[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have shown the presence of high levels of growth factors during the process of healing. Growth factors act by binding to the cell surface receptors and contribute to the subsequent activation of signal transduction mechanisms. Wound healing requires a complex of biological and molecular events that includes attraction and proliferation of different type of cells to the wound site, differentiation and angiogenesis. More specifically, migration of various cell types, such as endothelial cells and their precursors, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) or skin fibroblasts (DFs) plays an important role in the healing process. In recent years, the application of platelet rich plasma (PRP) to surgical wounds and skin ulcerations is becoming more frequent, as it is believed to accelerate the healing process. The local enrichment of growth factors at the wound after PRP application causes a stimulation of tissue regeneration. Herein, we studied: (i) the effect of autologous PRP in skin ulcers of patients of different aetiology, (ii) the proteomic profile of PRP, (iii) the migration potential of amniotic fluid MSCs and DFs in the presence of PRP extract in vitro, (iv) the use of the PRP extract as a substitute for serum in cultivating AF-MSCs. Considering its easy access, PRP may provide a valuable tool in multiple therapeutic approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the value of qRT-PCR and IHC in accurately detecting lymph node micrometastasis in gynecological cancer, we performed a systematic approach, using a set of dual molecular tumor-specific markers such as cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), in a series of 46 patients (19 with cervical cancer, 18 with endometrial cancer, and 9 with vulvar cancer). A total of 1281 lymph nodes were analyzed and 28 were found positive by histopathology. Following this documentation, 82 lymph nodes, 11 positive and 71 negative, were randomly selected and further analyzed both by IHC and qRT-PCR for CK19 and CA9 expression. All 11 (100%) expressed CK19 by IHC, while only 6 (54.5%) expressed CA9. On the contrary, all the histologically negative for micrometastases lymph nodes were also negative by IHC analysis for both markers. The comparative diagnostic efficacy of the two markers using qRT-PCR, however, disclosed that the analysis of the same aliquots of the 82 lymph nodes led to 100% specificity for the CK19 biomarker, while, in contrast, CA9 failed to recapitulate a similar pattern. These data suggest that qRT-PCR exhibits a better diagnostic accuracy compared to IHC, while CK19 displays a consistent pattern of detection compared to CA9.
BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:187684.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been shown to act as regulatory signals for maintaining stemness and for determining the fate of adult and fetal stem cells, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs constitute a population of multipotent stem cells that can be expanded easily in culture and are able to differentiate into many lineages. We have isolated two subpopulations of fetal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from amniotic fluid (AF) known as spindle-shaped (SS) and round-shaped (RS) cells and characterized them on the basis of their phenotypes, pluripotency, proliferation rates, and differentiation potentials. In this study, we analyzed the miRNA profile of MSCs derived from AF, bone marrow (BM), and umbilical cord blood (UCB). We initially identified 67 different miRNAs that were expressed in all three types of MSCs but at different levels, depending on the source. A more detailed analysis revealed that miR-21 was expressed at higher levels in RS-AF-MSCs and BM-MSCs compared with SS-AF-MSCs. We further demonstrated for the first time a direct interaction between miR-21 and the pluripotency marker Sox2. The induction of miR-21 strongly inhibited Sox2 expression in SS-AF-MSCs, resulting in reduced clonogenic and proliferative potential and cell cycle arrest. Strikingly, the opposite effect was observed upon miR-21 inhibition in RS-AF-MSCs and BM-MSCs, which led to an enhanced proliferation rate. Finally, miR-21 induction accelerated osteogenesis and impaired adipogenesis and chondrogenesis in SS-AF-MSCs. Therefore, these findings suggest that miR-21 might specifically function by regulating Sox2 expression in human MSCs and might also act as a key molecule determining MSC proliferation and differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: A number of mutations in the VSX1 and SOD1 genes have been reported to be associated with keratoconus (KC), however the results from different studies are controversial. In this study, we conducted the genotyping of common polymorphisms [VSX1: D144E, H244R, R166W, G160D; SOD1: intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50delTAAACAG)], in a case-control sample panel of the Greek population. Materials and methods: A case-control panel, with 33 KC patients and 78 healthy controls, were surveyed. DNA from each individual was tested for the VSX1: D144E, H244R, R166W, G160D and SOD1: intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50delTAAACAG) polymorphisms by direct sequencing. Results: We observed no polymorphisms of the VSX1 gene in the case-control panel. Concerning the SOD1 intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50delTAAACAG), our findings suggest that heterozygous carriers are over-represented among KC cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We cannot confirm the previously reported association of the polymorphism in the VSX1 gene with KC. Our results suggest a possible causative role of SOD1 in the pathogenesis of KC. Further studies are required to identify other important genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis and progression of KC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-thalassemias constitute hereditary blood disorders characterized by reduced or absence of β-globin synthesis resulting in mild to severe anemia, depending on the genotype. More than 200 mutations in the β-globin gene are responsible for their specific features leading to a very heterogeneous phenotype. Current therapies for β-thalassemia include blood transfusions, usually along with iron chelation and in selected cases with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, these approaches are limited by factors, such as iron overload and donor availability, respectively. Since 2000, when globin lentiviral vectors (LVs) were first successfully tested for transfer efficiency of the therapeutic transgene, which led to disease amelioration in murine models, attention was drawn towards the improvement of such vectors for β-thalassemia gene therapy. Constantly improving vector design and efficient HSC manipulation led recently to the first successful clinical trial in France, which further proved that this genetic approach can be curative. Furthermore, improved new efficient vectors and methods to safely monitor integration sites and therapeutic transgene position effects, promise a new era for β-thalassemia gene therapy, with more and safer clinical trials yet to come.
Current Molecular Medicine 07/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene therapy utilizing lentiviral vectors (LVs) constitutes a real therapeutic alternative for many inherited monogenic diseases. Therefore, the generation of functional vectors using fast, non-laborious and cost-effective strategies is imperative. Among the available concentration methods for VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviruses to achieve high therapeutic titers, ultracentrifugation represents the most common approach. However, the procedure requires special handling and access to special instrumentation, it is time-consuming, and most importantly, it is cost-ineffective due to the high maintenance expenses and consumables of the ultracentrifuge apparatus. Here we describe an improved protocol in which vector stocks are prepared by transient transfection using standard cell culture media and are then concentrated by ultrafiltration, resulting in functional vector titers of up to 6×10(9) transducing units per millilitre (TU/mL) without the involvement of any purification step. Although ultrafiltration per se for concentrating viruses is not a new procedure, our work displays one major novelty; we characterized the nature and the constituents of the viral batches produced by ultrafiltration using peptide mass fingerprint analysis. We also determined the viral functional titer by employing flow cytometry and evaluated the actual viral particle size and concentration in real time by using laser-based nanoparticle tracking analysis based on Brownian motion. Vectors generated by this production method are contained in intact virions and when tested to transduce in vitro either murine total bone marrow or human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells, resulted in equal transduction efficiency and reduced toxicity, compared to lentiviral vectors produced using standard ultracentrifugation-based methods. The data from this study can eventually lead to the improvement of protocols and technical modifications for the clinical trials for gene therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The infliximab (IFX) has dramatically improved the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). However, the need for predictive factors, indicative of patients' response to IFX, has yet to be met. In the current study, proteomics technologies were employed in order to monitor for differences in protein expression in a cohort of patients following IFX administration, aiming at identifying a panel of candidate protein biomarkers of CD, symptomatic of response to treatment. We enrolled 18 patients, who either had achieved clinical and serological remission (Rm, n=6), or response (Rs, n=6) and/or were PNRs (n=6), to IFX. Serum samples were subjected to two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis. Following evaluation of densitometrical data, protein spots exhibiting differential expression among the groups, were further characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS. Identified proteins where evaluated by immunoblot analysis while functional network association was carried out to asses significance. Proteins apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), apolipoprotein E (APOE), complement C4-B (CO4B), plasminogen (PLMN), serotransferrin (TRFE), beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (APOH), and clusterin (CLUS) were found to be up-regulated in the PNR and Rs groups whereas their levels displayed no changes in the Rm group when compared to baseline samples. Additionally, leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (A2GL), vitamin D-binding protein (VTDB), alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and complement C1r subcomponent (C1R) were significantly increased in the serum of the Rm group. Through the incorporation of proteomics technologies, novel serum marker-molecules demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity are introduced, hence offering an innovative approach regarding the evaluation of CD patients' response to IFX therapy.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 04/2013; · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Dysfunction of the circadian clock genes is involved in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and T2D share common genetic and phenotypic features, in the present study, we investigated the status of the circadian clock in a cohort of 40 Greek pregnant women with GDM, four with T2D and 20 normal controls. Peripheral blood mRNA transcript levels of 10 clock genes (CLOCK1, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, PER3, PPARΑ, PPARD, PPARG, CRY1 and CRY2) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. GDM patients expressed significantly lower transcript levels of BMAL1, PER3, PPARD and CRY2 compared to control women (p < 0.05). No significant difference was documented between GDM women maintained either under insulin treatment or diet. A positive correlation was found between the expression of BMAL1 versus CRY2 (r = 0.45, p = 0.003) and BMAL1 versus PPARD (r = 0.43, p = 0.004). Further investigation on the functional relevance of these clock genes, disclosed that expression of PER3 correlated negatively with HbA(1C) levels (r = -0.36, p = 0.022). These data document for the first time that the expression of BMAL1, PER3, PPARD and CRY2 genes is altered in GDM compared to normal pregnant women and support the notion that deranged expression of clock genes may play a pathogenic role in GDM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human amniotic fluid obtained at amniocentesis, when cultured, generates at least two morphologically distinct mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) subsets. Of these, the spindle shaped amniotic fluid MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs) contain multipotent cells with enhanced adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the capacity of these SS-AF-MSCs to support neovascularization by umbilical cord blood (UCB) endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) derived cells in both in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, although the kinetics of vascular tubule formation in vitro were similar when the supporting SS-AF-MSCs were compared with the best vasculogenic supportive batches of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) or human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), SS-AF-MSCs supported vascular tubule formation in vivo more effectively than BMSCs. In NOD/SCID mice, the human vessels inosculated with murine vessels demonstrating their functionality. Proteome profiler array analyses revealed both common and distinct secretion profiles of angiogenic factors by the SS-AF-MSCs as opposed to the hDFs and BMSCs. Thus, SS-AF-MSCs, which are considered to be less mature developmentally than adult BMSCs, and intermediate between adult and embryonic stem cells in their potentiality, have the additional and very interesting potential of supporting increased neovascularisation, further enhancing their promise as vehicles for tissue repair and regeneration.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54747. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represent a population of multipotent adherent cells able to differentiate into many lineages. In our previous studies, we isolated and expanded fetal MSCs from second-trimester amniotic fluid (AF) and characterized them based on their phenotype, pluripotency and proteomic profile. In the present study, we investigated the plasticity of these cells based on their differentiation, dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation potential in vitro. To this end, adipocyte-like cells (AL cells) derived from AF-MSCs can regain, under certain culture conditions, a more primitive phenotype through the process of dedifferentiation. Dedifferentiated AL cells derived from AF-MSCs (DAF-MSCs), gradually lost the expression of adipogenic markers and obtained similar morphology and differentiation potential to AF-MSCs, together with regaining the pluripotency marker expression. Moreover, a comparative proteomic analysis of AF-MSCs, AL cells and DAF-MSCs revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins among the three cell populations. Proteins, such as vimentin, galectin-1 and prohibitin that have a significant role in stem cell regulatory mechanisms, were expressed in higher levels in AF-MSCs and DAF-MSCs compared with AL cells. We next investigated whether AL cells could transdifferentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HL cells) directly or through a dedifferentiation step. AL cells were cultured in hepatogenic medium and 4 days later they obtained a phenotype similar to AF-MSCs, and were termed as transdifferentiated AF-MSCs (TRAF-MSCs). This finding, together with the increase in pluripotency marker expression, indicated the adaption of a more primitive phenotype before transdifferentiation. Additionally, we observed that AF-, DAF- and TRAF-MSCs displayed similar clonogenic potential, secretome and proteome profile. Considering the easy access to this fetal cell source, the plasticity of AF-MSCs and their potential to dedifferentiate and transdifferentiate, AF may provide a valuable tool for cell therapy and tissue engineering applications.
Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e571. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs), vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method) was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a) statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc.), (b) their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c) their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68854. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot detection is a challenging task of 2D Gel Electrophoresis image analysis. The available software packages and techniques miss some of the protein spots while they detect a high number of spurious spots. This paper introduces a novel approach for the detection of protein spots on 2D gel images which is based on multidirectional texture and spatial intensity information. The proposed approach is compared with two commercial software packages using real 2D-GE images. The outcome demonstrates that the proposed approach outperforms the two software packages; it detects almost all of real protein spots and a low number of spurious spots.
Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE), 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on; 01/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: Recently a relationship between circadian clock function and the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been shown. BMAL1 is a key component of the mammalian molecular clock. Two SNPs in the BMAL1 gene have been identified to confer T2D susceptibility. In the present study we investigated for the first time the association between the BMAL1 gene and the risk for GDM, in a Greek population. METHODS: We studied 185 women with GDM and 161 non-diabetic controls for BMAL1 polymorphisms. For BMAL1 mRNA expression, peripheral leukocytes were harvested from 20 GDM and 20 control women, harboring different genotypes for the tested polymorphisms, using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The minor allele (A) of the BMAL1 rs7950226 (G>A) polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM (P=0.025). Analysis of the second BMAL1 rs11022775 (T>C) polymorphism, showed that the C-allele frequency was strongly increased in women with GDM (P=4.455e-06). The CC genotype was also significantly overrepresented in GDM vs. controls (P=0.00001). Additionally, the rs7950226G/rs11022775C and rs7950226A/rs11022775C haplotypes were also found to be associated with increased susceptibility to GDM. Furthermore, the expression levels of BMAL1 mRNA were significantly lower in GDM patients than in controls. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the impairment of the BMAL1 clock gene expression is closely associated with GDM susceptibility.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 11/2012; · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms in the human solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) gene predispose to susceptibility to infectious/inflammatory diseases and cancer. Human susceptibility to these diseases exhibits allelic association with a polymorphic regulatory Z-DNA-forming microsatellite of a (GT/AC)n repeat. The carriage of different alleles may influence chromatin remodeling and accessibility by transcription factors. Of particular importance is the binding site for the Activating Protein 1 (AP-1) elements, (ATF-3 and c-Jun), adjacent to the 5' sequence of the Z-DNA-forming polymorphism. The aim of the study was to characterize the transcriptional mechanisms controlling different alleles of SLC11A1 expression by ATF-3 and c-Jun. Allele 2, [T(GT)(5)AC(GT)(5)AC(GT)(10)GGCAGA(G)(6)], and Allele 3, [T(GT)(5)AC(GT)(5)AC(GT)(9)GGCAGA(G)(6)], were subcloned into the PGL2Basic vector. Transient transfections of THP-1 cells with the constructs, in the presence or absence of pATF-3 were preformed. Luciferase expression was determined. To document the recruitment of ATF-3 and c-Jun, to the polymorphic promoter alleles in vivo, we performed ChIP assays with transient transfected THP-1 cells treated with or without lipopolyssacharides. Our data documented that ATF-3 suppresses the transcriptional activation of Allele-3, and this suppression is enhanced in the presence of lipopolyssacharides. Our findings suggest that ATF-3 and c-Jun may influence heritable variation in SLC11A1-dependent innate resistance to infection and inflammation both within and between populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies support cell based therapies for several diseases. Human fetal stem cells have received much attention for developing new therapeutic strategies. Recently, our group and others have successfully isolated and expanded karyotypically normal stem cells from an alternative fetal source, the human second trimester amniotic fluid (AF) and performed their systematic phenotypic and molecular analysis. The main characteristics of amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) are their fetal origin, the high number of isolated cells, their wide differentiation properties and their rapid expansion in vitro. These characteristics render hAFSCs as a very attractive tool for clinical applications based on cell therapy. The use of hAFSC transplantation has been studied in a variety of disease animal models related to bone regeneration, myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, acute hepatic failure, skin injury, ischemic hind limb or cancer. The major aim of this review is to summarize the advent of hAFSCs capabilities into novel therapeutic modalities and discuss their potential use in future pre-clinical and clinical studies.
Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy 11/2012; · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To detect of colorectal cancer (CRC) circulating tumour cells (CTCs) surface antigens, we present an assay incorporating cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) in these paper.
The principle of the assay is the immunomagnetic separation of CTCs from body fluids in conjunction with QDs, using specific antibody biomarkers: epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody, and monoclonal cytokeratin 19 antibody. The detection signal was acquired from the fluorescence signal of QDs. For the evaluation of the performance, the method under study was used to isolate the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (DLD-1) and CTCs from CRC patients' peripheral blood.
The minimum detection limit of the assay was defined to 10 DLD-1 CRC cells/mL as fluorescence was measured with a spectrofluorometer. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and Real Time RT-PCR, they both have also been used to evaluate the performance of the described method. In conclusion, we developed a simple, sensitive, efficient and of lower cost (than the existing ones) method for the detection of CRC CTCs in human samples. We have accomplished these results by using magnetic bead isolation and subsequent QD fluorescence detection.
The method described here can be easily adjusted for any other protein target of either the CTC or the host.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2012; 18(32):4419-26. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amniotic fluid (AF) and amniotic membrane (AM) have been recently characterized as promising sources of stem or progenitor cells. Both not only contain subpopulations with stem cell characteristics resembling to adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, but also exhibit some embryonic stem cell properties like (i) expression of pluripotency markers, (ii) high expansion in vitro, or (iii) multilineage differentiation capacity. Recent efforts have been focused on the isolation and the detailed characterization of these stem cell types. However, variations in their phenotype, their heterogeneity described by different groups, and the absence of a single marker expressed only in these cells may prevent the isolation of a pure homogeneous stem cell population from these sources and their potential use of these cells in therapeutic applications. In this paper, we aim to summarize the recent progress in marker discovery for stem cells derived from fetal sources such as AF and AM, using novel methodologies based on transcriptomics, proteomics, or secretome analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract To address how low titer, variable expression, and gene silencing affect gene therapy vectors for hemoglobinopathies, in a previous study we successfully used the HPFH (hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin)-2 enhancer in a series of oncoretroviral vectors. On the basis of these data, we generated a novel insulated self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector, termed GGHI, carrying the (A)γ-globin gene with the -117 HPFH point mutation and the HPFH-2 enhancer and exhibiting a pancellular pattern of (A)γ-globin gene expression in MEL-585 clones. To assess the eventual clinical feasibility of this vector, GGHI was tested on CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells from nonmobilized peripheral blood or bone marrow from 20 patients with β-thalassemia. Our results show that GGHI increased the production of γ-globin by 32.9% as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (p=0.001), with a mean vector copy number per cell of 1.1 and a mean transduction efficiency of 40.3%. Transduced populations also exhibited a lower rate of apoptosis and resulted in improvement of erythropoiesis with a higher percentage of orthochromatic erythroblasts. This is the first report of a locus control region (LCR)-free SIN insulated lentiviral vector that can be used to efficiently produce the anticipated therapeutic levels of γ-globin protein in the erythroid progeny of primary human thalassemic hematopoietic stem cells in vitro.
Human Gene Therapy 01/2012; 23(1):15-31. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) are used in the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Genetic variations in thiopurine S-methyltranfarase (TPMT) gene have been correlated with enzyme activity and with the occurrence of adverse events to AZA and 6MP. The aim of the present study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of TPMT genotyping for TPMT enzymatic activity, reducing harm from thiopurine by pretesting, and the association of thiopurine toxicity with TPMT status in children with IBD.
TPMT red blood cell (RBC) activity was measured by using a radiochemical method and genotype was determined for the TPMT alleles *2, *3A, *3B and *3C in 108 thiopurinetreated pediatric IBD patients with a mean age of 11.3 years (range 3-16).
Significant TPMT activity differences between wild-type and heterozygous and homozygous mutated subjects were observed. We divided TPMT activity into three categories according to frequency distribution: low (16.67%), intermediate (25.92%) and high (57.41%). The whole population included a total of 77.78% of homozygous wild-type subjects, 15.74% heterozygous variants, 1.85% homozygous variants and five (4.63%) compound heterozygous variant TPMT*3B/*3C. The overall concordance rate between TPMT genotypes and phenotypes was 88.2%. Seven carriers of at least one variant allele and low or intermediate TPMT activity developed adverse effects.
Our findings suggest that carriers of at least one variant allele and both intermediate and absent TPMT activity have an increased risk of developing thiopurine-induced myelotoxicity compared with individuals with normal genotype and TPMT activity.
Annals of Gastroenterology 01/2012; 25(3):249-253.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), especially in diseases such as acute hepatic failure (AHF) that are predominantly caused by a variety of drugs and viruses. In previous studies, a distinct population termed human spindle-shaped MSCs were isolated and expanded from second trimester amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) and characterised based on their phenotype, pluripotency and differentiation potential.
AF-MSCs, hepatic progenitor-like (HPL) cells and hepatocyte-like (HL) cells derived from AF-MSCs were transplanted into CCl₄-injured NOD/SCID mice with the AHF phenotype in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from AF-MSCs or HPL cells was then delivered intrahepatically in order to determine whether the engraftment of the cells or their secreted molecules are the most important agents for liver repair.
Both HPL cells and AF-MSCs were incorporated into CCl(4)-injured livers; HPL cell transplantation had a greater therapeutic effect. In contrast, HL cells failed to engraft and contribute to recovery. In addition, HPL-CM was found to be more efficient than CM derived from AF-MSCs in treatment of the liver. Proteome profile analysis of HPL-CM indicated the presence of anti-inflammatory factors such as interleukins IL-10, IL-1ra, IL-13 and IL-27 which may induce liver recovery. Blocking studies of IL-10 secretion from HPL cells confirmed the therapeutic significance of this cytokine in the AHF mouse model.
Human spindle-shaped AF-MSCs or HPL cells might be valuable tools to induce liver repair and support liver function by cell transplantation. More importantly, the factors they release may also play an important role in cell treatment in diseases of the liver.