Chunsheng Kang

Tianjin Medical University, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (101)289.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As a commonly mutated form of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII strongly promotes glioblastoma (GBM) tumor invasion and progression, but the mechanisms underlying this promotion are not fully understood.
    Neuro-oncology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Glioma is one of the most aggressive and lethal human brain tumors. Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in cancers, including glioma. Previous studies reported that miR-124 levels were downregulated in glioma specimens. Here, we further investigate the potential role of miR-124 in glioma.
    Neuro-oncology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are involved in the oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an important gene expression regulator to OSCC. miR-21 induction by STAT3 has been reported in multiple human cancers. In the present study, we found that STAT3 (-/p) expression was positively correlated with miR-21 in 60 OSCC samples. A reporter gene assay showed that miR-21 overexpression was dependent on STAT3 activation. WP1066, a small molecular inhibitor of STAT3, was used to suppress STAT3 expression in OSCC cells. TSCCA and TCA8113 showed reduction in tumor cell proliferation, invasion ability and miR-21 expression by WP1066 treatment. In addition, the expression of miR-21 target proteins [programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)] was upregulated. Restored STAT3 expression by IL-6 induced miR-21 overexpression, which further confirmed the correlation between STAT3 and miR-21. WP1066 inhibited tumor growth and induced tumor cell apoptosis in the TSCCA xenograft tumor model. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining indicated that STAT3 (-/p), Ki67, Bcl-2 and MMP-2 expressions decreased in the WP1066-treated group; PDCD4, TIMP-3 and PTEN expression increased simulta-neously. The present study provides evidence that targeting STAT3 could regulate OSCC cell growth in a miR-21-dependent manner and WP1066 could be a novel candidate drug to treat OSCC by inhibiting STAT3/miR-21 axis.
    Oncology Reports 03/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: microRNA (miRNA) sponges are RNA molecules with repeated miRNA binding sequences that can sequester miRNAs from their endogenous target mRNAs, and a stably expressed miRNA sponge is particularly valuable for long-term loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and is characterized by extraordinarily angiogenic, invasive and migratory capabilities, hallmark features that make the disease incurable. Nonetheless, improvements in clinical treatment and a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms have been achieved within the past few decades. miR-23b has previously been found to function as a tumor oncogene in GBM. In the present study, we employed an microRNA sponge that was forcibly expressed using a lentiviral vector to knock down the expression of miR-23b in vitro and in vivo and assessed the pleiotropic effects on glioma angiogenesis, invasion and migration. We demonstrated that the inhibition of miR-23b in glioma cell lines and orthotopic tumor mouse models resulted in a reduction in tumor malignancy, through the downregulation of HIF-1α, β-catenin, MMP2, MMP9, VEGF and ZEB1 and increased expression of VHL and E-cadherin. Therefore, we suggest that this miR-23b sponge could be developed into a promising anticancer therapy either alone or in combination with current targeted therapies.
    Oncology Reports 02/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The application of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the therapeutics of glioma and other human diseases is an area of intense interest. However, it's still a great challenge to interpret the functional consequences of using miRNAs in glioma therapy. Here, we examined paired deep sequencing expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs from human glioma cell lines after manipulating the levels of miRNAs miR-181d, -21, and -23b, as well as transcriptional regulators β-catenin, CBP, and STAT3. An integrated approach was used to identify functional miRNA-pathway regulatory networks (MPRNs) responding to each manipulation. MiRNAs were identified to regulate glioma related biological pathways collaboratively after manipulating the level of either post-transcriptional or transcriptional regulators, and functional synergy and crosstalk was observed between different MPRNs. MPRNs responsive to multiple interventions were found to occupy central positions in the comprehensive MPRN (cMPRN) generated by integrating all the six MPRNs. Finally, we identified a core module comprising 14 miRNAs and five pathways that could predict the survival of glioma patients and represent potential targets for glioma therapy. Our results provided novel insight into miRNA regulatory mechanisms implicated in therapeutic interventions and could offer more inspiration to miRNA-based glioma therapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e101903. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of glioma patients is usually poor, especially in patients with glioblastoma (World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV). The regulatory functions of microRNA (miRNA) on genes have important implications in glioma cell survival. However, there are not many studies that have investigated glioma survival by integrating miRNAs and genes while also considering pathway structure. In this study, we performed sample-matched miRNA and mRNA expression profilings to systematically analyze glioma patient survival. During this analytical process, we developed pathway-based random walk to identify a glioma core miRNA-gene module, simultaneously considering pathway structure information and multi-level involvement of miRNAs and genes. The core miRNA-gene module we identified was comprised of four apparent sub-modules; all four sub-modules displayed a significant correlation with patient survival in the testing set (P-values≤0.001). Notably, one sub-module that consisted of 6 miRNAs and 26 genes also correlated with survival time in the high-grade subgroup (WHO grade III and IV), P-value = 0.0062. Furthermore, the 26-gene expression signature from this sub-module had robust predictive power in four independent, publicly available glioma datasets. Our findings suggested that the expression signatures, which were identified by integration of miRNA and gene level, were closely associated with overall survival among the glioma patients with various grades.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96908. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combined treatment of chemotherapeutant and microRNA (miR) has been proven to be a viable strategy for enhancing chemosensitivity due to its synergistic effect for tumor therapy. However, the co-delivery of drugs and genes remains a major challenge as they lack efficient co-delivery carriers. In this study, three amphiphilic star-branched copolymers comprising polylactic acid (PLA) and polydimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) with AB3, (AB3)2,and (AB3)3 molecular architectures were synthesized respectively by a combination of ring-opening polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, and click chemistry via an "arm-first" approach. The star copolymers possessed a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) and formed nano-sized micelles with positive surface charges in water as well as exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity than PEI 25 kDa. Nevertheless, their gene transfection efficiency and tumor inhibition ability showed a remarkable dependence on their molecular architecture. The (AB3)3 architecture micelle copolymer exhibited the highest transfection efficiency, about 2.5 times higher than PEI. In addition, after co-delivering DOX and miR-21 inhibitor (miR-21i) into LN229 glioma cells, the micelles could mediate escaping miR-21i from lysosome degradation and the release of DOX to the nucleus, which significantly decreased the miR-21 expression. Moreover, co-delivery of DOX and miR-21i surprisingly exhibited an anti-proliferative efficiency compared with DOX or the miR-21i treatment alone. These results demonstrated that amphiphilic star-branched copolymers are highly promising for their combinatorial delivery of genes and hydrophobic therapeutants.
    Biomaterials 12/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioma is the most common and fatal primary brain tumour with poor prognosis; however, the functional roles of miRNAs in glioma malignant progression are insufficiently understood. Here, we used an integrated approach to identify miRNA functional targets during glioma malignant progression by combining the paired expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs across 160 Chinese glioma patients, and further constructed the functional miRNA-mRNA regulatory network. As a result, most tumour-suppressive miRNAs in glioma progression were newly discovered, whose functions were widely involved in gliomagenesis. Moreover, three miRNA signatures, with different combinations of hub miRNAs (regulations≥30) were constructed, which could independently predict the survival of patients with all gliomas, high-grade glioma and glioblastoma. Our network-based method increased the ability to identify the prognostic biomarkers, when compared with the traditional method and random conditions. Hsa-miR-524-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p, shared by these three signatures, acted as protective factors and their expression decreased gradually during glioma progression. Functional analysis of these miRNA signatures highlighted their critical roles in cell cycle and cell proliferation in glioblastoma malignant progression, especially hsa-miR-524-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p exhibited dominant regulatory activities. Therefore, network-based biomarkers are expected to be more effective and provide deep insights into the molecular mechanism of glioma malignant progression.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytic gliomas are the most common type of human primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. MicroRNAs(miRs) are frequently deregulated in gliomas and play an oncogenic or tumor suppressor role. In our previous study we found that miR-19a and miR-19b were up-regulated in malignant glioma cell lines by microRNA array. For further validation of this finding, the expression of miR-19a and miR-19b was detected by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization(ISH) in 8 malignant glioma cell lines, 43 freshly resected glioma samples and 75 archival paraffin embedded glioma specimens with different grades of malignancy in the present study. The results demonstrate that miR-19a and miR-19b are overexpressed in glioma cell lines and astrocytic glioma tissues, and their expression level is positively correlated with tumor grades. Additionally, the tumor suppressor gene PTEN is identified as the target of miR-19a and miR-19b by Luciferase assay. It is speculated that miR-19a and miR-19b may have an oncogenic role in gliomagenesis at least partially via the negative regulation of PTEN and the molecular mechanism of gliomagenesis in which miR 19a and miR-19b involved should be investigated further.
    Pathology & Oncology Research 07/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extensive involvement of miRNAs in cancer pathobiology has opened avenues for drug development based on oncomir inhibition. Dicer is the core enzyme in miRNA processing that cleaves the terminal loop of precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) to generate mature miRNA duplexes. Using the 3D structure of the Dicer binding site on the pre-miR-21 oncomir, we conducted an in silico high throughput screen for small molecules that block miR-2 maturation. By this method we identified a specific small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, which blocked the ability of Dicer to process pre-miR-21 to mature miR-21. AC1MMYR2 upregulated expression of PTEN, PDCD4 and RECK and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the induction of E-cadherin expression and the downregulation of mesenchymal markers, thereby suppressing proliferation, survival and invasion in glioblastoma, breast cancer and gastric cancer cells. As a single agent in vivo, AC1MMYR2 repressed tumor growth, invasiveness and metastasis, increasing overall host survival with no observable tissue cytotoxicity in orthotopic models. Our results offer a novel, high throughput method to screen for small molecules inhibitors of miRNA maturation, presenting AC1MMYR2 as a broadly useful candidate antitumor drug.
    Cancer Research 06/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a group of microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be dysregulated in gliomas, and involved in glioma development. However, the effect of miRNA-miRNA functional networks on gliomas is poorly understood. In this study, we identified that FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS)-mediated miR-181b/miR-21 signalling was critical for glioma progression. Using microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found increased FOS in high grade gliomas. FOS depletion (via FOS-shRNA), inhibited invasion and promoted apoptosis in glioma cells. Using microarrays, combined with Pearson correlation analysis, we found FOS positively correlated with miR-21 expression. Reduction of FOS inhibited miR-21 expression by binding to the miR-21 promoter using luciferase reporter assays. Introduction of miR-21 abrogated FOS knockdown-induced cell invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-181b modulated FOS expression by directly targeting the binding site within the 3'UTR. Expression of FOS with a FOS cDNA lacking 3'UTR overrided miR-181b-induced miR-21 expression and cell function. Finally, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) analysis revealed a significant correlation in miR-181b, FOS and miR-21 expression in nude mouse tumour xenograft and human glioma tissues. To our knowledge, it is the first time to demonstrate that miR-181b/FOS/miR-21 signalling plays a critical role in the progression of gliomas, providing important clues for understanding the key roles of transcription factor mediated miRNA-miRNA functional network in the regulation of gliomas.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 06/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: miR-146b-5p is frequently down-regulated in solid tumours, including prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma. However, the tumour-suppressive effects of miR-146b-5p in malignant gliomas have not been investigated thoroughly. Here, we found that decreased miR-146b-5p expression was strongly correlated with chromosome 10q loss in gliomas, especially glioblastomas. The overexpression of miR-146b-5p in glioblastoma cell lines led to MMP16 mRNA silencing, MMP2 inactivation, and the inhibition of tumour cell metastasis. Our results suggest that the restoration of miR-146b-5p expression may be a feasible approach for inhibiting the migration and invasion of malignant gliomas.
    Cancer letters 06/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in directing cell fate during the embryonic development of animals and humans. To investigate the effects of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on gastrointestinal development and differentiation, we studied the expression pattern of β-catenin, a key component of the pathway, in the gastrointestinal tissues of embryonic and perinatal rats. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression levels of β-catenin in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat embryos at days 13, 18 and 21 and in SD rats at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days of age. We observed that the expression of β-catenin was greater and more diffuse in the gastrointestinal tissues of rat embryos at days 18 and 21 of gestation and in SD rats at days 1 and 3. In conclusion, our data suggest that β-catenin also plays an important role in the development of gastrointestinal tissues during the middle and late embryonic periods and the early postnatal period.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 06/2013; 5(6):1598-1602. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual's susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development. METHODS: We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case--control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform. RESULTS: In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas.
    BMC Cancer 05/2013; 13(1):234. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ki-67 is an excellent indicator of glioma cell growth. However, limited information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying abnormal expression of Ki-67 in glioma tissue. The aim of this study is to identify Ki-67 specific miRNA-mRNA interactions on basis of miRNA and mRNA expression profilings. METHODS: We performed a large-scale miRNA (n=829) and mRNA (n=29421) expression profiling in primary glioblastoma multiforme (pGBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) tissues (with an aim to investigate Ki-67 related miRNAs and mRNAs. From target prediction databases, the targeting relationships between Ki-67 specific miRNAs and mRNAs were established, and functions of these mRNAs were analyzed by DAVID. The functional verifications of the candidate miRNA were also performed in LN229 cell line. RESULTS: High expression level of Ki-67 protein predicted a shorter survival time for patients with AA. Integrated analysis of profiling data from pGBM and AA revealed 4 Ki-67 positively and 5 negatively correlated miRNAs, along with the top 12 Ki-67 positively and 2 negatively correlated mRNAs. By means of target prediction, we found that the target mRNAs employed by miR-218 were the most significant among Ki-67 specific mRNAs. Up-regulation of miR-218 was further demonstrated to reduce Ki-67 expression, promote apoptosis, and induce G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in LN229 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 protein may be regulated by specific miRNA-mRNA interactions which may contribute to the proliferation of glioma cells.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, many studies have found that the miR-106b ~25 cluster plays an oncogenic role in tumor progression. However, the precise role of each microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cluster is not yet clear. In the present study, we examined the expression of miR-106b in glioma samples and a tissue microarray by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively, finding that miR-106b is overexpressed in the majority of gliomas. Meanwhile, the expression of miR-106b was positively correlated with tumor grade (p < 0.05). The transfection of a miR-106b anti-sense oligonucleotide (ASON) into three human glioma cell lines (U251, LN229 and TJ905) suppressed the proliferation of these cells. Moreover, the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice treated with miR-106b ASON was significantly impaired. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that RBL2 may be the target of miR-106b, and dual-luciferase reporter assays identified RBL2, but not RB1 or RBL1, as a target of miR-106b. These results suggest that miR-106b facilitates glioma cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression through the negative regulation of RBL2.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we found that microRNA (miRNA)-200a suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling by interacting with β-catenin, thereby inhibiting migration, invasion and proliferation. However, the mechanism involved in this suppression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of miR-200a regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric carcinoma cells, and confirmed the tumor suppressor role of miR-200a in vivo. The expressions of miRNA-200a, -200b and -200c, identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization, were downregulated and inversely correlated with WHO grades of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA). The expression of the potential miR-200a target genes ZEB1 and ZEB2 was detected immunohistochemically. These examinations used the same tissue microarrays to analyze the relationships between miR-200a and potential target genes. The expression of miR-200a and ZEB1/ZEB2 in the same GA tissue microarrays was inversely related. Restored miR-200a expression inhibited tumor growth in nude mice harboring subcutaneous SGC7901 xenografts. The expression of N-cadherin, β-catenin, Twist1 and Snail2 decreased, and E-cadherin levels increased, when miR-200a was elevated, as tested by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Similar results were observed in vivo. We found upregulated miR-200a expression to increase E-cadherin and suppress the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2 in GA, thus delaying tumor growth in vivo. The effect of miR-200a on Wnt/β-catenin signaling may provide a therapeutic target against EMT.
    Oncology Reports 01/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulator PRDM1 controls cell-fate decisions and has been implicated in human tumorigenesis as a tumor suppressor. However, its pathological role in glioma remains elusive. In this study, we showed that PRDM1 protein levels were inversely correlated with the pathological grade of gliomas and were predictive of patient survival in a retrospective analysis. Restored expression of PRDM1 inhibited proliferation and suppressed invasion by glioma cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed that PRDM1 attenuated glioma malignancy by negatively modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling and this modulation was dependent on the Wnt inhibitor Dkk1. Using bioinformatics and biological approaches, we found that PRDM1 was a direct target of miR-30a-5p, and PRDM1 dysfunction was attributable to miR-30a-5p-mediated repression. Our results provide evidence that PRDM1 deficiency contributes to the phenotype maintenance and pathogenesis of gliomas.
    Cancer letters 01/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9, play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of malignant gliomas. In the present study, the oncogenic role of MMP-9 in malignant glioma cells was investigated via antisense RNA blockade in vitro and in vivo. TJ905 malignant glioma cells were transfected with pcDNA3.0 vector expressing antisense MMP-9 RNA (pcDNA-ASMMP9), which significantly decreased MMP-9 expression, and cell proliferation was assessed. For in vivo studies, U251 cells, a human malignant glioma cell line, were implanted subcutaneously into 4- to 6-week-old BALB/c nude mice. The mice bearing well-established U251 gliomas were treated with intratumoral pcDNA-AS-MMP9-Lipofectamine complex (AS-MMP-9-treated group), subcutaneous injection of endostatin (endostatin-treated group), or both (combined therapy group). Mice treated with pcDNA (empty vector)-Lipofectamine served as the control group. Four or eight weeks later, the volume and weight of tumor, MMP-9 expression, microvessel density and proliferative activity were assayed. We demonstrate that pcDNA-AS-MMP9 significantly decreased MMP-9 expression and inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Volume and weight of tumor, MMP-9 expression, microvessel density and proliferative activity in the antisense-MMP-9-treated and therapeutic alliance groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The results suggest that MMP-9 not only promotes malignant glioma cell invasiveness, but also affects tumor cell proliferation. Blocking the expression of MMP-9 with antisense RNA substantially suppresses the malignant phenotype of glioma cells, and thus can be used as an effective therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.
    Neuroscience Bulletin 01/2013; · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that Notch signaling plays either oncogenic or tumor suppressive role in a variety of tumors, depending on the cellular context. However, in our previous study, we found that Notch1 was overexpressed while Notch2 downregulated in the majority of astrocytic gliomas with different grades as well as in glioblastoma cell lines U251 and A172. We had knocked down Notch1 by siRNA in glioblastoma cells, and identified that the cell growth and invasion were inhibited, whereas cell apoptosis was induced either in vitro or in vivo. For further clarification of the role of Notch2 in pathogenesis of gliomas, enforced overexpression of Notch2 was carried out with transfection of Notch2 expression plasmid in glioma cells and the cell growth, invasion and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo in the present study, and siRNA targeting Notch1 was used as a positive control in vivo. The results showed that upregulating Notch2 had the effect of suppressing cell growth and invasion as well as inducing apoptosis, just the same as the results of knocking down Notch1. Meanwhile, the activity of core signaling pathway-EGFR/PI3K/AKT in astrocytic glioma cells was repressed. Thus, the present study reveals, for the first time, that Notch1 and Notch2 play different roles in the biological processes of astrocytic gliomas. Knocking down the Notch1 or enforced overexpression of Notch2 both modulate the astrocytic glioma phenotype, and the mechanism by which Notch1 and 2 play different roles in the glioma growth should be further investigated.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53654. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
289.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Tianjin Medical University
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2013
    • Capital Medical University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Nanjing Medical University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Nanjing, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2012
    • Tianjin Huanhu Hospital
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2011–2012
    • Beijing Tiantan Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Harbin Medical University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Harbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2009–2012
    • Tianjin University
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Tianjin, Tianjin Shi, China