N S Dhalla

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (662)2062.14 Total impact

  • Paramjit S Tappia · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Although diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with heart dysfunction and disturbance in cardiac sarcolemmal membrane phospholipid composition, the role of the different phospholipases and their related signaling mechanisms to altered function of the heart in diabetes is not completely understood. Thus, understanding the pathophysiology of cardiovascular abnormalities in diabetes, as well as identifying defects in various components of the phospholipid signaling pathways, that could serve as therapeutic targets, is warranted. Accordingly, this review provides an outline of the role of and the mechanisms for the defects in phospholipase A2, C and D-mediated signal transduction in the diabetic heart. In addition, the potential of different phospholipases as targets for drug development for the prevention/treatment of heart disease in diabetes is discussed.
    Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics 12/2014; 51(6):431-40. · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • Andrea Babick · Vijayan Elimban · Shelley Zieroth · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: In order to examine the reversibility of heart failure due to myocardial infarction (MI) by β-adrenoceptor blockade, 12 wks infarcted rats were treated with or without metoprolol (50 mg/kg/day) for 8 wks. The depressed left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure, positive and negative rates of changes in pressure development, ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output, as well as increased LV end-diastolic pressure in 20 wks MI animals were partially reversed by metoprolol. MI-induced decreases in septum (systolic) thickness as well as increase in LV posterior wall thickness and LV internal diameter were partially or fully reversible by metoprolol. Treatment of MI animals with metoprolol partially reversed the elevated levels of plasma norepinephrine and dopamine without affecting the elevated levels of epinephrine. Although sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca(2+) -uptake, as well as protein content for SR Ca(2+) -pump and phospholamban, were reduced in the infarcted hearts; these changes were partially reversible with metoprolol. Depressed myofibrillar Ca(2+) -stimulated ATPase activity, as well as mRNA levels for SR Ca(2+) -pump, phospholamban and α-myosin heavy chain, were unaffected whereas increased mRNA level for β-myosin heavy chain was partially reversed by metoprolol. The results suggest that partial improvement of cardiac performance by β-adrenoceptor blockade at advanced stages of heart failure may be due to partial reversal of changes in SR Ca(2+) -pump function whereas partial to complete reverse cardiac remodeling may be due to partial reduction in the elevated levels of plasma catecholamines. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2013; 228(10). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24373 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Paramjit S Tappia · Yan-Jun Xu · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Although synthetic chemicals and pharmacological agents are being used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the western world, there now appears to be a cultural and philosophical shift toward Eastern Medicine and many patients are increasingly using alternative approaches for prevention and therapeutic purposes. This brief review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence of some functional foods, herbal products and medicinal plants for improving plasma HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels, as well as reducing oxidative stress. In addition, the potential of acupuncture and Yogic meditation are discussed as emerging approaches for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors. The available evidence indicates that several functional foods, herbal products and medicinal plants exert lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic actions, as well as exhibit antioxidant properties; however, a great deal of research work and extensive clinical trials are needed to establish their use in medical practice.
    Clinical Lipidology 06/2013; 8(3):345-359. DOI:10.2217/clp.13.24 · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • Adriana Adameova · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Although heart disease due to diabetes is mainly associated with complications of the large vessels, microvascular abnormalities are also considered to be involved in altering cardiac structure and function. Three major defects, such as endothelial dysfunction, alteration in the production/release of hormones, and shift in metabolism of smooth muscle cells, have been suggested to produce damage to the small arteries and capillaries (microangiopathy) due to hyperglycemia, and promote the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. These factors may either act alone or in combination to produce oxidative stress as well as changes in cellular signaling and gene transcription, which in turn cause vasoconstriction and structural remodeling of the coronary vessels. Such alterations in microvasculature produce hypoperfusion of the myocardium and thereby lower the energy status resulting in changes in Ca2+-handling, apoptosis, and decreased cardiac contractile force. This article discusses diabetes-induced mechanisms of microvascular damage leading to cardiac dysfunction that is characterized by myocardial dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy as well as early diastolic and late systolic defects. Metabolic defects and changes in neurohumoral system due to diabetes, which promote disturbances in vascular homeostasis, are highlighted. In addition, increase in the vulnerability of the diabetic heart to the development of heart failure and the signaling pathways integrating nuclear factor κB and protein kinase C in diabetic cardiomyopathy are also described for comparison.
    Heart Failure Reviews 03/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10741-013-9378-7 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is not only associated with heart failure but there also occurs a loss of the positive inotropic effect of different agents. It is now becoming clear that cardiac dysfunction in chronic diabetes is intimately involved with Ca(2+)-handling abnormalities, metabolic defects and impaired sensitivity of myofibrils to Ca(2+) in cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, loss of the inotropic effect in diabetic myocardium is elicited by changes in signal transduction mechanisms involving hormone receptors and depressions in phosphorylation of various membrane proteins. Ca(2+)-handling abnormalities in the diabetic heart occur mainly due to defects in sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange, Na(+)-H(+) exchange, Ca(2+)-channels and Ca(2+)-pump activities as well as changes in sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-uptake and Ca(2+)-release processes; these alterations may lead to the occurrence of intracellular Ca(2+) overload. Metabolic defects due to insulin deficiency or ineffectiveness as well as hormone imbalance in diabetes are primarily associated with a shift in substrate utilization and changes in the oxidation of fatty acids in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondria initially seem to play an adaptive role in serving as a Ca(2+) sink, but the excessive utilization of long-chain fatty acids for a prolonged period results in the generation of oxidative stress and impairment of their function in the diabetic heart. In view of the activation of sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system as well as platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction and generation of oxidative stress in diabetes and blockade of their effects have been shown to attenuate subcellular remodeling, metabolic derangements and signal transduction abnormalities in the diabetic heart. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that oxidative stress and subcellular remodeling due to hormonal imbalance and metabolic defects play a critical role in the genesis of heart failure during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
    Heart Failure Reviews 02/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10741-013-9385-8 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Yan-Jun Xu · Paramjit S Tappia · Nirankar S Neki · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is invariably associated with abnormal blood lipid profile, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Stress, smoking, high saturated fat intake as well as low fruit and vegetable intakes have been shown to increase oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia, which increase the predisposition of diabetic subjects to atherosclerosis, stroke and coronary heart disease. The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein by oxidative stress is essential for the development of atherosclerosis, and the reduction in oxidative stress as well as blood glucose and cholesterol is considered critical for the prevention of diabetes-induced CVD. Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated that vitamin C and vitamin E decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease, different clinical trials have failed to support the beneficial effect of these antioxidants. Nonetheless, it has been suggested that natural forms of these vitamins may be more efficacious than synthetic vitamins, and this may explain the inconsistencies in results. Antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and resveratrol, have also been shown to attenuate the diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. It has been indicated that the antioxidant therapy may be effective in a prevention strategy rather than as a treatment for CVD. The evidence presented here supports the view that cardiovascular complications in diabetes may be induced by oxidative stress and appropriate antioxidant therapy may be promising for attenuating the progression of diabetes-induced CVD.
    Heart Failure Reviews 02/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10741-013-9379-6 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Harjot K Saini-Chohan · Larry Hryshko · Yan-Jun Xu · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the role of redox-sensitive signal transduction mechanisms in modifying the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) produced by ouabain upon incubating adult rat cardiomyocytes with antioxidants or inhibitors of different protein kinases and monitoring alterations in fura-2 fluorescence. Ouabain increased basal [Ca(2+)](i), augmented the KCl-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), and promoted oxyradical production in cardiomyocytes. These actions of ouabain were attenuated by an oxyradical scavenging mixture (superoxide dismutase plus catalase), and the antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine and N-(2-mercaptoproprionyl)glycine). An inhibitor of MAP kinase (PD98059) depressed the ouabain-induced increase in [Ca(2+)], whereas inhibitors of tyrosine kinase (tyrphostin and genistein) and PI3 kinase (Wortmannin and LV294002) enhanced the ouabain-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Inhibitors of protein kinase C (calphostin and bisindolylmalaimide) augmented the ouabain-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas stimulation of protein kinase C by a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) depressed the action of ouabain. These results suggest that ouabain-induced inhibition of Na (+)-K(+) ATPase may alter the redox status of cardiomyocytes through the production of oxyradicals, and increase the activities of various protein kinases. Thus, these redox-sensitive signal transduction mechanisms involving different protein kinases may modify Ca(2+)-handling sites in cardiomyocytes and determine the magnitude of net increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in response to ouabain.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2013; 91(1):45-55. DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2012-0215 · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • Naranjan S Dhalla · Satoshi Takeda · Vijayan Elimban
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Although vitamin B6 and its metabolite, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), have been shown to exert beneficial effects in ischemic heart disease, the mechanisms of their action are not fully understood. Some studies have shown that ventricular arrhythmias and mortality upon the occlusion of coronary artery were attenuated by pretreatment of animals with PLP. Furthermore, ischemia-reperfusion-induced abnormalities in cardiac performance and defects in sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+-transport activities were decreased by PLP. The increase in cardiac contractile activity of isolated heart by ATP was reduced by PLP, unlike propranolol, whereas that by isoproterenol was not depressed by PLP. ATP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, unlike KCl-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in cardiomyocytes was depressed by PLP. Both high- and low-affinity sites for ATP binding in sarcolemmal membranes were also decreased by PLP. These observations support the view that PLP may produce cardioprotective effects in ischemic heart disease by attenuating the occurrence of intracellular Ca2+ overload due to the blockade of purinergic receptors.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 01/2013; 51(3):1-9. DOI:10.1515/cclm-2012-0553 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Dustin Scott Kehler · Naranjan S. Dhalla · Todd A. Duhamel
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis refers to the growth of new capillaries from a pre-existing capillary bed which can occur during normal physiological and pathological conditions by sprouting and non-sprouting processes, which are activated by different stimuli. Various studies have demonstrated that exercise increases the expression of several growth factors for both sprouting and non-sprouting angiogenesis, including vascular endothelial growth factor and other cytokines in skeletal and cardiac muscle, which are associated with an increase in the number of capillaries in the heart and skeletal muscle. Exercise is known to stimulate the release of several pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins and transcription factors and it appears that hypoxia and/or ischemia play a major role in the growth and expansion of new capillaries and has also been suggested that mechanical forces, such as shear stress or muscle overload, stimulate exercise-induced angiogenesis. More importantly, an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence exercise-induced angiogenesis may contribute to the development of potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different diseases including hypertension and ischemic heart disease.
    Biochemical Basis and Therapeutic Implications of Angiogenesis, 01/2013: pages 181-206; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-5856-2
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Cardiomyocyte circadian rhythms and the circadian clock are known to coordinate myocardial function. In this review we discuss whether disruption of this mechanism plays a potential role in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), obesity and type 2 diabetes. Methods. Internet search and discussion with colleagues. Results. Circadian clock genes have been identified and characterized within almost all mammalian cell types, including cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Clocks are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, a few reports suggest that specific prokaryotes may not possess functional clocks. Circadian clocks are transcriptionallybased cell autonomous molecular mechanisms that directly coordinate cellular/biological functions at multiple temporal levels. As reported by various workers, a number of roles played by circadian clock genes within the cardiovascular system are composed of both positive and negative feedback loops, with a free-running period of approximately 24 hours. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences myocardial contractile function, metabolism, and gene expression and coordinates myocardial oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation rates. Experimental mice constitute a model of temporal suspension of the heart circadian clock at the wake-to-sleep transition, which is distinct from classic models of shift work involving manipulation of the light-dark cycle. The expression of approximately 10-15% of all myocardial genes oscillate in a time-of-day-dependent manner which is clear from hearts collected from mice under light/dark (24-hour synchronized) and constant dim light (free-running) conditions. The major fuel sources for continued contraction of the myocardium are fatty acids and glucose, which may be an integral component of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. In the oxidative myocardial metabolism, circadian variations in the rat's heart revealed time-of-day-dependent oscillations in glucose, but not in fatty acid, oxidation. There is a greater transcriptional response when the rat's heart is challenged with fatty acids during the active phase. This response is mediated by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock, and it is potentially mediated by clock-controlled oscillations in nuclear receptors, such as PPARα, Rev-erbα, and PGC1α. The circadian system is a complex feedback network that involves interactions between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues as well as the metabolic system. It is possible that circadian coordination is intimately linked to metabolic homeostasis and that dysregulation of circadian rhythms can contribute to cardiometabolic risk. It seems that metabolic signals also feed back into the circadian system, modulating circadian gene expression and altering their behavior, resulting in an increased risk of CVDs, obesity, and diabetes. Conclusions. Recent molecular- and genetic-based studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences multiple myocardial processes, including transcription, signaling, growth, metabolism, and contractile function. In view of its physiological roles, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of heart disease in response to adverse stresses, such as ischemia /reperfusion, in animal models as well as to the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
    World Heart Journal 01/2013; 6(1).
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of dietary supplementation of cysteine and taurine in rats with diabetes induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg body weight). Experimental animals were treated orally (by gavage) with cysteine (200 mg/kg) and taurine (400 mg/kg), alone or in combination, daily for 8 wks. In one group, rats were also pretreated 3 wks before the induction of diabetes (prevention arm) whereas in the other, the treatment was started 3 days after the induction of diabetes (reversal arm). Diabetes increased heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio, plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels as well as depressed heart rate (HR), blood pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), rate of contraction (+dP/dt), rate of relaxation (-dP/dt), fractional shortening (FS) and cardiac output (CO). The left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LViDs) was increased whereas that in diastole (LViDd) was decreased. In the prevention arm, treatment of the diabetic animals with cysteine or taurine decreased HW/BW ratio and improved HR, FS, +dP/dt and -dP/dt, as well as normalized LViDs, without altering the increase in glucose level. Cysteine decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and improved LVSP whereas CO was improved by taurine. In the reversal arm, cysteine alone or with taurine did not correct the changes in hemodynamic parameters, FS and plasma triglycerides. Diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and increases in plasma triglycerides can be prevented, but not reversed, by dietary cysteine alone or in combination with taurine.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 12/2012; 62(2). · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Alison L Müller · Darren Freed · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with cardiac dysfunction and changes in sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) ATPase subunits and activity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of proteases in these alterations by subjecting rat hearts to different times of global ischemia, as well as reperfusion after 45 min of ischemia. Decreases in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity at 30 to 60 min of global ischemia were accompanied by augmented activities of both calpain and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and depressed protein content of β-1 and β-2 subunits, without changes in α-1 and α-2 subunits of the enzyme. In comparison to control values, the activities of both calpain and MMP-2 were increased whereas the activity and protein content for all subunits of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase were decreased upon reperfusion for 5 to 40 min except that α-1 and α-2 subunit content was not depressed in 5 min I/R hearts. MDL28170, a calpain inhibitor, was more effective in attenuating the I/R-induced alterations in cardiac contracture, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and α-2 subunit than doxycycline, an MMP inhibitor. Incubation of control SL preparation with calpain, unlike MMP-2, depressed Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity and decreased α-1, α-2 and β-2 subunits without changes in the β-1 subunit. These results support the view that activation of both calpain and MMP-2 are involved in depressing Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity and degradation of its subunits directly or indirectly in hearts subjected to I/R injury.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2012; 114(3). DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01239.2012 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the reversal of subcellular remodeling in heart failure due to myocardial infarction (MI) upon treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Twelve wks after inducing MI, rats were treated with or without losartan (20 mg/kg; daily) for 8 wks and assessed for cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, subcellular alterations and plasma catecholamines. Cardiac hypertrophy and lung congestion in 20 wks MI-induced heart failure were associated with increases in plasma catecholamine levels. Hemodynamic examination revealed depressed cardiac function whereas echocardiographic analysis showed impaired cardiac performance and marked increases in left ventricle wall thickness and chamber dilatation at 20 wks of inducing MI. These changes in cardiac function, cardiac remodeling and plasma dopamine levels in heart failure were partially or fully reversed by losartan. Sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca(2+) -pump activity and protein expression, protein and gene expression for phospholamban, as well as myofibrillar (MF) Ca(2+) -stimulated ATPase activity and α-myosin heavy chain mRNA levels were depressed whereas β-myosin heavy chain expression was increased in failing hearts; these alterations were partially reversed by losartan. Although SR Ca(2+) -release activity and mRNA levels for SR Ca(2+) -pump were decreased in failing heart, these changes were not reversed upon losartan treatment; no changes in mRNA levels for SR Ca(2+) -release channels were observed in untreated or treated heart failure. These results suggest that partial improvement of cardiac performance in heart failure due to MI by losartan treatment is associated with partial reversal of cardiac remodeling as well as partial recovery of SR and MF functions. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 09/2012; 16(12). DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01623.x · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    Naranjan S Dhalla · Shashanka Rangi · Shelley Zieroth · Yan-Jun Xu
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    ABSTRACT: Although diabetes due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance is a major cause of heart disease, the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy is not fully understood. Varying degrees of defects in subcellular organelles, such as sarcolemma, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofibrils and extracellular matrix have been observed in the diabetic heart. These subcellular abnormalities in chronic diabetes become evident with the occurrence of hormonal imbalance, metabolic defects, oxidative stress and intracellular Ca(2+) overload. During the initial stages of diabetes, hormonal imbalances, including elevated plasma levels of catecholamines and angiotensin II, as well as metabolic defects, appear to favour the development of oxidative stress; these changes lead to subcellular defects in the myocardium. Reductions in sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) pump and Ca(2+) release channel function are associated with cardiac dysfunction, whereas alterations in sarcolemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities contribute to intracellular Ca(2+) overload at late stages of diabetes. The continued accumulation of Ca(2+) in mitochondria produces Ca(2+) overload in these organelles, and this change induces impairment of energy production and depletion of energy stores as well as further promotion of oxidative stress in chronic diabetes. Generation of oxyradicals due to impaired electron transport results in the opening of mitochondrial pores, leakage of toxic proteins and myocardial cell damage in diabetes. These observations support the view that alterations in sarcoplasmic reticular and mitochondrial functions produce intracellular Ca(2+) overload and depletion of energy stores and, thus, play an important role in the development of cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
    Experimental and clinical cardiology 09/2012; 17(3):115-20. · 0.76 Impact Factor
  • Melissa R Dent · Paramjit S Tappia · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine gender related changes in different components of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) system in response to arteriovenous fistula (AV-shunt), which is known to produce heart failure due to volume overload. AV-shunt was induced in male and female rats for 16 weeks by the needle technique; ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with or without estrogen were also used. Although AV-shunt for 16 weeks produced cardiac hypertrophy in both sexes, male animals showed cardiac dysfunction whereas cardiac performance was maintained in females. Both β(1) -AR and β(2) -AR protein content and mRNA levels were decreased in male and increased in female hearts post-AV-shunt. The basal adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was lower in the female heart; however, AC protein content and the increase in epinephrine (EPi)-stimulated AC activity were greater in the female AV-shunt group as compared to males. While AC V/VI and β-arrestin 2 mRNA levels were decreased in males, mRNA level for GRK2 was increased in females post-AV-shunt. In contrast to intact females, AV-shunt OVX animals showed depressed cardiac function, decreased β(1) -AR, β(2) -AR, and AC protein content, as well as reduced EPi-stimulated AC activity. Treatment of OVX rats with 17-β estradiol attenuated the AV-shunt induced changes in β-AR and AC protein content as well as cardiac dysfunction. These results reveal that β-AR signal transduction system in response to AV-shunt is downregulated in males and upregulated in females. Furthermore, estrogen appears to play an important role in the upregulation of β-AR mechanisms and the maintenance of cardiac function in AV-shunt females.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2012; 227(8):3080-7. DOI:10.1002/jcp.23058 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Paramjit S Tappia · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicians and health professionals are increasingly becoming aware of different health needs of men and women. Differences in gender and corresponding sex hormones result in disparities in risk and protection of cardiovascular disease as men develop cardiovascular disease at an earlier age while women are affected at older ages. Myocardial adaptation and lipid metabolism, including plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, are different in men and women. Gender differences in optimal treatment and secondary prevention measures in patients with coronary heart disease are also evident. This report addresses some of the issues relating to gender differences in the risk, clinical manifestation and management of as well as response to therapy, with particular attention given to changes in plasma HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Understanding these differences in lipid control will help to improve the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and provide information for therapeutic or preventive strategies that may be specifically designed for men and women.
    Clinical Lipidology 08/2012; 7(4):379-387. DOI:10.2217/clp.12.48 · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • Alison L Müller · Darren Freed · Larry Hryshko · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: It has become evident that protein degradation by proteolytic enzymes, known as proteases, is partly responsible for cardiovascular dysfunction in various types of heart disease. Both extracellular and intracellular alterations in proteolytic activities are invariably seen in heart failure associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertensive cardiomyopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Genetic cardiomyopathy displayed in different strains of hamsters provides a useful model for studying heart failure due to either cardiac hypertrophy or cardiac dilation. Alterations in the function of several myocardial organelles such as sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofibrils, mitochondria, as well as extracellular matrix have been shown to be due to subcellular remodeling as a consequence of changes in gene expression and protein content in failing hearts from cardiomyopathic hamsters. In view of the increased activities of various proteases, including calpains and matrix metalloproteinases in the hearts of genetically determined hamsters, it is proposed that the activation of different proteases may also represent an important determinant of subcellular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction associated with genetic cardiomyopathy.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 07/2012; 90(8):995-1004. DOI:10.1139/y2012-034 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    Yan-Jun Xu · Ming Zhang · Lei Ji · Vijayan Elimban · Li Chen · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Sarpogrelate (SP), a serotonin (5-HT2A) receptor antagonist, is used as an anti-platelet agent for the treatment of some vascular diseases. SP has been reported to inhibit 5-HT induced coronary artery spasm, increase in intracellular calcium and smooth muscle cells proliferation. This study was undertaken to test that SP suppresses the development of atherosclerosis due to high cholesterol diet (HCD) by decreasing blood viscosity and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 29 rabbits were divided into four groups: control group (normal diet); normal diet group with SP at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day; HCD group fed 1% cholesterol; and HCD group with SP at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day. After 90 days of the experiment, blood samples were collected and the animals were killed; the thoracic aorta was stained by the Oil Red O staining method. The results indicate that plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde were increased in rabbits fed HCD. Plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were also higher in the HCD group than that in normal diet group. Treatment with SP prevented these alterations induced by HCD whereas this agent had no significant effect in rabbits fed normal diet. Morphological examination of the aorta revealed that SP treatment prevented the formation of foam cells and atherosclerotic plaque. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of SP in atherosclerosis may be due to actions on blood viscosity, lipid levels and oxidative stress.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 02/2012; 16(10):2394-400. DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01554.x · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Alison L Müller · Larry V Hryshko · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: Various procedures such as angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, coronary bypass surgery, and cardiac transplantation are invariably associated with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Impaired recovery of cardiac function due to I/R injury is considered to be a consequence of the occurrence of both oxidative stress and intracellular Ca(2+)-overload in the myocardium. These changes in the ischemic myocardium appear to activate both extracellular and intracellular proteases which are responsible for the cleavage of extracellular matrix and subcellular structures involved in the maintenance of cardiac function. It is thus intended to discuss the actions of I/R injury on several proteases, with a focus on calpain, matrix metalloproteinases, and cathepsins as well as their role in inducing alterations both inside and outside the cardiomyocytes. In addition, modifications of subcellular organelles such as myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum and sarcolemma as well as extracellular matrix, and the potential regulatory effects of endogenous inhibitors on protease activities are identified. Both extracellular and intracellular proteolytic activities appear to be imperative in determining the true extent of I/R injury and their inhibition seems to be of critical importance for improving the recovery of cardiac function. Thus, both extracellular and intracellular proteases may serve as potential targets for the development of cardioprotective interventions for reducing damage to the heart and retarding the development of contractile dysfunction caused by I/R injury.
    International journal of cardiology 02/2012; 164(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.01.103 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    Raja B Singh · Larry Hryshko · Darren Freed · Naranjan S Dhalla
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    ABSTRACT: We tested whether the activation of proteolytic enzymes, calpain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is mediated through oxidative stress. For this purpose, isolated rat hearts were subjected to a 30 min global ischemia followed by a 30 min reperfusion. Cardiac function was monitored and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, calpain, and MMP were measured. Depression of cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in I/R hearts was associated with increased calpain and MMP activities. These alterations owing to I/R were similar to those observed in hearts perfused with hypoxic medium, H(2)O(2) and xanthine plus xanthine oxidase. The I/R-induced changes were attenuated by ischemic preconditioning as well as by perfusing the hearts with N-acetylcysteine or mercaptopropionylglycine. Inhibition of MMP activity in hearts treated with doxycycline depressed the I/R-induced changes in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity without affecting the calpain activation. On the other hand, inhibition of calpain activity upon treatment with leupeptin or MDL 28170 significantly reduced the MMP activity in addition to attenuating the I/R-induced alterations in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that the I/R-induced depression in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cardiac function may be a consequence of the increased activities of both calpain and MMP because of oxidative stress in the heart.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2012; 90(2):249-60. DOI:10.1139/y11-128 · 1.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,062.14 Total Impact Points


  • 1970–2014
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Human Ecology
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1987–2013
    • St. Boniface Hospital Research
      • Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2007
    • Texas A&M University - Kingsville
      NQI, Texas, United States
    • Jackson Memorial Hospital
      Miami, Florida, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Medicine
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1977–2006
    • The University of Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2005
    • Ankara University
      • Department of Biophysics
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
  • 1975–2003
    • Hôpital St-Boniface Hospital
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2002
    • The Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • University Hospital Motol
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2001
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Fyziologický ústav
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1994
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Institute for Physiology
      Tübingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1991
    • University of Tartu
      Dorpat, Tartu County, Estonia
    • Tokoha University
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      Hamamatu, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 1973
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1972
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States