Yi-Chen Chen

National Taiwan University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (68)200.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that overconsumption of ethanol contributes in many ways to the pathogenesis of hepatic injury. Although studies indicate that taurine decreases lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, the protective effect of taurine against alcohol-induced liver injury is still unclear. To clarify the precise signaling involved in the beneficial effect of taurine on alcohol-induced liver injury, rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) control (Ctl), (2) alcohol (Alc), (3) Alc+taurine (Tau), and (4) Alc+silymarin (Sil). The Tau and Sil groups had lower lymphocyte infiltration and significantly lower TLR-4/MyD88 and IκB/NFκB compared to the Alc group. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were also significantly lower in the Tau and Sil groups than in the Alc group. The experimental results indicated that hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced inflammation may be mediated by decreased TLR-4/MyD88 signaling.
    Journal of medicinal food 06/2015; DOI:10.1089/jmf.2014.3408 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular and liver protection of carnitine (CNT) in a high-fat diet was investigated. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into four groups: 1) CON: Control, 2) HFD: high-fat diet, 3) CNTL: HFD + 500 mg CNT/kg BW, and 4) CNTH: HFD + 1500 mg CNT/kg BW. After a 25-week experimental period, CNT supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) serum triacylglycerol (TAG), cholesterol (TC) and LDLC/HDLC ratio, and liver TAG contents. CNT supplementation downregulated (p < 0.05) gene expressions of lipogenesis, but upregulated (p < 0.05) gene expressions of cholesterol clearance/catabolism and energy expenditure. Serum trolox equivalent antioxidants capacity (TEAC), and liver glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activity of HFD fed mice were also increased (p < 0.05) by CNT supplementation. Besides, proinflammation related gene expressions (Tlr4 and Nfκb) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) contents in livers of HFD fed mice were also decreased (p < 0.05) by CNT supplementation. Furthermore, in comparison with the ameliorative effects of two-dosage CNT treatments on dyslipidemic and hepatic disorders induced by a high-fat diet, low dosage of CNT seems more effective than high dosage of CNT.
    Journal of Functional Foods 05/2015; 15:497-508. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2015.04.007 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-Glucuronolactone (C6H8O6, lactone), naturally found in plant gums, is commercially acclaimed for its hepatoprotective effects. This study was to investigate whether lactone can attenuate thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in a rat model. Results showed that lactone supplementation (75 mg kg−1 bw glucuronolactone) alleviated AST values in TAA-intraperitoneally-injected rats (100 mg kg−1 bw TAA) and increased antioxidant capacity of liver via elevations of antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], glutathione (GSH) and trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC) levels (p < 0.05). Down-regulated (p < 0.05) expression of inflammation including interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF-6), and fibrosis related fibrotic factors, i.e., alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen alpha1 (I) (COLα1) through lactone supplementation underlay the lower collagen contents and less severe liver damage on histopathology observations. Therefore, hepatoprotection of lactone against TAA-induced liver fibrosis can be attributed to the amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation.
    Journal of Functional Foods 04/2015; 14:154-162. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2015.01.026 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs). The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w) were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values but increased (p < 0.05) thiol group contents in meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p < 0.05) texture and water-holding capacity (centrifugation/purge losses) more than in the control group upon the storage. Although LF powders made meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05) than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05) overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products.
    Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jfda.2015.02.004 · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Black vinegar (BV) contains abundant essential and hydrophobic amino acids, and polyphenolic contents, especially catechin and chlorogenic acid via chemical analyses. K and Mg are the major minerals in BV, and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Se are also measured. After a 9-week experiment, high-fat/cholesterol-diet (HFCD) fed hamsters had higher (p < 0.05) weight gains, relative visceral-fat sizes, serum/liver lipids, and serum cardiac indices than low-fat/cholesterol diet (LFCD) fed ones, but BV supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) them which may resulted from the higher (p < 0.05) faecal TAG and TC contents. Serum ALT value, and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hepatic TNF-α and IL-1β contents in HFCD-fed hamsters were reduced (p < 0.05) by supplementing BV due to increased (p < 0.05) hepatic glutathione (GSH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels, and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Taken together, the component profiles of BV contributed the lipid lowering and antioxidant effects on HFCD fed hamsters.
    Food Chemistry 02/2015; 168:63–69. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.035 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    Kou-Tai Yang · Chen Lin · Cheng-Wei Liu · Yi-Chen Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The contents of free hydrophobic amino acids, taurine and carnosine/anserine were elevated after hydrolyzing chicken livers by pepsin and compared to dried chicken livers. Chicken-liver-hydrolysates (CLHs) exhibited in vitro inhibitory lipase activity and bile-acid binding ability (p < 0.05). Forty-eight male hamsters were assigned randomly to the following groups: (1) chow diet; (2) high-fat diet (HFD); (3) HFD and 100 mg CLH/kg BW; (4) HFD and 200 mg CLH/kg BW; (5) HFD and 400 mg CLH/kg BW; (6) HFD and 200 mg carnosine/kg BW. CLHs alleviated (p < 0.05) serum oxidative stress and improved (p < 0.05) the serum lipid profile in the high-fat dietary groups; meanwhile, improved (p < 0.05) antioxidant abilities and decreased (p < 0.05) lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and TNF-α/IL-1β levels in the livers. These benefits might result from regulations of lipid homeostasis and increased faecal bile-acid outputs (p < 0.05). Hence, lipid-homeostasis and antioxidant abilities of CLHs in the high-fat dietary habit were demonstrated and were similar to pure carnosine.
    Food Chemistry 10/2014; 160:148–156. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.052 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Caffeate derivatives have been reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. To reveal the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of caffeate derivatives, we studied the effects of octyl, phenylpropyl, and decyl caffeates on cell growth and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 human lung carcinoma cells were treated with 0–100 μM of caffeate derivatives for 0–48 hours. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were evaluated by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cell viability, propidium iodide staining method for cell morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, and Western blot for protein expression. Results Octyl, phenylpropyl, and decyl caffeates all significantly decreased the cell viability of A549 cells with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 54.2 ± 10.1 μM, 80.2 ± 1.3 μM, and 74.9 ± 2.1 μM, respectively. Propidium iodide staining revealed that apoptotic bodies appeared when cells were treated with octyl and decyl caffeates. Treatment of A549 cells with octyl and decyl caffeates caused the loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Western blots revealed that octyl and decyl caffeates stimulate an increase in the protein levels of Fas, FasL, and Apaf-1. Moreover, these compounds changed the levels of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and induced the activation of caspase-12, -9, and -3, which was followed by cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Conclusion These results demonstrate that octyl and decyl caffeates induce cell apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 10/2014; 77(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2014.05.011 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG) and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only); Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection); Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine); and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine). The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P < 0.05) change in the mean scotopic b-wave amplitude when compared to that of Group I, whereas the diabetic rabbits treated with taurine (Group III and IV) were analogous to Group I. Histologically, the amount of Bipolar and Müller cells showed no difference (P > 0.05) between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 09/2014; 2014:631549. DOI:10.1155/2014/631549 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if methanolic extract of black garlic (MEBG) has antiobesity effects via regulating lipid metabolism in an animal model. The results indicate that supplementation with MEBG decreased the final body weight; the relative masses of the liver and fat tissues; serum triacylglyceride levels; and hepatic oxidative stress and increased faecal lipid contents in HFD rats. Supplementation with MEBG upregulated AMPK, FOXO1, Sirt1, ATGL, HSL, perilipin, ACO, CPT-1, and UCP1 in the adipose tissues of HFD rats, whereas it downregulated CD36. Meanwhile, MEBG upregulated adiponectin and downregulated PAI-1, resistin, TNF-α, and GLUT4 in the adipose tissues of HFD rats. Regarding hepatic gene expression, MEBG upregulated AMPK, Sirt1, and PPARα but downregulated SREBP-1c, ACC, FAS, and SCD1. Therefore, MEBG can be developed as a potential nutraceutical ingredient for the prevention of obesity in a niche market.
    Journal of Functional Foods 07/2014; 9(1):98–108. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.02.019 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports have suggested that many constituents within various algal samples are able to attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory effects. To date no report has been published on the regulation of virus-induced inflammatory response of Dunaliella salina carotenoid extract. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on pseudorabies virus (PRV)-infected RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of D. salina carotenoid extract on PRV-infected RAW 264.7 cells by measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, COX-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-virus replication by plaque assay. We found down-regulation of the expression of the iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory genes IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no effect on viral replication, there were tendencies toward lower virus titer and tendencies toward higher cell survival. Most importantly, we found that inhibition of TLR9, PI3K and Akt phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the extract-mediated NF-κB regulation by modulating IKK-IκB signaling in PRV-infected RAW264.7 cells. These results indicate that D. salina carotenoid extracts inhibited inflammation by inhibition of NF-κB activation by TLR9 dependent via PI3K/Akt inactivation.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.026 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower ethanolic extract (LFEE) contained five flavanoids (total amount,102.73 ± 5.50 mg/g of dried extract (gDE)), nine phenolic acids (total amount, 60.31 ± 4.52 mg/ gDE) and proanthocyanidin A2 (79.31 ± 2.95 mg/ gDE). LFEE was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. Results show that LFEE treatment could suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) productions, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) secretions in the LPS-mediated RAW264.7 cells. The attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by LFEE was closely related to inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50/p65 subunits translocation correlated with suppressing inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) α/β activation, and down-regulation of activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2014; 62(15). DOI:10.1021/jf5003705 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pleurotus eryngii, a popular edible mushroom in Taiwan, is usually cultivated using sawdust medium packing bags through several procedures including culture medium confection, bagging and sterilization, spawn inoculation, fostering mycelia, full growth of mycelia, and inducing fruiting body formation. In this study, P. eryngii commercial products harvested at the 10th, 12th and 15th days after inducing the fruiting body formation were extracted with ethanol, individually. Through determination of chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts, the optimal harvest time of P. eryngii fruiting bodies with higher functional attributes was revealed. The earlier harvested sample extracts had higher effects for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, reducing power, chelating power, and beta-carotene bleaching inhibition, as well as down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide, prostaglandin E-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. These functional responses were closely related to levels of phytochemical components including phenolic acids, flavonoids, tocopherols and carotenoids.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 01/2014; 55(1):374-382. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2013.08.023 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Chung-Hsi Chou · Sheng-Yao Wang · Yi-Tsen Lin · Yi-Chen Chen
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    ABSTRACT: This study was divided into two parts: (i) an optimal hydrolysing procedure of chicken liver hydrolysates (CLHs) and (ii) the in vivo antioxidant properties of CLHs via a D-galactose-induced mouse model. A pepsin-to-raw chicken liver mass ratio (1:400, w:w) and 2-h hydrolysing period were chosen to manufacture CLHs based on yield, peptide level and antioxidant effect. Molecular masses of CLHs were lower than 10 kDa. CLH was rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and also contained both manganese and selenium, which are essential cofactors of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, respectively. The contents of cadmium, mercury, tin, and arsenic in CLHs were very low and even no detectible. Regarding the in vivo antioxidant activity of CLHs, a dosage of 1.2 g D-galactose kg−1 body weight increased (P < 0.05) 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values and decreased (P < 0.05) glutathione and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in serum and organs of mice. However, the in vivo antioxidant capacities were improved (P < 0.05) by supplementing CLHs.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 12/2013; 49(7). DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12471 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study was to explore protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) Control: control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) Alcohol: alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X: alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X: alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X: alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p<0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p<0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only downregulated (p<0.05) lipogenesis but also upregulated (p<0.05) fatty-acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p<0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p<0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p<0.05) TBARS value, and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and antiinflammatory responses.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2013; 61(46). DOI:10.1021/jf4038419 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.
    Food Chemistry 09/2013; 140(1-2):31-8. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.035 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) commonly results from excessive dietary fat intake which characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. Wild fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata (AC) was assayed for alleviative effects on NAFLD. An NAFLD animal model was successfully established in male 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 36 weeks. The HFD mice exhibited obese and impaired glucose metabolism. After an induction of NAFLD syndrome, AC was given for one week via gavage. Mice with AC treatment showed lowered (p < 0.05) serum TG and TC, lowered (p < 0.05) liver TG content, improved (p < 0.05) oxidative status (TBARS values and GSH levels), and ameliorated (p < 0.05) liver damage (AST, ALT, and LDH values). In addition, AC activated (p < 0.05) gene expressions of PPAR-a with its downstream genes in the liver and caused higher (p < 0.05) rectal temperature, which showed AC attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation by promoting lipid oxidation and further suggests the role of AC in energy expenditure. Overall, our findings revealed that AC possesses alleviative effect on NAFLD.
    Journal of Functional Foods 07/2013; 5(3):1317-1325. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2013.04.019 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Litchi flower-water extract (LFWE) contains plenty of phenolic acids, flavonoids, condensed tannins, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins. In this study, we used eight male rats per group that were assigned randomly to one of the following dietary group: (1) normal-caloric diet and distilled water; (2) hypercaloric diet (HCD) and distilled water; (3) HCD and 2.5% LFWE; (4) HCD and 5% LFWE for 10 weeks. As results, LFWEs demonstrated a suppressive (p < 0.05) effect on in vitro lipase activities; meanwhile, larger sizes of livers, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in hypercaloric-diet-fed group were decreased (p < 0.05) by drinking LFWEs, especially in 5% LFWE-treated groups. Increased (p < 0.05) serum cholesterol and liver lipid levels were measured in hypercaloric-diet-fed rats. However, drinking LFWEs also decreased (p < 0.05) those levels to that similar to the NCD group, whereas drinking LFWEs resulted in higher (p < 0.05) faecal lipid concentrations. It also corresponded to the liver TNF-α and IL-1β values which were ameliorated (p < 0.05) in hypercaloric-diet-fed rats with LFWEs. Therefore, the result of this investigation match the anticipation, which LFWE indeed possesses a potential nutraceuticals for anti-obesity effects.
    Journal of Functional Foods 04/2013; 5(2):923-929. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.002 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The carotenoid extract from Dunaliella salina was used to evaluate the suppressive effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. The extract composed all-trans forms of alpha-carotene (28.8 mg/g extract), beta-carotene (471.1 mg/g extract), lutein (7.1 mg/g extract) and zeaxanthin (7.2 mg/g extract), 13- or 13'-cis-beta-carotene (12.1 mg/g extract), 9- or 9'-cis-alpha-carotene (19.1 mg/g extract) and 9- or 9'-cis-beta-carotene (440.3 mg/g extract) dose-dependently reduced the production of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Its attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory responses was closely related to inhibition of the nuclear NF-kappa B p50 subunit translocation by blocking inhibitor of kappa B alpha (I kappa B) phosphorylation and degradation correlated with suppressing I kappa B kinase (IKK) alpha/beta phosphorylation, as well as down-regulation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Functional Foods 04/2013; 5(2):607-615. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2013.01.001 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis is defined as excessive amounts of triglyceride and other fats inside liver cells and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing countries. Deep seawater (DSW)300, DSW900, and DSW1500 drinking waters were formulated via a combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Hamsters on a high-fat diet were assigned to drink the following solutions: (1) normal distilled water, (2) DSW300, (3) DSW900, or (4) DSW1500. Serum, liver, and fecal biochemical values, expression of hepatic genes related to fatty-acid homeostasis, as well as liver antioxidative levels were measured after a 6-week feeding period. Additionally, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to investigate the liver histopathology. Serum/liver lipids, liver sizes, liver malondialdehyde content, and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of high-fat diet hamsters were reduced (p < 0.05) by drinking DSW, while daily fecal lipid and bile acid outputs were increased (p < 0.05). DSW drinking water maintained (p < 0.05) higher liver glutathione and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels. Although hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and malic enzyme gene expression were not (p > 0.05) altered, DSW drinking water upregulated (p < 0.05) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, and uncoupling protein-2 gene expression in high-fat diet hamsters. The lipid droplets in livers were also reduced in DSW-drinking-water groups as compared to those only drinking distilled water. DSW shows a preventive effect on development of hepatosteatosis induced by a high-fat diet.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 02/2013; 76(2):95-101. DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2012.10.008 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gentisic acid and epicatechin are two major compounds in phenolic acids and flavonoids of litchi-flower-water extracts (LFWEs), respectively. Increased (p < 0.05) serum lipids and liver size/lipid, damage/inflammatory indices, TBARS value, CRP level, MMP-9 activity, and decreased (p < 0.05) liver GSH and TEAC levels, and SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities were observed in high-fat-diet fed hamsters compared to normal-fat-dietary hamsters. Those biochemical values of high-fat-diet fed hamsters were significant improved (p < 0.05) by drinking LFWEs. In addition, these improvements on liver damage induced by a high-fat diet were also evidenced in the histopathological examination of livers where less microvesicular steatosis and no necrotic/inflammatory cells were observed in high-fat-diet fed hamster drinking LFWEs. Therefore, protective effects of LFWEs on liver damage of high-fat-diet fed hamsters can be accounted for antioxidative properties and anti-inflammatory effects of LFWEs.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2013; 5(1):44–52. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2012.08.002 · 4.48 Impact Factor