[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of the antigen-binding fragment of mAb S25-26 determined to 1.95 Å resolution in complex with the Chlamydiaceae family-specific trisaccharide antigen Kdo(2→8)-Kdo(2→4)Kdo (Kdo=3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid) displays a germline-coded paratope that differs significantly from previously characterized Chlamydiaceae-specific mAbs, despite being raised against the identical immunogen. Unlike the terminal Kdo recognition pocket that promotes cross-reactivity in S25-2-type antibodies, S25-26 and the closely related S25-23 utilize a groove composed of germline residues to recognize the entire trisaccharide antigen and so confer strict specificity. Interest in S25-23 was sparked by its rare high μM affinity and strict specificity for the family-specific trisaccharide antigen; however, only the related antibody S25-26 proved amenable to crystallization. The structures of three unliganded forms of S25-26 have a labile complementary determining region H3 adjacent to significant glycosylation of the variable heavy chain on asparagine 85 in Framework Region 3. Analysis of the glycan reveals a heterogeneous mixture with a common root structure that contains an unusually high number of terminal αGal-Gal moieties. One of the few reported structures of glycosylated mAbs containing these epitopes is the therapeutic antibody Cetuximab; however, unlike Cetuximab, one of the unliganded structures in S25-26 shows significant order in the glycan with appropriate electron density for nine residues. The elucidation of the three dimensional structure of an αGal containing N-linked glycan on a mAb variable heavy chain has potential clinical interest, as they have been implicated in allergic response in patients receiving therapeutic antibodies.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The near-germline antibody S25-2 exhibits a remarkable cross-reactivity for oligosaccharides containing the bacterial lipopolysaccharide carbohydrate 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo). The recent synthesis of a variety of Kdo analogues permits a detailed structural analysis of the importance of specific interactions in antigen recognition by S25-2. The Kdo disaccharide analogue Kdo-(2→4)-5,6-dehydro-Kdo lacks a 5-OH group on the second Kdo residue and has been cocrystallized with S25-2. The structure reveals that the modification of the Kdo residue at position 5 results in a rearrangement of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the antigen that allows it to assume a novel conformation in the antibody-combining site. The cross-reactive binding of S25-2 to this synthetic ligand highlights the adaptability of this antibody to non-natural synthetic analogues.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 01/2013; 69(Pt 1):2-5. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli infections, a leading cause of septic shock, remain a major threat to human health because of the fatal action to endotoxin (LPS). Therapeutic attempts to neutralize endotoxin currently focus on inhibiting the interaction of the toxic component lipid A with myeloid differentiating factor 2, which forms a trimeric complex together with Toll-like receptor 4 to induce immune cell activation. The 1.73-Å resolution structure of the unique endotoxin-neutralizing protective antibody WN1 222-5 in complex with the core region shows that it recognizes LPS of all E. coli serovars in a manner similar to Toll-like receptor 4, revealing that protection can be achieved by targeting the inner core of LPS and that recognition of lipid A is not required. Such interference with Toll-like receptor complex formation opens new paths for antibody sepsis therapy independent of lipid A antagonists.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2012; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune response of cows against the core oligosaccharide of Escherichia coli rough mutants (core types R1-R4, K-12 and J-5) was investigated after immunization with a synthetic glycoconjugate composed of deacylated LPS conjugated to hemocyanine (22 animals). Ab formation was measured by ELISA using LPS or deacylated LPS conjugated to BSA as an Ag. The glycoconjugate immunogens were used to vaccinate cows (36 animals), which were then challenged intramammarily with E. coli O 157 (K1 negative, R1 core type). Compared with control groups no protection was observed, although high titers against the R1 core type were detected in vaccinated animals. Western blots using the immune sera showed that the Ab response was directed against the core region and not against the O-antigen, which may explain the failure of the vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell surface mucins configure the cell surface by presenting extended protein backbones that are heavily O-glycosylated. The glycopeptide structures establish physicochemical properties at the cell surface that enable and block the formation of biologically important molecular complexes. Some mucins, such as MUC1, associate with receptor tyrosine kinases and other cell surface receptors, and engage in signal transduction in order to communicate information regarding conditions at the cell surface to the nucleus. In that context, the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (MUC1CT) receives phosphorylation signals from receptor tyrosine kinases and serine/threonine kinases, which enables its association with different signaling complexes that conduct these signals to the nucleus and perhaps other subcellular organelles. We have detected the MUC1CT at promoters of over 500 genes, in association with several different transcription factors, and have shown that promoter occupancy can vary under different growth factor conditions. However, the full biochemical nature of the nuclear forms of MUC1 and its function at these promoter regions remain undefined. I will present evidence that nuclear forms of the MUC1CT include extracellular and cytoplasmic tail domains. In addition, I will discuss evidence for a hypothesis that the MUC1CT possesses a novel catalytic function that enables remodeling of the transcription factor occupancy of promoters, and thereby engages in regulation of gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) WN1 222-5 recognizes a carbohydrate epitope in the inner core region of LPS that is shared by all strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica and is able to neutralize their endotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. Immunization of mice with mAb WN1 222-5 yielded several anti-idiotypic mAbs one of which (mAb S81-19) competitively inhibited binding of mAb WN1 222-5 to E. coli and Salmonella LPS. After immunization of rabbits with mAb S81-19, the serological responses towards LPS were characterized at intervals over two years. Whereas the serological response against the anti-idiotype developed as expected, the anti-anti-idiotypic response against LPS developed slowly and antibodies appeared after 200 d that bound to E. coli LPS of the R3 core-type and neutralized its TNF-α inducing capacity for human peripheral mononuclear cells. We describe the generation of a novel anti-idiotypic antibody that can induce LPS core-reactive antibodies upon immunization in rabbits and show that it is possible, in principle, to obtain LPS neutralizing antibodies by anti-idiotypic immunization against the mAb WN1 222-5. The mimicked epitope likely shares common determinants with the WN1 222-5 epitope, yet differences with respect to either affinity or specificity do exist, as binding to smaller oligosaccharides of the inner core was not observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of the antigen-binding fragment from the monoclonal antibody S64-4 in complex with a pentasaccharide bisphosphate fragment from chlamydial lipopolysaccharide has been determined by x-ray diffraction to 2.6 Å resolution. Like the well-characterized antibody S25-2, S64-4 displays a pocket formed by the residues of germline sequence corresponding to the heavy and light chain V gene segments that binds the terminal Kdo residue of the antigen; however, although S64-4 shares the same heavy chain V gene segment as S25-2, it has a different light chain V gene segment. The new light chain V gene segment codes for a combining site that displays greater affinity, different specificity, and allows a novel antigen conformation that brings a greater number of antigen residues into the combining site than possible in S25-2. Further, while antibodies in the S25-2 family use complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 to discriminate among antigens, S64-4 achieves its specificity via the new light chain V gene segment and resulting change in antigen conformation. These structures reveal an intriguing parallel strategy where two different combinations of germline-coded V gene segments can act as starting points for the generation of germline antibodies against chlamydial antigens and show how anti-carbohydrate antibodies can exploit the conformational flexibility of this class of antigens to achieve high affinity and specificity independently of CDR H3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of the antigen-binding fragment of the murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) S25-39 in the presence of several antigens representing chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) epitopes based on the bacterial sugar 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) have been determined at resolutions from 2.4 to 1.8 Å. The antigen-binding site of this antibody differs from the well-characterized antibody S25-2 by a single mutation away from the germline of asparagine H53 to lysine, yet this one mutation results in a significant increase in avidity across a range of antigens. A comparison of the two antibody structures reveals that the mutated Lys H53 forms additional hydrogen bonds and/or charged-residue interactions with the second Kdo residue of every antigen having two or more carbohydrate residues. Significantly, the NH53K mutation results from a single nucleotide substitution in the germline sequence common among a panel of antibodies raised against glycoconjugates containing carbohydrate epitopes of chlamydial LPS. Like S25-2, S25-39 displays significant induced fit of complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 upon antigen binding, with the unliganded structure possessing a conformation distinct from those reported earlier for S25-2. The four different observed conformations for CDR H3 suggest that this CDR has evolved to exploit the recognition potential of a flexible loop while minimizing the associated entropic penalties of binding by adopting a limited number of ordered conformations in the unliganded state. These observations reveal strategies evolved to balance adaptability and specificity in the germline antibody response to carbohydrate antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthesis of the title trisaccharide was accomplished by sugar chain extension starting from the non-reducing terminus: coupling of GlcpNAc with ld-Hepp, then adding Glcp-OAll. An alternative route started from the reducing end: coupling of ld-Hepp with Glcp-OAll, then addition of GlcpNAc. In the synthesis of the title disaccharide a modification of the first approach was employed. The allyl glycosides were coupled with cysteamine, activated with thiophosgene and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The neoglycoconjugates obtained were used in immunochemical studies of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against Escherichia coli K-12 lipopolysaccharide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydiae contain a rough-type lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of 3-deoxy-alpha-d-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid residues (Kdo). Two Kdo trisaccharides, 2.8/2.4- and 2.4/2.4-linked, and a branched 2.4[2.8]2.4-linked Kdo tetrasaccharide occur in Chlamydiaceae. While the 2.8/2.4-linked trisaccharide contains a family-specific epitope, the branched Kdo oligosaccharide occurs only in Chlamydophila psittaci and antibodies against it will be useful in human and veterinarian diagnostics. To overcome the generation of cross-reactive antibodies that bind with high affinity to a dominant epitope formed by 2.4/2.4-linked Kdo, we immunized mice with a synthetic 2.4[2.8]-linked branched Kdo trisaccharide and used phage display of scFv to isolate recombinant antibody fragments (NH2240-31 and SAG506-01) that recognize the branched Kdo oligosaccharide with a K(D) of less than 10 nM. Importantly, although these antibodies used germline genes coding for an inherited Kdo recognition site, they were able clearly to distinguish between 2.4[2.8]2.4- and 2.4/2.4-linked Kdo. Sequence determination, binding data, and X-ray structural analysis revealed the basis for the improved discrimination between similar Kdo ligands and indicated that the alteration of a stacking interaction from a phenylalanine residue in the center of the combining site to a tyrosine residue facing away from the center favors recognition of branched 2.4[2.8]2.4-linked Kdo residues. Immunofluorescence tests of infected cell monolayers using this antibody show specific staining of C. psittaci elementary bodies that allow it to be distinguished from other pathogenic chlamydiae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been identified to contain an inner-core structure expressing a Pseudomonas-specific epitope. This target structure is characterized by a highly phosphorylated and 7-O-carbamoyl-l-glycero-alpha-d-manno-heptopyranose (CmHep) and was found to be present in all human-pathogenic Pseudomonas species of the Palleroni (RNA)-classification I scheme. We raised and selected the monoclonal antibody S60-4-14 (mAb S60-4-14, subtype IgG1) from mice immunized with heat-killed Pseudomonas bacteria. The epitope of this mAb was found to reside in the inner-core structure of P. aeruginosa and, hence, successfully evaluated for the immunohistochemical detection of P. aeruginosa in formalin- or HOPE-fixed (Hepes-glutamic acid buffer-mediated organic solvent protection effect) and paraffin-embedded human lung tissue slices. Lung specimens, mainly from explanted lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, as well as P. aeruginosa isolates from patients suffering from CF and patients with extrapulmonar Pseudomonas infections were investigated by PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis with mAb S60-4-14. The results revealed an unequivocal coincidence of PCR and immunohistochemistry. Together with the Western blot results mAb S60-4-14 displays a potential diagnostic tool for the specific identification of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs of CF.
European journal of cell biology 12/2009; 89(1):25-33. · 3.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structures of antigen-binding fragments from two related monoclonal antibodies have been determined to high resolution in the presence of several carbohydrate antigens raised against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide. With the exception of CDR H3, antibodies S54-10 and S73-2 are both derived from the same set of germline gene segments as the previously reported structures S25-2 and S45-18. Despite this similarity, the antibodies differ in specificity and the mechanism by which they recognize their cognate antigen. S54-10 uses an unrelated CDR H3 to recognize its antigen in a fashion analogous to S45-18; however, S73-2 recognizes the same antigen as S45-18 and S54-10 in a wholly unrelated manner. Together, these antibody-antigen structures provide snapshots into how the immune system uses the same set of inherited germline gene segments to generate multiple possible specificities that allow for differential recognition of epitopes and how unrelated CDR H3 sequences can result in convergent binding of clinically relevant bacterial antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to explore the structural basis for adaptability in near germline monoclonal antibodies (mAb), we have examined the specificity of the promiscuous mAb S67-27 to both naturally derived carbohydrate antigens and a variety of synthetic nonnatural antigens based on the bacterial lipopolysaccharide component 3-deoxy-alpha-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo). One such analog, a 7-O-methyl (7-O-Me) Kdo disaccharide, was found to bind to the antibody with at least 30-fold higher affinity than any other antigen tested. The structure of S67-27 in complex with this analog and three other naturally occurring Kdo antigens revealed that the enhanced affinity of the mAb for the synthetic analog was accomplished by the strategic positioning of CDR H3 away from a conserved Kdo binding pocket that allowed the formation of new antibody-antigen contacts. Furthermore, the comparison of this structure with the structures of related mAbs revealed how the position and structure of CDR H3 influence the specificity or promiscuity of near-germline carbohydrate-recognizing antibodies by altering the architecture of the combining site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry were used to elucidate the structure of the rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Acinetobacter lwoffii F78. As a prominent feature, the core region of this LPS contained the disaccharide alpha-Kdo-(2-->8)-alpha-Kdo (Kdo=3-deoxy-d-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid), which so far has been identified only in chlamydial LPS. In serological investigations, the anti-chlamydial LPS monoclonal antibody S25-2, which is specific for the epitope alpha-Kdo-(2-->8)-alpha-Kdo, reacted with A. lwoffii F78 LPS. Thus, an LPS was identified outside Chlamydiaceae that contains a Chlamydia-specific LPS epitope in its core region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the molecular basis of antigen recognition by germline antibodies, we have determined to high resolution the structures of the near-germline monoclonal antibody S25-2 in complex with seven distinct carbohydrate antigens based on the bacterial sugar 3-deoxy-alpha-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo). In contrast to previous findings, the inherited germline Kdo monosaccharide binding site is not restricted to this bacterial sugar but is able to accommodate an array of substitutions and chemical modifications of Kdo, including naturally occurring antigens containing the related monosaccharide d-glycero-alpha-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid as well as nonterminal Kdo residues. However, we show by surface plasmon resonance and ELISA how antibody S25-2 specificity is so dependent on the context in which the antigen is presented that a free disaccharide displays strong binding while the same lipid-A-bound disaccharide does not bind. These structures provide insight into how inherited germline genes code for immunoglobulins of limited flexibility that are capable of binding a range of epitopes from which affinity-matured antibodies are generated.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2008; 377(2):450-68. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) elicits an immune reaction which is responsible for many of the harmful effects seen in septic shock patients. The eradication of bacteria by antibiotics is insufficient to resolve the pathology due to the lack of LPS neutralization. LPS-neutralizing antibodies have been described; however, these were specific for the serotype of the infecting bacteria and thus not useful for the treatment of septic shock patients. Structural analyses revealed that the LPS structures of Escherichia coli and Salmonella are structurally conserved in the inner core region. Using whole LPS and a panel of neoglycoconjugates containing purified LPS oligosaccharides, which we have obtained from all E. coli core types (K-12, R1, R2, R3 and R4), Salmonella enterica, and the mutant strain E. coli J-5, we have identified an epitope which is bound with high affinity by the monoclonal antibody WN1 222-5, which has been shown previously shown to be cross-reactive against a large collection of blood, fecal, and urinary isolates of E. coli, S. enterica, some Citrobacter, independently of the serotype [Di Padova, F.E., Brade, H., Barclay, G.R., Poxton, I.R., Liehl, E., Schuetze, E., Kocher, H.P., Ramsay, G., Schreier, M.H., McClelland, D.B., Rietschel, E.T., 1993. A broadly cross-protective monoclonal antibody binding to Escherichia coli and Salmonella lipopolysaccharides. Infect. Immun. 61, 3863-3872]. Importantly, WN1 222-5 was protective in various models of endotoxic shock. The minimal structural element necessary for high-affinity binding consists of R(1)-alpha-d-Glcp-(1-->3)-[l-alpha-d-Hepp-(1-->7)]-l-alpha-d-Hepp 4P-(1-->3)-R(2) (R(1), R(2)=additional sugars of LPS) in which the side-chain heptose and the 4-phosphate on the branched heptose are the main determinants of the epitope. Additional sugars of the outer core (R(1)) enhance the affinity, whereas loss of an intact Kdo region and/or lipid A (R(2)) prevent binding. The identification of the epitope provides the structural basis for the rational development of a potential vaccine against E. coli LPS.
International Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2007; 297(5):321-40. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of structures and functions of pattern recognition proteins are important for understanding pathogen recognition mechanisms in host defense and for elucidating the activation mechanism of innate immune reactions. In this study, a novel 40-kDa protein, named LPS recognition protein (LRP), was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free plasma of larvae of the large beetle, Holotrichia diomphalia. LRP exhibited agglutinating activities on Escherichia coli, but not on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. This E. coli-agglutinating activity was preferentially inhibited by the rough-type LPS with a complete core oligosaccharide. LRP consists of 317 aa residues and six repeats of an epidermal growth factor-like domain. Recombinant LRP expressed in a baculovirus system also showed E. coli agglutination activity in vitro and was able to neutralize LPS by inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 production in mouse bone marrow mast cells. Furthermore, E. coli coated with the purified LRP were more rapidly cleared in the Holotrichia larvae than only E. coli, indicating that this protein participates in the clearance of E. coli in vivo. The three amino-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains of LRP, but not the three carboxyl epidermal growth factor-like domains, are involved in the LPS-binding activity. Taken together, this LRP functions as a pattern recognition protein for LPS and plays a role as an innate immune protein.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 177(3):1838-45. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydophila psittaci but not of Chlamydophila pneumoniae or Chlamydia trachomatis contains a tetrasaccharide of 3-deoxy-alpha-d-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) of the sequence Kdo(2-->8)[Kdo(2-->4)] Kdo(2-->4)Kdo. After immunization with the synthetic neoglycoconjugate antigen Kdo(2-->8)[Kdo(2-->4)]Kdo(2-->4) Kdo-BSA, we obtained the mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) S69-4 which was able to differentiate C. psittaci from Chlamydophila pecorum, C. pneumoniae, and C. trachomatis in double labeling experiments of infected cell monolayers and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The epitope specificity of mAb S69-4 was determined by binding and inhibition assays using bacteria, LPS, and natural or synthetic Kdo oligosaccharides as free ligands or conjugated to BSA. The mAb bound preferentially Kdo(2-->8)[Kdo(2-->4)]Kdo(2-->4)Kdo(2-->4) with a K(d) of 10 microM, as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for the monovalent interaction using mAb or single chain Fv. Cross-reactivity was observed with Kdo(2-->4)Kdo(2-->4) Kdo but not with Kdo(2-->8)Kdo(2-->4)Kdo, Kdo disaccharides in 2-->4- or 2-->8-linkage, or Kdo monosaccharide. MAb S69-4 was able to detect LPS on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates in amounts of <10 ng by immunostaining. Due to the high sensitivity achieved in this assay, the antibody also detected in vitro products of cloned Kdo transferases of Chlamydia. The antibody can therefore be used in medical and veterinarian diagnostics, general microbiology, analytical biochemistry, and studies of chlamydial LPS biosynthesis. Further contribution to the general understanding of carbohydrate-binding antibodies was obtained by a comparison of the primary structure of mAb S69-4 to that of mAb S45-18 of which the crystal structure in complex with its ligand has been elucidated recently (Nguyen et al., 2003, Nat. Struct. Biol., 10, 1019-1025).