Hanyu Ni

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (29)174.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The extent to which the relative contributions of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) may have changed over time remains unclear.
    Circulation 09/2014; 130(10):820-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data on acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) that develops after hospital admission. This study sought to compare patient characteristics, co-morbidities, mortality, and length of stay by timing of ADHF onset. The surveillance component of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (2005 to 2011) sampled, abstracted, and adjudicated hospitalizations with select International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification discharge codes from 4 United States communities among those aged ≥55 years. We included 5,602 validated ADHF hospitalizations further classified as preadmission or postadmission onset. Vital status was assessed up to 1 year since admission. We estimated multivariate-adjusted associations of in-hospital mortality and 28- and 365-day case fatalities with timing of ADHF onset (postadmission vs preadmission). All analyses were weighted to account for the stratified sampling design. Of 25,862 weighted ADHF hospitalizations, 7% had postadmission onset of ADHF. Patients with postadmission ADHF were more likely to be older, white, and women. The most common primary discharge diagnosis codes for those with postadmission ADHF included diseases of the circulatory or digestive systems or infectious diseases. Short-term mortality among postadmission ADHF was almost 3 times that of preadmission ADHF (in-hospital mortality: odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 3.9; 28-day case fatality: odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 3.7). The average hospital stay was almost twice as long among postadmission as preadmission ADHF (9.6 vs 5.0 days). In conclusion, postadmission onset of ADHF is characterized by differences in co-morbidities and worse short-term prognosis, and opportunities for reducing postadmission ADHF occurrence and associated risks need to be studied.
    The American journal of cardiology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Studies document a progressive increase in heart disease risk as systolic blood pressure (SBP) rises above 115 mm Hg, but it is unknown whether an SBP lower than 120 mm Hg among adults with hypertension (HTN) lowers heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction risk. OBJECTIVE To examine the risk of incident cardiovascular (CV) events among adults with HTN according to 3 SBP levels: 140 mm Hg or higher; 120 to 139 mm Hg; and a reference level of lower than 120 mm Hg. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 4480 participants with HTN but without prevalent CV disease at baseline (years 1987-1989) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study were included. Measurements of SBP were taken at baseline and at 3 triennial visits; SBP was treated as a time-dependent variable and categorized as elevated (≥140 mm Hg), standard (120-139 mm Hg), and low (<120 mm Hg). Multivariable Cox regression models included baseline age, sex, diabetes status, BMI, high cholesterol level, smoking status, and alcohol intake. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident composite CV events (heart failure, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death related to coronary heart disease). RESULTS After a median follow-up of 21.8 years, a total of 1622 incident CV events had occurred. Participants with elevated SBP developed incident CV events at a significantly higher rate than those in the low BP group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.26-1.69). However, there was no difference in incident CV event-free survival among those in the standard vs low SBP group (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.85-1.17). Further adjustment for BP medication use or diastolic BP did not significantly affect the results. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with HTN, having an elevated SBP carries the highest risk for cardiovascular events, but in this categorical analysis, once SBP was below 140 mm Hg, an SBP lower than 120 mm Hg did not appear to lessen the risk of incident CV events.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 06/2014; · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most population-based estimates of incident hospitalized heart failure (HF) have not differentiated acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) from chronic stable HF nor included racially diverse populations. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study conducted surveillance of hospitalized HF events (age ≥55 years) in 4 US communities. We estimated hospitalized ADHF incidence and survival by race and gender. Potential 2005 to 2009 HF hospitalizations were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes; 6,168 records were reviewed to validate ADHF cases. Population estimates were derived from US Census data; 50% of eligible hospitalizations were classified as ADHF, of which 63.6% were incident ADHF and 36.4% were recurrent ADHF. The average incidence of hospitalized ADHF was 11.6 per 1,000 persons, aged ≥55 years, per year, and recurrent hospitalized ADHF was 6.6 per 1,000 persons/yr. Age-adjusted annual ADHF incidence was highest for black men (15.7 per 1,000), followed by black women (13.3 per 1,000), white men (12.3 per 1,000), and white women (9.9 per 1,000). Of incident ADHF events with heart function assessment (89%), 53% had reduced the ejection fraction (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]) and 47% had preserved ejection fraction (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF]). Black men had the highest proportion of acute HFrEF events (70%); white women had the highest proportion of acute HFpEF (59%). Age-adjusted 28-day and 1-year case fatality after an incident ADHF was 10.4% and 29.5%, respectively. Survival did not differ by race or gender. In conclusion, ADHF hospitalization and HF type varied by both race and gender, but case fatality rates did not. Further studies are needed to explain why black men are at higher risk of hospitalized ADHF and HFrEF.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Heart failure (HF) is an important public health concern particularly among persons over 65 years of age. Women and African Americans are critically understudied populations that carry a sizeable portion of the HF burden. Limited normative and prognostic data exist regarding measures of cardiac structure, diastolic function, and novel measures of systolic deformation in older adults living in the community. -The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is a large, predominantly biracial NHLBI-sponsored epidemiologic cohort study. Between 2011 and 2013, approximately 6,000 surviving participants, now in their seventh to ninth decade of life, are expected to return for a 5(th) study visit during which comprehensive 2D, Doppler, tissue Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography will be performed uniformly in all cohort clinic visit participants. The following objectives will be addressed: (1) to characterize cardiac structural and functional abnormalities among the elderly and determine how these differ by gender and race/ethnicity, (2) determine the relationship between ventricular and vascular abnormalities, and (3) prospectively examine the extent to which these non-invasive measures associate with incident HF. -We describe the design, imaging acquisition and analysis methods, and quality assurance metrics for echocardiography in Visit 5 of the ARIC cohort. A better understanding of the differences in cardiac structure and function through the spectrum of HF stages in the elderly generally, and between genders and racial/ethnic groups specifically, will deepen our understanding of the pathophysiology driving HF progression in these at-risk populations and may inform novel prevention or therapeutic strategies.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2013; · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13 340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women and 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure to risk for coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log-likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 coronary heart disease events, 1669 heart failure events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during 18±5 years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were the following: systolic BP for coronary heart disease (AUC=0.74); pulse pressure for heart failure (AUC=0.79); systolic BP for stroke (AUC=0.74); and pulse pressure for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes.
    Hypertension 07/2013; · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -An algorithm to classify heart failure (HF) endpoints inclusive of contemporary measures of biomarkers and echocardiography was recently proposed by an international expert panel. Our objective was to assess agreement of HF classification by this contemporaneous algorithm with that by a standardized physician reviewer panel, when applied to data abstracted from community-based hospital records. METHODS AND RESULTS: -During 2005-2007, all hospitalizations were identified from four U.S. communities under surveillance as part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Potential HF hospitalizations were sampled by ICD discharge codes and demographics from men and women aged 55 years and older. The HF classification algorithm was automated and applied to 2,729 (N=13,854 weighted hospitalizations) hospitalizations in which either BNP measures or ejection fraction were documented (mean age 75 years). There were 1,403 (54%, N=7,534 weighted) events classified as acute, decompensated HF (ADHF) by the automated algorithm, and 1,748 (68%, N=9,276 weighted) such events by the ARIC reviewer panel. The chance-corrected agreement between ADHF by physician reviewer panel and the automated algorithm was moderate (Kappa=0.39). Sensitivity and specificity of the automated algorithm with ARIC reviewer panel as the referent standard was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.67 - 0.69), and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.74 - 0.76), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: -Although the automated classification improved efficiency and decreased costs, its accuracy in classifying HF hospitalizations was modest compared to a standardized physician reviewer panel.
    Circulation Heart Failure 05/2013; · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: US birth and longer length of US residence among the foreign-born have been linked to higher anthropometric measures. However, previous studies have been cross sectional and few have examined heterogeneity by ethnic group. Cross-sectional findings that show immigrant weight converging to US-born levels with longer time in the United States imply that immigrants' weight is increasing at a faster rate relative to US-born individuals. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this pattern. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using longitudinal data from 1,486 Hispanic and 802 Chinese adults aged 45-84 years in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined whether foreign-born participants experienced greater increases in BMI and waist circumference (WC) than the US-born over a median follow-up of 5 years. We also investigated heterogeneity in these associations by Hispanic subgroup. RESULTS: Among Hispanics and Chinese, the foreign-born had a lower adjusted mean BMI and WC at baseline than the US-born, but there were no significant differences in BMI or WC change over time. There was heterogeneity by Hispanic subgroup: despite small baseline nativity differences in WC, foreign-born Mexican Hispanics had a greater annual mean increase in WC over time compared to US-born Mexican Hispanics (mean difference in annual change = 0.28 cm, P = 0.03). There were no nativity differences in the rate of WC increase over time among non-Mexican Hispanics. Foreign-born Mexican Hispanics also experienced a faster rate of WC increase compared to foreign-born non-Mexican Hispanics (mean difference in annual change = 0.24 cm, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Longer time in the United States, examined prospectively, may only be linked to adverse anthropometric changes in some immigrant groups.
    Obesity 10/2012; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and effective heart failure (HF) risk score would facilitate the primary prevention and early diagnosis of HF in general practice. We examined the external validity of existing HF risk scores, optimized a 10-year HF risk function, and examined the incremental value of several biomarkers, including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. During 15.5 years (210 102 person-years of follow-up), 1487 HF events were recorded among 13 555 members of the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort. The area under curve from the Framingham-published, Framingham-recalibrated, Health ABC HF recalibrated, and ARIC risk scores were 0.610, 0.762, 0.783, and 0.797, respectively. On addition of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, the optimism-corrected area under curve of the ARIC HF risk score increased from 0.773 (95% CI, 0.753-0.787) to 0.805 (95% CI, 0.792-0.820). Inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide improved the overall classification of recalibrated Framingham, recalibrated Health ABC, and ARIC risk scores by 18%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. In contrast, cystatin C or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not add toward incremental risk prediction. The ARIC HF risk score is more parsimonious yet performs slightly better than the extant risk scores in predicting 10-year risk of incident HF. The inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide markedly improves HF risk prediction. A simplified risk score restricted to a patient's age, race, sex, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide performs comparably to the full score (area under curve, 0.745) and is suitable for automated reporting from laboratory panels and electronic medical records.
    Circulation Heart Failure 05/2012; 5(4):422-9. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of trends in the incidence of and survival after myocardial infarction (MI) in a community setting is important to understanding trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates. We estimated race- and gender-specific trends in the incidence of hospitalized MI, case fatality, and CHD mortality from community-wide surveillance and validation of hospital discharges and of in- and out-of-hospital deaths among 35- to 74-year-old residents of 4 communities in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Biomarker adjustment accounted for change from reliance on cardiac enzymes to widespread use of troponin measurements over time. During 1987-2008, a total of 30 985 fatal or nonfatal hospitalized acute MI events occurred. Rates of CHD death among persons without a history of MI fell an average 4.7%/y among men and 4.3%/y among women. Rates of both in- and out-of-hospital CHD death declined significantly throughout the period. Age- and biomarker-adjusted average annual rate of incident MI decreased 4.3% among white men, 3.8% among white women, 3.4% among black women, and 1.5% among black men. Declines in CHD mortality and MI incidence were greater in the second decade (1997-2008). Failure to account for biomarker shift would have masked declines in incidence, particularly among blacks. Age-adjusted 28-day case fatality after hospitalized MI declined 3.5%/y among white men, 3.6%/y among black men, 3.0%/y among white women, and 2.6%/y among black women. Although these findings from 4 communities may not be directly generalizable to blacks and whites in the entire United States, we observed significant declines in MI incidence, primarily as a result of downward trends in rates between 1997 and 2008.
    Circulation 03/2012; 125(15):1848-57. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Racial and gender disparities in out-of-hospital deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) have been well-documented, yet disparities by neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) have been less systematically studied in US population-based surveillance efforts. We examined the association of nSES, classified into tertiles, with 3,743 out-of-hospital fatal CHD events, and a subset of 2,191 events classified as sudden, among persons aged 35 to 74 years in four US communities under surveillance by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC). Poisson generalized linear mixed models generated age-, race- (white, black) and gender-specific standardized mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (RR, 95% CI). Regardless of nSES measure used, inverse associations of nSES with all out-of-hospital fatal CHD and sudden fatal CHD were seen in all race-gender groups. The magnitude of these associations was larger among women than men. Further, among blacks, associations of low nSES (vs. high nSES) were stronger for sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) than for all out-of-hospital fatal CHD. Low nSES was associated with an increased risk of out-of-hospital CHD death and SCD. Measures of the neighborhood context are useful tools in population-based surveillance efforts for documenting and monitoring socioeconomic disparities in mortality over time.
    Annals of epidemiology 04/2011; 21(8):580-8. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies document racial variation, gender differences, and socioeconomic status (SES) patterning in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors but few studies have investigated heterogeneity in SES differences by race/ethnicity or gender. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N=6,814) and stratified regression models, we investigated race/ethnic differences in the SES patterning of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and BMI were observed in White and Black women but associations were weaker or absent in Hispanic and Chinese women (except in the case of diabetes for Hispanic women). Even greater heterogeneity in social patterning of risk factors was observed in men. In White men all four risk factors were inversely associated with socioeconomic position, although often associations were only present or were stronger for education than for income. The inverse socioeconomic patterning was much less consistent in men of other races/ethnic groups, and higher SES was associated with higher BMI in non-White men. These findings have implications for understanding the causes of social patterning, for the analysis of SES adjusted race/ethnic differences, and for the targeting of interventions.
    Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 02/2011; 22(1):111-27. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nativity and years living in the U.S. have been linked to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among immigrants. Few have examined heterogeneity in this relationship. Doing so may inform how social processes that relate to different immigrant integration patterns impact obesity. Using baseline data from 802 Mexican-Americans, 694 Non-Mexican-American Hispanics, and 803 Chinese-Americans aged 45-84 in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002), we investigated whether the association of nativity (U.S. vs. foreign-birth) and years of U.S. residence (<10, ≥ 10 years) with clinically-measured BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) varied first by race/ethnicity, then by gender or education within race/ethnic groups. Controlling for age, gender, education, and income, U.S. birth was significantly associated with a higher mean BMI and WC among non-Mexican-American Hispanics (mean differences (95% confidence intervals) (BMI: 2.57 (1.27-3.87); WC: 7.76 (4.35-11.16)), Chinese-Americans (BMI: 1.67 (0.44-2.89); WC: 4.75 (1.10-8.40)), and Mexican-Americans only for BMI (0.95 (0.05-1.84)) (p-interaction=0.01 (WC)). Among the foreign-born, greater time in the U.S. was only significantly associated with higher mean BMI and WC among Mexican-Americans (BMI: 1.80 (0.45-3.14); WC: 3.95 (0.70-7.21)). The association of nativity with BMI/WC varied significantly by education and gender only among non-Mexican-Americans. Specifically, foreign birth was no longer protective against higher BMI/WC among males (p-interaction=0.06) and the less educated (p-interaction=0.02). These results confirm that greater acculturation is related to higher BMI and WC but the strength and presence of this relationship differs by ethnicity, gender, and education. This heterogeneity should be considered in research on health consequences of immigration.
    138st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2010; 11/2010
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    ABSTRACT: The authors used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and latent trajectory class modeling to determine patterns of neighborhood poverty over 20 years (1980-2000 residential history questionnaires were geocoded and linked to US Census data). Using these patterns, the authors examined 1) whether trajectories of neighborhood poverty were associated with differences in the amount of subclinical atherosclerosis (common carotid intimal-media thickness) and 2) associated risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking) at baseline (January 2000-August 2002). The authors found evidence of 5 stable trajectory groups with differing levels of neighborhood poverty ( approximately 6%, 12%, 20%, 30%, and 45%) and 1 group with 29% poverty in 1980 and approximately 11% in 2000. Mostly for women, higher cumulative neighborhood poverty was generally significantly associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Trends generally persisted after adjustment for adulthood socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity, although they were no longer statistically significant. Among women who had moved during the 20 years, the long-term measure had stronger associations with outcomes (except smoking) than a single, contemporaneous measure. Results indicate that cumulative 20-year exposure to neighborhood poverty is associated with greater cardiovascular risk for women. In residentially mobile populations, single-point-in-time measures underestimate long-term effects.
    American journal of epidemiology 05/2010; 171(10):1099-108. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) promoter regions alter the transcriptional activity of MMPs and has been consistently associated with CHD, presumably through plaque degradation and remodeling. We examined the association of MMP promoter variation with multiple plaque characteristics measured by gadolinium-enhanced MRI among 1700 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI Study. For the analyses presented here, 1700 participants of the biracial ARIC Carotid MRI Study ( approximately 1000 participants with thick carotid artery walls and approximately 700 randomly sampled participants) were evaluated for associations of MMP genetic variation with multiple plaque characteristics, including carotid artery wall thickness, lipid core and fibrous cap measures. MRI studies were performed on a 1.5T scanner equipped with a bilateral 4-element phased array carotid coil. Fifty-one percent of the participants were female, 77% white, 23% African American, and the mean age was 70 years. MMP2 C-1306T variant genotypes (CT+TT) were significantly associated with higher cap thickness measures, but not with wall thickness or lipid core measures. Individuals with the CC genotype had approximately 0.1mm thinner cap thickness compared to those carrying a T allele (P=0.02). Genetic variation within the MMP2 promoter region was associated with cap thickness and therefore may influence the role of MMP2 in plaque vulnerability.
    Atherosclerosis 05/2010; 210(1):188-93. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methods to index left ventricular (LV) mass, measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), for body size have not been investigated. The purposes of this study were to develop allometric indices for LV mass measured by CMR and compare estimates of the prevalence and predictive value of LV hypertrophy defined by a new allometric height-weight index, LV mass/body surface area (BSA), height indices (a new allometric height index; and previously derived indices from echocardiographic measurements: LV mass/height(2), LV mass/height(2.7)), and non-indexed LV mass. 5,004 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with CMR measurements of LV mass and no clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for a median of 4.1 years. The new indices and limits for hypertrophy (95th percentile) were derived from 822 normal-weight, normotensive, non-diabetic MESA participants. 107 events (coronary heart disease or stroke) were observed. The estimated prevalence of hypertrophy at baseline and hazard ratio for event associated with hypertrophy were 8% and 2.4 with the new allometric height-weight index, 11% and 2.2 with LV mass/BSA, 23-24% and 2.0-2.1 with height indices, and 20% and 1.7 with non-indexed LV mass. A statistically significant difference was detected between the hazard ratios based on the new height-weight index and non-indexed LV mass. The prevalence of hypertrophy is higher for indices that do not account for weight. The predictive value of hypertrophy is significantly better with the new allometric height-weight index than with non-indexed LV mass and may be better than indices without weight.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 04/2010; 26(4):459-68. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although studies of the accuracy of heart failure (HF) classification scoring systems are available, few have examined their performance when restricted to self-reported items. We evaluated the association between a simplified version of the Gothenburg score, a validated HF score comprised of cardiac and pulmonary signs and symptoms and medication use, and incident HF hospitalizations in 15,430 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants. Gothenburg scores (range: 0-3) were constructed using self-reported items obtained at study baseline (1987-89). Incident HF hospitalization over 14.7 years of follow-up was defined as the first identified hospitalization with an ICD-9 discharge code of 428 (n = 1,668). Self-reported Gothenburg scores demonstrated very high agreement with the original metric comprised of self-reported and clinical measures and were directly associated with incident HF hospitalizations: [score = 1: hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 1.23 (1.07-1.42); score = 2: HRR = 2.17 (1.92-2.43); score = 3: HRR = 3.98 (3.37-4.70)]. In a population-based cohort, self-reported Gothenburg criteria items were associated with hospitalized HF over a prolonged follow-up time. The association was also consistent across groups defined by sex and race, suggesting that this simple score deserves further study as a screening tool for the identification of individuals at high risk of HF in resource-limited settings.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 03/2010; 12(3):232-8. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of vascular disease, and increased levels of the inflammatory biomarkers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke. In a prospective case-cohort (n=949) study in 12 762 apparently healthy, middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we first examined whether Lp-PLA(2) and hs-CRP levels improved the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for 5-year ischemic stroke risk. We then examined how Lp-PLA(2) and hs-CRP levels altered classification of individuals into low-, intermediate-, or high-risk categories compared with traditional risk factors. In a model using traditional risk factors alone, the AUC adjusted for optimism was 0.732, whereas adding hs-CRP improved the AUC to 0.743, and adding Lp-PLA(2) significantly improved the AUC to 0.752. Addition of hs-CRP and Lp-PLA(2) together in the model improved the AUC to 0.761, and the addition of the interaction between Lp-PLA(2) and hs-CRP further significantly improved the AUC to 0.774. With the use of traditional risk factors to assess 5-year risk for ischemic stroke, 86% of participants were categorized as low risk (<2%); 11%, intermediate risk (2% to 5%); and 3%, high risk (>5%). The addition of hs-CRP, Lp-PLA(2), and their interaction to the model reclassified 4%, 39%, and 34% of the low-, intermediate- and high-risk categories, respectively. Lp-PLA(2) and hs-CRP may be useful in individuals classified as intermediate risk for ischemic stroke by traditional risk factors.
    Stroke 01/2009; 40(2):376-81. · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2009; 15(6).
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    ABSTRACT: A major limitation of past work on the social patterning of atherosclerosis has been the reliance on measures of neighborhood or individual-level socioeconomic position (SEP) assessed at a single point in time in adulthood. Risk of chronic disease is thought to accumulate throughout the life-course, so the use of a measure for a single point in time may result in inaccurate estimates of the social patterning of subclinical disease. Using data from the US Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we examined the relation between childhood SEP [CSEP] (father or caretaker's education), adulthood SEP [ASEP] (a summary score of income, education, and wealth), and 20-year average exposure to neighborhood poverty [NSEP] (residential addresses geocoded and linked to census data) and the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by common carotid intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in mid to late adulthood. Participants were 45-84 years of age at baseline and were sampled from six study sites in the United States. After adjustment for age, CSEP and ASEP were both inversely and independently associated with IMT in men. All three indicators CSEP, ASEP, and NSEP were inversely and independently associated with IMT in women. Associations were somewhat reduced after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting that these factors may play a mediating role. There was evidence of heterogeneity in effects of NSEP by gender, and in the effects of ASEP and NSEP by race/ethnicity. Our results contribute to the growing body of work that shows that SEP at multiple points in the life-course, and at the individual and neighborhood level, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 01/2009; 68(3):444-51. · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

570 Citations
174.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Health Statistics
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2014
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
      Maryland, United States