genetic influence on antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, including 6950 patients. We confirm that genetic factors underlie these antibody levels and identify both the major histocompatibility complex and immunoglobulin heavy chain region as major determinants.
    Brain 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awu405 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence exists for a potential modulation of inflammasome activity by interferon beta. Here, we investigated the roles of inflammasomes [absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2); NLR family, CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4); NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1 and 3 (NLRP1 and NLRP3)] and related cytokines (IL1B, IL10, IL18) in the response to interferon beta in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Ninety-seven patients treated with interferon beta were classified into responders and non-responders according to clinical criteria after 24 months and clinical-radiological criteria after 12 months of treatment. Messenger RNA expression levels of inflammasomes and cytokines were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected before treatment with interferon beta. In a subgroup of patients, NLRP3 and IL1B expression was also determined after 3 months (n = 32) and 12 months (n = 20) of interferon beta treatment. A polymorphism located in the NLRP3 gene, rs35829419, was genotyped in 789 multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon beta. Baseline mRNA expression levels for NLRP3 and IL1B were increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from non-responders compared to responders classified according to clinical criteria after 24 months (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). No significant differences were observed for other inflammasomes and related cytokines. Differences in NLRP3 and IL1B expression remained significant following a clinical-radiological classification after 12 months (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). After treatment with interferon beta, NLRP3 and IL1B expression was increased in responders but unchanged in non-responders. A trend for association was observed between rs35829419 and interferon beta response (pM-H = 0.08). These results point to a role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its related cytokine IL1B in the response to interferon beta in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Brain 01/2015; 138(3). DOI:10.1093/brain/awu388 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a serious side effect associated with natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS). PML risk increases in individuals seropositive for anti-JC virus antibodies, with prolonged duration of natalizumab treatment, and with prior exposure to immunosuppressants. We explored whether the presence of lipid-specific IgM oligoclonal bands in CSF (IgM bands), a recognized marker of highly inflammatory MS, may identify individuals better able to counteract the potential immunosuppressive effect of natalizumab and hence be associated with a reduced risk of developing PML. Methods: We studied 24 MS patients who developed PML and other 343 who did not suffer this opportunistic infection during natalizumab treatment. Patients were recruited in 25 university hospitals. IgM bands were studied by isoelectrofocusing and immunodetection. CSF lymphocyte counts were explored in 151 MS patients recruited in Hospital Ramon y Cajal in Madrid. Results: IgM bands independently associated with decreased PML risk (OR=45.9, 95% CI: 5.9-339.3, p<0.0001) in patients treated with natalizumab. They also associated with significantly higher CSF CD4, CD8 and B cell numbers. Patients positive for IgM bands and anti JC antibodies had similar level of reduced PML risk than those anti JC negative (OR=1.55, 95% CI:0.09-25.2, p=1.0). The higher risk was observed in patients positive for anti JC antibodies, and negative for IgM bands (19% of the total cohort, OR=59.71, CI: 13.6-262.2). Interpretation. The presence of IgM bands reflects a process which may diminish the risk of PML by counteracting the excess of immunosuppression that may occur during natalizumab therapy.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/ana.24345 · 11.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,930.11 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2015
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Department of Medicine
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1995–2015
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2014
    • VHIR Vall d’Hebron Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
      Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain
    • Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda
      • Servicio de Neurofisiología
      Махадаонда, Madrid, Spain
  • 2012–2013
    • Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009–2013
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008–2013
    • Hospital Valle Del Nalon
      Rianxo, Galicia, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria de Málaga
      Málaga, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2007–2012
    • Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009–2011
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007–2011
    • Hebron University
      Al Khalīl, West Bank, Palestinian Territory
  • 1996–2011
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Statistics
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Hospital Clinica Benidorm
      Benidorm, Valencia, Spain
  • 2005
    • Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge
      l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2004
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2001
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2000
    • Hospital de Barcelona. SCIAS
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom