[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hantaviruses are causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. There is a need for time-saving diagnostic methods. In the present study, recombinant N antigens were used as antigens in an immunochromatography strip (ICG) test to detect specific IgG antibodies.
The N-terminal 103 amino acids (aa) of Hantaan virus (HTNV), Puumala virus (PUUV) and Andes virus (ANDV) nucleocapsid (N) protein were expressed in E. coli as representative antigens of three groups (HFRS, NE and HPS-causing viruses) of hantavirus. Five different types of ICG test strips, one antigen line on one strip for each of the three selected hantaviruses (HTNV, PUUV and ANDV), three antigen lines on one strip and a mixed antigen line on one strip, were developed and sensitivities were compared.
A total of 87 convalescent-phase patient sera, including sera from 35 HFRS patients, 36 NE patients and 16 HPS patients, and 25 sera from healthy seronegative people as negative controls were used to evaluate the ICG test. Sensitivities of the three-line strip and mixed-line strip were similar to those of the single antigen strip (97.2 to 100%). On the other hand, all of the ICG test strips showed high specificities to healthy donors.
These results indicated that the ICG test with the three representative antigens is an effective serodiagnostic tool for screening and typing of hantavirus infection in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hantavirus infections are characterized by vascular hyperpermeability and neutrophilia. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that pulmonary vascular permeability is increased by Hantaan virus infection and results in the development of pulmonary edema in C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice lacking functional T cells and B cells. Increases in neutrophils in the lung and blood were observed when pulmonary edema began to be observed in the infected SCID mice. The occurrence of pulmonary edema was inhibited by neutrophil depletion. Moreover, the pulmonary vascular permeability was also significantly suppressed by neutrophil depletion in the infected mice. Taken together, the results suggest that neutrophils play an important role in pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and occurrence of pulmonary edema after hantavirus infection in SCID mice.
Although hantavirus infections are characterized by the occurrence of pulmonary edema, the pathogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time in vivo that hantavirus infection increases pulmonary vascular permeability and results in the development of pulmonary edema in SCID mice. This novel mouse model for human hantavirus infection will be a valuable tool and will contribute to elucidation of the pathogenetic mechanisms. Although the involvement of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection has largely been ignored, the results of this study using the mouse model suggest that neutrophils are involved in the vascular hyperpermeability and development of pulmonary edema in hantavirus infection. Further study of the mechanisms could lead to the development of specific treatment for hantavirus infection.
Journal of Virology 04/2014; 88(13). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00254-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined genetic variation in black rats (the Rattus rattus complex) from Kandy District, Sri Lanka using mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb, 1140 bp) and nuclear melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r, 954 bp) gene sequences together with database sequences. We confirmed the existence of two divergent mitochondrial lineages in Sri Lankan black rats, with genetic distance of 2.2% and estimated divergence time of 0.3 million years ago. Because one lineage is unique to the island and the other is closely related to R. rattus populations on the Indian subcontinent, two migration events of R. rattus from the subcontinent are inferred, one ancient and one recent. Mc1r analyses revealed 12 haplotypes among the Sri Lankan black rats. A median-joining network together with other available sequences separated the 12 haplotypes into two groups, one unique to the island and the other related to previously reported R. rattus sequences. Notably, most individuals possessed various combinations of both haplotype groups which had no association with the cytb clades. These results imply that old and new R. rattus lineages are now intermingled as a result of hybridization in Sri Lanka. Specimens of the lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis) collected from Sri Lanka (n = 24) were shown to have no genetic variability in the cytb sequence. Our results indicate that the two most abundant groups of commensal rats in Sri Lanka, black rats and lesser bandicoot rats, are the product of contrasting evolutionary histories on different timescales.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the role of nucleocapsid protein (NP) of hantaviruses in viral assembly, the effect of NP on intracellular traffic of viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc was investigated. Double staining of viral and host proteins in Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected Vero E6 cells showed that Gn and Gc were localized to cis-Golgi, in which virus particles are thought to be formed. When HTNV Gn and Gc were expressed by a plasmid encoding glycoprotein precursor (GPC), which is posttranslationaly cleaved into Gn and Gc, Gn was localized to cis-Golgi, whereas Gc showed diffuse distribution in the cytoplasm in 32.9% of Gc-positive cells. The ratio of the diffused Gc-positive cells was significantly decreased to 15.0% by co-expression of HTNV NP. Co-expression of HTNV GPC with NPs of other hantaviruses, such as Seoul virus, Puumala virus and Sin Nombre virus, also reduced the ratios of diffused Gc-positive cells to 13.5%, 25.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. Among amino- and carboxyl-terminally truncated HTNV NPs, NP75-429, NP116-429, NP1-333, NP1-233, and NP1-155 possessed activity to reduce the ratio of diffused Gc-positive cells, while NP155-429 and NP1-116 did not. NP30-429 has partial activity. These results indicate that amino acid region 116-155 of NP is important for the activity, although amino acid region 1-30 is partially related. Truncation of the HTNV Gc cytoplasmic tail caused an increase in diffused Gc-positive cells. In addition, the effect of coexpression of HTNV NP was weakened. These results suggest that HTNV NP has a role to promote Golgi localization of Gc through a mechanism possibly mediated by the Gc cytoplasmic tail.
Virus Research 09/2013; 178(2). DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2013.09.022 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hantavirus infection is a new emerging disease in Indonesia that is cause of death in humans. In 2009, a species Seoul virus has been found of Rattus norvegicus in Thousand Islands by serology test. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV) of are RNA viruses negative single stranded from the family Bunyaviridae. Seoul virus has gene S (small) that encodes a protein gene nucleocapsid that are immunogenic and has conserved region sustainable to be the potential development of a diagnostic test. Gene S has 1500 -1700 bp long DNA fragment. In this research was conducted gene sequencing S Seoul virus from lung tissue rodent in the Thousand Islands, from number 28 until 1160 of DNA fragment. The arrest of 83 rodents obtained 3 samples by RT-PCR was positive, which has code KS74, KS80 and KS90. The results of sequence were analyze by seqscape program to obtain a sequence of nucleotides, and then used Mega5 programs. The phylogenetic analyze, homology nucleotides and amino acids were compared with the other hanta virus species from gene bank. The result of Phylogenetic tree showed close relations between strain of Thousand Island with Seoul virus of Korean and Singapore. The analyze comparison showed, the highest homology from strain KS74 is 88.4% and the lowest from strain KS90 is 87.2%. The other hand, the highest homology of amino acids sequence compared with Seoul virus came from strain KS74 is 91.3% and the lowest came from strain KS90 is 89.5%. The analyze protein of three strain which have differences, but did not change of protein structure. There are differences in amino acids if compared to SEOV strains especially for cysteine amino acids that is play a role for formation in disulfide bonds of globular protein structure: the changes affect has expected function of the N protein and viral pathogenicity. Therefore, the study of amino acid effect for differences function of the N protein and viral pathogenicity are required in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hantavirus is a causative agent of rodent-borne viral zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Seoul virus (SEOV) is a causative agent of urban and laboratory rat-associated HFRS worldwide. Surveillance of rodents has been done mainly by serological detection of Hantavirus-specific antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). An immunochromatographic (ICG) test was developed with the N-terminal 103 amino acids of nucleocapsid protein of Hantaan virus expressed by Escherichia coli as an antigen to detect IgG antibody specific to hantavirus in sera from Rattus sp animals. Antibody-detecting sensitivity of the ICG test was the same as that of ELISA and about 100-times higher than that of IFA. Overall sensitivities and specificities of the ICG test in comparison to ELISA and IFA for sera from 192 urban rats and 123 laboratory rats were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. Diluted whole blood samples without separation could be used for the ICG test. The ICG test enabled detection of antibodies to SEOV, Hantaan, Dobrava/Belgrade, and Thailand viruses, which are causative agents of HFRS throughout Eurasia. The ICG test is a rapid, simple and safe method for diagnosis of SEOV infection in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne zoonotic disease caused by hantavirus infection. Many HFRS cases have been reported in East Asia and North Europe, while the situation in Southeast Asia remains unclear. In this study, the prevalence of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in Thousand Islands regency, which is close to the port of Jakarta, one of the largest historic ports in Indonesia, was investigated. A total of 170 rodents were captured in 2005, and 27 (15.9%) of the rodents were antibody-positive against Hantaan virus antigen in an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting. Despite the high prevalence in rodents, human sera collected from 31 patients with fever of unknown origin and 20 healthy volunteers in the islands in 2009 did not show positive reaction to the antigen in IFA. To identify the virus in rodents genetically, a total of 59 rodents were captured in 2009. Sera from the rodents were screened for antibody by ELISA, and lung tissues were subjected to RT-PCR. 20 (33.9%) of the 59 rodents were antibody-positive, and 3 of those 20 rodents were positive for S and M genome segments of hantaviruses. Genetic analysis showed that the viruses belonged to Seoul virus and formed a cluster with those in Vietnam and Singapore. These results suggest that a unique group of Seoul viruses has spread widely in Southeast Asia.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 03/2013; 75(8). DOI:10.1292/jvms.12-0442 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TO THE EDITOR: The bla(NDM-1) gene, which produces the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) enzyme, confers resistance to the carbapenem class of antimicrobial drugs and can be transferred among different types of bacteria. NDM-1 was identified in 2008 in Sweden from a patient from India who had been hospitalized in New Delhi (1). Since that report, bla(NDM-1)-positive bacteria have been identified from patients in several countries; most of these patients had a direct link with the Indian subcontinent (2). The spread of bla(NDM-1) among bacterial pathogens is of concern not only because of resistance to carbapenems but also because such pathogens typically are resistant to multiple antimicrobial drug classes, which leaves few treatment choices available (3-5). In 2011, spread of bla(NDM-1)-positive bacteria in an environmental setting in New Delhi was reported (6).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed serological tools for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies and hantavirus antigens in shrews. The work was focussed to generate Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and anti-shrew immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The mAbs against TPMV nucleocapsid (N) protein were produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant TPMV N proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, baculovirus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-mediated expression systems. In total, six TPMV N-protein-specific mAbs were generated that showed a characteristic fluorescent pattern in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using TPMV-infected Vero cells. Out of the six mAbs tested, five showed no cross-reaction to rodent-associated hantaviruses (Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Tula, Dobrava-Belgrade and Sin Nombre viruses) in IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although one mAb reacted to Sin Nombre virus in IFA. None of the mAbs cross-reacted with an amino-terminal segment of the shrew-borne Asama virus N protein. Anti-shrew-IgG sera were prepared after immunization of rabbits and BALB/c-mice with protein-G-purified shrew IgG. TPMV-N-protein-specific sera were raised by immunisation of Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) with purified yeast-expressed TPMV N protein. Using these tools, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect TPMV-N-protein-specific antibodies in the sera of shrews. Using an established serological assay, high TPMV N protein specific antibody titres were measured in the sera of TPMV-N-protein-immunized and experimentally TPMV-infected shrews, whereas no cross-reactivity to other hantavirus N proteins was found. Therefore, the generated mAbs and the established ELISA system represent useful serological tools to detect TPMV, TPMV-related virus antigens or hantavirus-specific antibodies in hantavirus-infected shrews.
Archives of Virology 07/2012; 157(11). DOI:10.1007/s00705-012-1405-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New World hantaviruses were divided into five groups based on the amino acid sequence variability of the internal variable region (around 230-302 amino acids) of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (NP). Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Andes virus, Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV), Carrizal virus (CARV) and Cano Delgadito virus belong to groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Patient and rodent sera were serotyped successfully by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant truncated NP lacking 99 N-terminal amino acids (trNP100) of SNV, CARV and BCCV. The trNP100 of BCCV showed lower reactivity to heterologous sera. In contrast, whole recombinant NP antigens detected both homologous and heterologous antibodies equally. The results together with results of a previous study suggest that trNP100 can distinguish infections among viruses in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 of New World hantaviruses. The serotyping ELISA with trNP100 is useful for epidemiological surveillance in humans and rodents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the distribution of hantaviruses among animals in Southern and Central Highland area of Vietnam, a total of 1311 serum samples were obtained from rats and Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) captured at 11 locations between 2006 and 2009. A total of 1066 serum samples from rats were examined for IgG antibodies against Hantaan virus, and there were 30 antibody-positive serum samples from rats that had been captured mainly in a port area and urban area in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) (2.8%). All of the antibody-positive rats were Rattus norvegicus, and they had Seoul virus (SEOV) genome in their lungs. SEOV sequences detected from rats captured in Southern Vietnam belonged to the same lineage as those from rats captured at Haiphong Port and a market area in Hanoi City. SEOV strain CSG5 was isolated from a rat captured at Saigon Harbor. Strain CSG5 showed a cross-neutralization pattern almost the same as that of a representative strain of SEOV. A total of 245 Asian house shrews were captured in the Central Highland area and near HCMC. Sera were examined for IgG antibodies against Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), and 32 (13.1%) of the antibody-positive shrews were mainly from the Central Highland area and showed a neutralizing antibody against TPMV. These results indicated that SEOV is distributed among R. norvegicus inhabiting harbor and urban areas of Southern Vietnam and that TPMV or an antigenically related virus is distributed among Asian house shrews in Central Highland area.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 05/2012; 74(9):1155-62. DOI:10.1292/jvms.11-0567 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is an important immunogen that stimulates a strong and cross-reactive immune response in humans and rodents. A large proportion of the response to N protein has been found to target its N-terminus. However, the exact nature of this bias towards the N-terminus is not yet fully understood. We characterized six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the N protein of Montano virus (MTNV), a Mexican hantavirus. Five of these mAbs recognized eight American hantaviruses and six European and Asian hantaviruses, but not the Soricomorpha-borne Thottapalayam hantavirus. The N protein-reactive binding regions of the five mAbs were mapped to discontinuous epitopes within the N-terminal 13-51 amino acid residues, while a single serotype-specific mAb was mapped to residues 1-25 and 49-75. Our findings suggest that discontinuous epitopes at the N-terminus are conserved, at least in rodent-borne hantaviruses, and that they contribute considerably to N protein cross-reactivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hantavirus infection is a new emerging disease in Indonesia that is cause of death in humans. In 2009, a species Seoul virus has been found of Rattus norvegicus in Thousand Islands by serology test. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV) of are RNA viruses negative single stranded from the family Bunyaviridae. Seoul virus has 3 genes, gene S (small) that encodes a protein gene nucleocapsid, M (medium) that encodes glycoprotein's G1 and G2 and L (large) genes that encode RNA dependent RNA polymerase. The translation result of protein showed S gene, which are immunogenic and has conserved region sustainable to be the potential development of a diagnostic test. In this research was conducted gene sequencing S Seoul virus from lung tissue rodent in the Thousand Islands. The arrest of 83 rodents obtained 3 samples by RT-PCR was positive, which has code KS74, KS80 and KS90. The results of sequence were analyze by seqscape program to obtain a sequence of nucleotides, and then used Mega5 programs. The phylogenetic analyze, homology nucleotides and amino acids were compared with the other hanta virus species from gene bank. The result of Phylogenetic tree showed close relations between strain of Thousand Island with Seoul virus of Korean and Singapore. The analyze comparison showed, the highest homology from strain KS74 is 88.4% and the lowest from strain KS90 is 87.2%. The other hand, the highest homology of amino acids sequence compared with Seoul virus came from strain KS74 is 91.3% and the lowest came from strain KS90 is 89.5%. The analyze protein of three strain which have differences, but did not change of protein structure. There are differences in amino acids if compared to SEOV strains especially for cysteine amino acids that is play a role for formation in disulfide bonds of globular protein structure: the changes affect has expected function of the N protein and viral pathogenicity. Therefore, the study of amino acid effect for differences function of the N protein and viral pathogenicity are required in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Truncated recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (trNs) that lack N-terminally located cross-reactive epitopes of four Murinae rodent-associated hantaviruses, Seoul virus (SEOV), Thailand virus, Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus, were produced by using a baculovirus expression system. ELISA with the trNs as antigens enabled serotyping of immune sera from rats experimentally inoculated with the corresponding hantaviruses with cut-off OD values of 60% of those of whole N of HTNV. The trN-based ELISA could serotype 12 out of 13 sera obtained from wild rodents (Rattus norvegicus) naturally infected with SEOV using the 60% cut-off value. These results indicate that screening with whole N followed by serotyping with trNs using a cut-off OD value of 60% of that of whole N is a useful method for serological surveillance of Murinae-associated hantavirus infection among rodents.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 09/2011; 74(2):215-9. DOI:10.1292/jvms.11-0179 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since their emergence in 1996 in southern China, highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have spread widely and continue to circulate in some countries. Genetic reassortment has created multiple H5N1 virus lineages, some of which are dominant in nature. However, the mechanism by which certain H5N1 influenza virus lineages (or genotypes) become dominant in avian species remains unknown. Here, we used competitive inoculation and genetic analysis of the resultant viruses to show that the nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein (M) segments of Fujian-like viruses (clade 2.3.4), which became predominant in southern China in mid-2006, are responsible for viral dominance in embryonated eggs. We further found that specific residues in the NP and M proteins play key roles in conferring this viral dominance; specifically, a glutamic acid at position 66 in M2 was conserved among the Fujian-like viruses. These results suggest roles for these viral proteins in influenza virus dominance.
Journal of General Virology 04/2011; 92(Pt 7):1645-9. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.030247-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tula virus (TULV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) are hantaviruses carried by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and European common vole (Microtus arvalis), respectively. PUUV is a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), while TULV is thought to be apathogenic to humans. The N-terminal regions of the N proteins from TULV and PUUV were expressed and applied as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigens. Colonized Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli) and BALB/c mice were used for experimental inoculation of the vole-borne hantaviruses TULV and PUUV. Voles and mice showed significant antibody production toward both viruses, but these antisera showed little cross-reactivity between TULV and PUUV in the immunofluorescence antibody assay and ELISA. In contrast, sera from patients with HFRS caused by PUUV exhibited high cross-reactivity against the TULV antigen, and sera from a natural rodent reservoir showed moderate cross-reactivity against the heterologous antigen, indicating that the antigenic cross-reactivity between TULV and PUUV differs in sera from rodents and humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Laguna Negra virus (LANV) have been known as the dominant causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). ANDV and LANV, with different patterns of pathogenicity, exist in a sympatric relationship. Moreover, there is documented evidence of person-to-person transmission of ANDV. Therefore, it is important in clinical medicine and epidemiology to know the serotype of a hantavirus causing infection. Truncated SNV, ANDV, and LANV recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (trNs) missing 99 N-terminal amino acids (trN100) were expressed using a baculovirus system, and their applicability for serotyping SNV, ANDV, and LANV infection by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was examined. HPS patient sera and natural-reservoir rodent sera infected with SNV, ANDV, and LANV showed the highest optical density (OD) values for homologous trN100 antigens. Since even patient sera with lower IgM and IgG antibody titers were serotyped, the trN100s are therefore considered useful for serotyping with early-acute-phase sera. In contrast, assays testing whole recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigens of SNV, ANDV, and LANV expressed in Escherichia coli detected homologous and heterologous antibodies equally. These results indicated that a screening ELISA using an E. coli-expressed antigen followed by a serotyping ELISA using trN100s is useful for epidemiological surveillance in regions where two or more hantavirus species cocirculate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of anti-hantavirus antibodies in humans and rodents in northern Vietnam was examined. In total, 837 serum samples from healthy humans (617) and patients with fever (220), living in six different areas were screened for IgG antibodies against Hantaan or Seoul virus (SEOV) by ELISA, IFA, and Western blot analysis. Antibody-positive sera were identified in 7/617 (1.1%) healthy donors, 5/150 port workers in the port of Hai Phong, and 2/185 residents of Ha Nam Province. In comparison, positive sera were detected in 5/220 (2.3%) fever patients in the provinces of Ha Nam (1/58) and Thanh Hoa (4/146). Antibody-positive Rattus norvegicus were found in the provinces of Ha Nam (7/52) and Thanh Hoa (1/67), in Haibatrung District (7/43) in Hanoi, and in Hai Phong Port (21/62), while antibody-positive R. rattus (2/17) were found in Hai Phong Port. Part of the Gc region from the viral genome was amplified by RT-PCR using lung tissue samples from R. norvegicus in Haibatrung (2/7) and Hai Phong Port (7/9), but not from R. rattus (0/2). Viral sequences were located in the SEOV clade and formed a single lineage with Indonesian SEOV, suggesting that Vietnamese SEOV is part of a distinct lineage among Asian SEOVs.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 10/2009; 71(10):1357-63. DOI:10.1292/jvms.001357 · 0.88 Impact Factor