[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is manifested by fibrosis, vasculopathy and immune dysregulation. So far, a unifying hypothesis underpinning these pathological events remains unknown. Given that SSc is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors, we focus on the two transcription factors, which modulate the fibrotic reaction and are epigenetically suppressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts, Friend leukaemia integration 1 (Fli1) and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5). In addition to the Fli1 silencing-dependent collagen induction, the simultaneous knockdown of Fli1 and KLF5 synergistically enhances expression of connective tissue growth factor. Notably, mice with double heterozygous deficiency of Klf5 and Fli1 mimicking the epigenetic phenotype of SSc skin spontaneously recapitulate all the three features of SSc, including fibrosis and vasculopathy of the skin and lung, B-cell activation and autoantibody production. These studies implicate the epigenetic downregulation of Fli1 and KLF5 as a central event triggering the pathogenic triad of SSc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In obesity, a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages augments chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, thereby inducing systemic insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation. Obese adipose tissue contains a unique histological structure termed crown-like structure (CLS), where adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk is known to occur in close proximity. Here we show that Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a pathogen sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is localized to macrophages in CLS, the number of which correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Mincle induces obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis, thereby leading to steatosis and insulin resistance in liver. We further show that Mincle in macrophages is crucial for CLS formation, expression of fibrosis-related genes and myofibroblast activation. This study indicates that Mincle, when activated by an endogenous ligand released from dying adipocytes, is involved in adipose tissue remodelling, thereby suggesting that sustained interactions between adipocytes and macrophages within CLS could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced ectopic lipid accumulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stretch-induced arrhythmias are multi-scale phenomena in which alterations in channel activities and/or calcium handling lead to the organ level derangement of the heart rhythm. To understand how cellular mechano-electric coupling (MEC) leads to stretch-induced arrhythmias at the organ level, we developed stretching devices and optical voltage/calcium measurement techniques optimized to each cardiac level. This review introduces these experimental techniques of (1) optical voltage measurement coupled with a carbon-fiber technique for single isolated cardiomyocytes, (2) optical voltage mapping combined with motion tracking technique for myocardial tissue/whole heart preparations and (3) real-time calcium imaging coupled with a laser optical trap technique for cardiomyocytes. Following the overview of each methodology, results are presented. We conclude that individual MEC in cardiomyocytes can be heterogeneous at the ventricular level, especially when moderate amplitude mechanical stretches are applied to the heart, and that this heterogeneous MEC can evoke focal excitation that develops into re-entrant arrhythmias.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 07/2014; 115(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2014.07.008 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body weight is tightly regulated by food intake and energy dissipation, and obesity is related to decreased energy expenditure (EE). Herein, we show that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieseterase 2 (ENPP2, autotaxin) is an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that controls adipose expansion, brown adipose tissue (BAT) function, and EE. In mice, Enpp2 was highly expressed in visceral white adipose tissue and BAT, and is downregulated in hypertrophied adipocytes/adipose tissue. Enpp2(+/-) mice and adipocyte-specific Enpp2 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet showed smaller body weight gains and less insulin resistance than control mice fed the same diet. BAT was functionally more active, and EE was increased in Enpp2-deficient mice. In humans, ENPP2 expression in subcutaneous fat and ENPP2 levels in serum were reduced in obese subjects. Taken together, our results establish ENPP2 as an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that regulates adipose obesity and systemic metabolism. They also suggest ENPP2 could be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The donor-dependent supply of platelets is frequently insufficient to meet transfusion needs. To address this issue, we developed a clinically applicable strategy for the derivation of functional platelets from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). This approach involves the establishment of stable immortalized megakaryocyte progenitor cell lines (imMKCLs) from PSC-derived hematopoietic progenitors through the overexpression of BMI1 and BCL-XL to respectively suppress senescence and apoptosis and the constrained overexpression of c-MYC to promote proliferation. The resulting imMKCLs can be expanded in culture over extended periods (4-5 months), even after cryopreservation. Halting the overexpression of c-MYC, BMI1, and BCL-XL in growing imMKCLs led to the production of CD42b(+) platelets with functionality comparable to that of native platelets on the basis of a range of assays in vitro and in vivo. The combination of robust expansion capacity and efficient platelet production means that appropriately selected imMKCL clones represent a potentially inexhaustible source of hPSC-derived platelets for clinical application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paxillin is a LIM domain protein localized at integrin-mediated focal adhesions. Although paxillin is thought to modulate the functions of integrins, little is known about the contribution of paxillin to signaling pathways in platelets. Here, we studied the role of paxillin in platelet activation in vitro and in vivo.Methods and results: We generated paxillin knockdown (Pxn-KD) platelets in mice by transplanting bone marrow cells transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying a short hairpin RNA sequence, and confirmed that paxillin expression was significantly reduced in platelets derived from the transduced cells. Pxn-KD platelets showed a slight increased in size and augmented integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation following stimulation of multiple receptors including glycoprotein VI and G protein-coupled receptors. Thromboxane A2 biosynthesis and the release of alpha-granules and dense granules in response to agonist stimulation were also enhanced in Pxn-KD platelets. However, Pxn-KD did not increase tyrosine phosphorylation or intracellular calcium mobilization. Intravital imaging confirmed that Pxn-KD enhanced thrombus formation in vivo.
Our findings suggest that paxillin negatively regulates several common platelet signaling pathways, resulting in the activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and release reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes a family with TUBB1-associated macrothrombocytopenia diagnosed based on abnormal platelet β1-tubulin distribution. A circumferential marginal microtubule band was undetectable, whereas microtubules were frayed and disorganized in every platelet from the affected individuals. Patients were heterozygous for novel TUBB1 p.F260S that locates at the α- and β-tubulin intradimer interface. Mutant β1-tubulin was not incorporated into microtubules with endogenous α-tubulin and α-tubulin expression was decreased in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Transduction of mutant β1-tubulin into mouse fetal liver-derived megakaryocytes demonstrated no incorporation of mutant β1-tubulin into microtubules with endogenous α-tubulin and diminished proplatelet formation, leading to the production of fewer, but larger, proplatelet tips. Furthermore, mutant β1-tubulin was not associated with endogenous α-tubulin in the proplatelets. Deficient functional microtubules might lead to defective proplatelet formation and abnormal protrusion-like platelet release, resulting in congenital macrothrombocytopenia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal Of Haematology 12/2013; 92(4). DOI:10.1111/ejh.12252 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct B cell populations, designated regulatory B (Breg) cells, are known to restrain immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Additionally, obesity is known to induce local inflammation within adipose tissue that contributes to systemic metabolic abnormalities, but the underlying mechanisms that modulate adipose inflammation remain poorly understood. We identified Breg cells that produce interleukin-10 constitutively within adipose tissue. B cell-specific Il10 deletion enhanced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, whereas adoptive transfer of adipose tissue Breg cells ameliorated those effects. Adipose environmental factors, including CXCL12 and free fatty acids, support Breg cell function, and Breg cell fraction and function were reduced in adipose tissue from obese mice and humans. Our findings indicate that adipose tissue Breg cells are a naturally occurring regulatory B cell subset that maintains homeostasis within adipose tissue and that Breg cell dysfunction contributes pivotally to the progression of adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been implicated in the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. However, most previous studies were conducted on extracellular matrix or pericellular HA, and the role of circulating HA in vivo has not been studied. HA is rapidly cleared from the bloodstream. The scavenger receptor Stabilin-2 (Stab2) is considered a major clearance receptor for HA. Here we report a dramatic elevation in circulating HA levels in Stab2-deficient mice without any overt phenotype. Surprisingly, the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells to the lungs was markedly suppressed in the Stab2-deficient mice, whereas cell proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, administration of an anti-Stab2 antibody in Stab2(+) mice elevated serum HA levels and prevented the metastasis of melanoma to the lung, and also suppressed spontaneous metastasis of mammary tumor and human breast tumor cells inoculated in the mammary gland. Administration of the antibody or high-dose HA in mice blocked the lodging of melanoma cells to the lungs. Furthermore, HA at high concentrations inhibited the rolling/tethering of B16 cells to lung endothelial cells. These results suggest that blocking Stab2 function prevents tumor metastasis by elevating circulating HA levels. Stab2 may be a potential target in antitumor therapy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 109(11):4263-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1117560109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which thrombotic vessel occlusion occurs independently of plaque development or endothelial cell (EC) disruption remains unclear, largely because of an inability to visualize the formation of thrombus, especially at the single-platelet level in real time. Here we demonstrate that rapidly developing thrombi composed of discoid platelets can be induced in the mesenteric capillaries, arterioles, and large-sized arteries of living mice, enabling characterization of the kinetics of thrombosis initiation and the multicellular interrelationships during thrombus development. Platelet aggregation without EC disruption was triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) photochemically induced by moderate power laser irradiation. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1 could be key components of the EC response, acting through regulation of VWF mobilization to the cell surface. Thrombus formation was then initiated by the binding of platelet GPIbα to endothelial VWF in our model, and this effect was inhibited by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Actin linker talin-dependent activation of alphaIIb-beta3 integrin or Rac1 in platelets was required for late-phase thrombus stability. Our novel imaging technology illustrates the molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-based thrombus formation by discoid platelets on undisrupted ECs and suggests control of ROS could be a useful therapeutic target for the prevention of thrombotic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin delivery to and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by skeletal muscle are delayed and impaired. The mechanisms underlying the delay and impairment are unclear. We demonstrate that impaired insulin signaling in endothelial cells, due to reduced Irs2 expression and insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation, causes attenuation of insulin-induced capillary recruitment and insulin delivery, which in turn reduces glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Moreover, restoration of insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation in endothelial cells completely reverses the reduction in capillary recruitment and insulin delivery in tissue-specific knockout mice lacking Irs2 in endothelial cells and fed a high-fat diet. As a result, glucose uptake by skeletal muscle is restored in these mice. Taken together, our results show that insulin signaling in endothelial cells plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Furthermore, improving endothelial insulin signaling may serve as a therapeutic strategy for ameliorating skeletal muscle insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obese visceral adipose tissue remodeling and dysfunction, based on chronic inflammation and local immunological changes, play
major roles in the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, an in vivo visualization technique has been developed to assess the dynamic
interplay between multiple cell types in obese adipose. In vivo imaging revealed close spatial and temporal interrelationships
between angiogenesis and adipogenesis, which were augmented in obese adipose tissue. In addition, increased leukocyte–platelet–endothelial
cell interactions were observed in the microcirculation, a hallmark of inflammation. Upregulated expression of adhesion molecules
contribute to the local activation of inflammatory processes. We also found that large numbers of CD8+ effector T cells infiltrated
into the obese adipose tissue, playing major roles in inflammatory macrophage infiltration into obese adipose tissue, the
induction and maintenance of inflammation, and systemic insulin resistance. Our results demonstrate the power of our imaging
technique to analyze multi-cellular interactions in inflammation in vivo and to evaluate new therapeutic interventions.
KeywordsInflammation-Metabolic diseases-Adipose tissue-In vivo molecular imaging method- Angiogenesis-Adipogenesis
Journal of Biorheology 12/2010; 24(1):11-15. DOI:10.1007/s12573-010-0020-1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human (h) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potentially abundant source of blood cells, but how best to select iPSC clones suitable for this purpose from among the many clones that can be simultaneously established from an identical source is not clear. Using an in vitro culture system yielding a hematopoietic niche that concentrates hematopoietic progenitors, we show that the pattern of c-MYC reactivation after reprogramming influences platelet generation from hiPSCs. During differentiation, reduction of c-MYC expression after initial reactivation of c-MYC expression in selected hiPSC clones was associated with more efficient in vitro generation of CD41a(+)CD42b(+) platelets. This effect was recapitulated in virus integration-free hiPSCs using a doxycycline-controlled c-MYC expression vector. In vivo imaging revealed that these CD42b(+) platelets were present in thrombi after laser-induced vessel wall injury. In contrast, sustained and excessive c-MYC expression in megakaryocytes was accompanied by increased p14 (ARF) and p16 (INK4A) expression, decreased GATA1 expression, and impaired production of functional platelets. These findings suggest that the pattern of c-MYC expression, particularly its later decline, is key to producing functional platelets from selected iPSC clones.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2010; 207(13):2817-30. DOI:10.1084/jem.20100844 · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CLEC-2 has been described recently as playing crucial roles in thrombosis/hemostasis, tumor metastasis, and lymphangiogenesis. The snake venom rhodocytin is known as a strong platelet activator, and we have shown that this effect is mediated by CLEC-2 (Suzuki-Inoue, K., Fuller, G. L., García, A., Eble, J. A., Pöhlmann, S., Inoue, O., Gartner, T. K., Hughan, S. C., Pearce, A. C., Laing, G. D., Theakston, R. D., Schweighoffer, E., Zitzmann, N., Morita, T., Tybulewicz, V. L., Ozaki, Y., and Watson, S. P. (2006) Blood 107, 542-549). Podoplanin, which is expressed on the surface of tumor cells, is an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2 and facilitates tumor metastasis by inducing platelet aggregation. Mice deficient in podoplanin, which is also expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, show abnormal patterns of lymphatic vessel formation. In this study, we report on the generation and phenotype of CLEC-2-deficient mice. These mice are lethal at the embryonic/neonatal stages associated with disorganized and blood-filled lymphatic vessels and severe edema. Moreover, by transplantation of fetal liver cells from Clec-2(-/-) or Clec-2(+/+) embryos, we were able to demonstrate that CLEC-2 is involved in thrombus stabilization in vitro and in vivo, possibly through homophilic interactions without apparent increase in bleeding tendency. We propose that CLEC-2 could be an ideal novel target protein for an anti-platelet drug, which inhibits pathological thrombus formation but not physiological hemostasis.