[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corrosion resistance and electrical properties of carbon/chromium-titanium-nitride multilayer coatings on stainless steel, Journal of Power Sources (2013), doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.103. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon films are deposited on 304 stainless steel (SS304) by close field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating using different substrate bias voltages and target currents to improve the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity of bipolar plates made of SS304 in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The surface morphology, Raman scattering spectra, corrosion resistance, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), and contact angle with water of the carbon films are determined. A dense carbon film is produced on the SS304 by this technique and the corrosion resistance is improved significantly. The ICR value diminishes drastically and water contact angle increases after deposition. In addition, the passive current density in the simulated PEMFC environment decreases initially, increases as the substrate bias voltage is increased, and drops with decreasing target current. As the substrate bias is increased, the ICR between the carbon film and carbon paper exhibits an initial diminishing trend and then increases, but the effect of the target current on the ICR is not as substantial as that of the bias voltage.
Thin Solid Films 03/2013; 531:320–327. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of dual Ti and C ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and surface conductivity of 316L stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are investigated. The ion-implanted SS bipolar plates are assembled into single cells to evaluate the performance and improvement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the presence of the implanted layer and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) discloses an amorphous phase together with an underlying layer with fine grains on the surface of the Ti0.5C0.5 specimen due to ion collision. On the other hand, the surface microstructure of Ti0.5C2 consists of a precipitated nanophase layer, an amorphous underlying layer, and a zone with refined grains between the implanted surface and substrate. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of Ti0.5C0.5 is reduced by 6.5 times due to the Ti and C enriched surface and amorphous and fine grain underlayer. Electrochemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show reduced current density and improved corrosion resistance as a result of implantation of a proper ion fluence. According to the single cell evaluation, the peak power density of the ion-implanted bipolar plate increases from 566.5 mW cm− 2 to 709.8 mW cm− 2 and the power density at 0.6 V increases by about 50% compared to those measured from the single cell assembled with unimplanted SS bipolar plates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrochemical behavior and change in the passive film formation of SS316L are investigated under polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) simulated (pH from 3 to 6 containing F−, SO42− and Cl− anions) and accelerated conditions (0.5 M and 1 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF). Potentiodynamic, potentiostatic, and EIS measurements are performed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of the SS316L specimens in both the anode and cathode PEMFC environments. The chemical composition of the passive film, surface topography of the specimens, and degree of metal ion release is characterized by XPS, SEM, and ICP-OES, respectively. The results reveal that the nature of the passive film depends on the pH value, external medium/environment, as well as applied potential during polarization. The corrosion behavior of SS316L is closely related to the chemical composition and structure of the passive film.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2011; 36(20):13032-13042.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major concerns of bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are their corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance (ICR). Silver is well known for its excellent conductivity and good corrosion resistance. In this study, the performance of austenitic stainless steel 316L (SS316L) implanted with Ag is evaluated in the simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environment. The potentiodynamic test reveals that Ag implant improves the corrosion resistance of SS316L. The corrosion potential of SS316L shifts towards the positive direction from −0.30 V vs SCE to −0.04 V vs SCE in the anode environment and the passivation current density at 0.6 V is reduced from 11.26 μA cm−2 to 8.25 μA cm−2 in the cathode environment. The potentiostatic tests reveal a significant decrease from 10 μA cm−2 to 0.7 μA cm−2 after Ag implantation. Furthermore, the chemical stability in the simulated cathode environment and conductivity are improved after Ag implantation. The beneficial effects can be attributed to the addition of silver to the surface and reduction in the passive layer thickness caused by the ion implantation.Research highlights▶ Ion implantation decreases the thickness of the passive layer and the silver-rich layer is about 45 nm thick. ▶ The corrosion resistance and polarization resistance are improved by the silver-rich surface layer which is chemically stable in the simulated PEMFC cathode environment. ▶ Silver ion implantation decreases the ICR of SS316L substantially due to reduction in the passive layer thickness and increased amounts of silver and nickel. ▶ Introduction of silver by ion implantation can improve the performance of stainless steel bipolar plates while needing a small dose of silver compared to other coating methods.
Materials Chemistry and Physics. 01/2011; 126:6-11.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of titanium ion implantation on the surface chemical composition, roughness, and microstructure, as well as corrosion mechanism of 316L stainless steel in acid solution are investigated. The bare SS316L has a polycrystalline structure containing second-phase inclusions. These defects are prone to pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion as observed by SEM. After Ti ion implantation, the outer surface is completely amorphized and homogenized and the region underneath is partly disordered. Consequently, localized corrosion is avoided and the sample undergoes general corrosion. With increasing ion implantation voltages, the surface roughness increases and the corrosion resistance decreases due to more extensive radiation damage as result of energetic ion bombardment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elastic properties of a thermally sprayed coating were determined by a three-point bending (3PB) test and nanoindentation,
but different results were obtained by the two methods. The microstructure revealed by scanning electron microscopy shows
the existence of pores which decrease the overall resistance of the coating to elastic deformation. Therefore, the overall
mechanical properties determined by the 3PB test are influenced by pores. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of
the materials determined by nanoindentation are rarely influenced by pores, as indentations are normally made far away from
pores. As a result, the Young’s modulus determined by the 3PB test is lower than that determined by nanoindentation. Selection
of the method to determine the Young’s modulus of the coating must be carried out with careful consideration.
KeywordsThree-point bending–Nanoindentation–Young’s modulus–Thermally sprayed coating
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 01/2011; 8(3):355-361. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon film has been deposited on 304 stainless steel (SS304) using close field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP) to improve the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity of SS304 acting as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The corrosion resistance, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), surface morphology and contact angle with water of the bare and carbon-coated SS304 are investigated. The carbon-coated SS304 shows good corrosion resistance in the simulated cathode and anode PEMFC environment. The ICR between the carbon-coated SS304 and the carbon paper is 8.28–2.59mΩcm2 under compaction forces between 75 and 360Ncm−2. The contact angle of the carbon-coated SS304 with water is 88.6°, which is beneficial to water management in the fuel cell stack. These results indicate that the carbon-coated SS304 exhibits high corrosion resistance, low ICR and hydrophobicity and is a promising candidate for bipolar plates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present work, austenitic stainless steel 316L (SS316L) samples were implanted with Ni and Ni-Cr. A nickel-rich layer about 100 nm in thickness and a Ni-Cr enriched layer about 60 nm thick are formed on the surface of SS316L. The effects of ion implantation on the corrosion performance of SS316L are investigated in a 0.5 M H2SO4 with 2 ppm HF solution at 80°C by open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests. The samples after the potentiostatic test are analyzed by XPS. The results indicate that the composition of the passive film change from a mixture of Fe oxides and Cr oxide to a Cr oxide dominated passive film after the potentiostatic test. The solutions after the potentiostatic test are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results reveal that Fe is selectively dissolved in all cases and a proper Ni and Ni-Cr implant fluence can greatly improve the corrosion resistance of SS316L in the simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCS) environment. They are in agreement with the electrochemical test results that the bare SS316L has the highest dissolution rate in both cathode and anode environments and the Ni and Ni-Cr implantation reduce markedly the dissolution rate. After the potentiostatic test the interfacial contact resistance (ICR) values are also measured. Ni and Ni-Cr are enriched in the passive film formed in the simulated PEMFC cathode environment after ion implantation thereby providing better conductivity than that formed in the anode one. A significant improvement of ICR is achieved for the SS316L implanted with Ni and Ni-Cr as compared to the bare SS316L, which is attributed to the reduction in passive layer thickness caused by Ni and Ni-Cr implantation. The ICR values for implanted specimens increase with increasing dose.
Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering 01/2010; 4(7):918-930.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The corrosion behavior and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of niobium implanted SS316L used as the bipolar plate in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are investigated. The ICR values of the bare and niobium implanted SS316L are measured to evaluate the electrical conductivity. The effects of ion implantation on the corrosion behavior are investigated by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in the simulated PEMFC anode and cathode environments. The solutions after the potentiostatic test are analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The surface topography of the samples before and after the potentiostatic test is monitored by SEM in order to investigate the mechanism and degree of corrosion. The XPS results indicate that the composition on the surface is altered by ion implantation. The electrochemical results reveal that the passivation current density of the Nb implanted SS316L decreases and has higher chemical stability in the simulated PEMFC environment. However, the ion implantation fluence affects the current density. The ICP results are in agreement with those of the electrochemical test disclosing that the bare SS316L has the highest dissolution rate in both the cathode and anode environments and niobium implantation reduces the dissolution rate significantly. SEM shows that the bare SS316L undergoes serious corrosion whereas after Nb ion implantation, corrosion is greatly retarded. The XPS depth profiles indicate that a passive film with a new composition consisting mainly of niobium oxide is formed after the potentiostatic test. Our results suggest that niobium implantation with proper ion fluences can significantly improve the corrosion resistance and the electric conductivity of SS316L in the simulated PEMFC environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Ni–Cr enriched layer about 60 nm thick with improved conductivity is formed on the surface of austenitic stainless steel 316L (SS316L) by ion implantation. The electrochemistry results reveal that a proper Ni–Cr implant fluence can greatly improve the corrosion resistance of SS316L in the simulated PEMFC environment. The samples after the potentiostatic test are also analyzed by XPS and the ICR values are measured. The XPS results indicate that the composition of the passive film change from a mixture of Fe oxides and Cr oxide to a Cr oxide dominated passive film after the potentiostatic test. Hence, the ICR increases after polarization due to depletion of iron in the passive film. Nickel is enriched in the passive film formed in the simulated PEMFC cathode environment after ion implantation thereby providing better conductivity than that formed in the anode one.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 01/2010; 35(2):690-700. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), a non-line-of-sight surface treatment technique suitable for bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, is conducted at low and high temperature to improve the corrosion resistance and conductivity of titanium sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that high-temperature (HT) nitrogen PIII produces a thick oxy-nitride layer on the titanium surface. This layer which provides good corrosion resistance and high electrical conductivity as verified by electrochemical tests, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) measurements renders the materials suitable for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. In comparison, the low-temperature (LT) PIII titanium sample exhibits poorer corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity than the untreated titanium control.
Journal of Power Sources 01/2010; 195(19):6798-6804. · 4.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interfacial adhesion measurement of a ceramic coating on a metal substrate is studied by three-point bending (3PB) technique.
In the measurement, interfacial cracks are induced during the 3PB test, and the interfacial energy release rate is calculated
from the released energy per unit crack surface area during crack extension under the fixed displacement conditions. A finite
element analysis (FEA) model encompassing the plastic behavior of the metal substrate is developed to simulate the 3PB test
and extract the energy data. The inputs to the FEA model include the crack length, the maximum and critical loads corresponding
to crack initiation, and the mechanical properties of the coating and substrate. A MoB/CoCr ceramic coating/stainless steel
substrate system is investigated by the technique for demonstrating the utility of the technique.
KeywordsInterfacial adhesion-Coating-Three-point bending-Energy release rate-Finite element analysis
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 01/2010; 7(3):391-398. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The desirable properties of the metallic bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are good corrosion resistance, high electrical conductance, hydrophobicity, and low cost. In this study, carbon films are deposited on stainless steel 316L (SS316L) samples by close field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The AFM, SEM, and Raman results show that the carbon film is dense, continuous, and amorphous. The corrosion resistance, hydrophobicity, and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the carbon coated steel are investigated and compared to those of uncoated SS316L. The deposited carbon film has high chemical inertness thereby significantly enhancing the corrosion resistance of the coated SS316L. Furthermore, the carbon coated SS316L is more hydrophobic and the resulting ICR is elevated to that of graphite. Our results indicate that the properties of the carbon coated SS316L are better than those of conventional graphite bipolar plates.
Diamond and Related Materials 01/2010; 19(11):1354-1361. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, effects of the residual stresses on the energy release rate (G) that characterizes the adhesion strength of coatings to substrates are studied with elasticity theory and finite element analysis (FEA). The cases studied are that the interfacial crack is induced by a lateral force from within the substrate on a circular central block that is separated from the substrate, and the crack front is supposed to be in circular shape. Closed-form solutions for G were obtained by elasticity theory for small deflections of coatings and an FEA model was set up that is appropriate for any deflection. The results show that the residual stresses can influence considerably both the energy release rate and the phase angle, therefore should be included in the measurements. The features of variation of the energy release rate with respect to the residual stresses are influenced by the critical buckling stress, and the geometry of the cracked system that includes the sizes of the crack and the central deflection. It is also shown that the present model with a central block of finite radius is necessary when the central block size is larger than the coating thickness. In addition, the elasticity solution yields a measurement of the residual stress from the material parameters and the geometry of the cracked system.
Mechanics of Materials - MECH MATER. 01/2009; 41(5):545-552.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper which has many favorable properties such as low cost, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as easy fabrication and joining is one of the main materials in lead frames, interconnects, and foils in flexible circuits. Furthermore, copper is one of the best antibacterial materials. However, unlike aluminum oxide or chromium oxide, the surface copper oxide layer does not render sufficient protection against oxidation. In this work, in order to improve the surface oxidation resistance of Cu, Al and N were introduced into copper by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and beam-line ion implantation (BII). The implantation fluences of Al and N were 2×1017ionscm−2 and 5×1016ionscm−2, respectively. The implanted and untreated copper samples were oxidized in air at 260°C for 1h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that both implantation methods can enhance the oxidation resistance of copper but to different extent. PIII is superior to BII in enhancing the oxidation resistance of copper. The effects and possible mechanisms are discussed.
Materials Chemistry and Physics - MATER CHEM PHYS. 01/2009; 116(2):519-522.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in situ growth of ZnO nanosheets has been demonstrated by our research group and the excellent electrical contact between the ZnO nanosheets and brass substrate enables many potential applications in gas sensing and photocatalytic degradation. However, problems arising from corrosion, especially that arising from chloride ions, are inevitable in the field. In this work, the corrosion behavior of these ZnO nanosheets is investigated in chloride solutions. Our results show that in a NaCl solution, the chloride ions can react with ZnO to form ZnCl2. When the NaCl concentration is relatively low (1wt%), the structure exhibits a strong passivation behavior but a higher concentration of chloride ions can accelerate the transformation from ZnO to ZnCl2. The results also disclose that a high concentration of NaCl weakens the passivation performance and when the concentration reaches 3wt%, the passivation ability vanishes completely.
Materials Chemistry and Physics - MATER CHEM PHYS. 01/2009; 115(1):439-443.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amorphous carbon (a-C) film about 3 μm in thickness is coated on 316L stainless steel by close field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The AFM and Raman results reveal that the a-C coating is dense and compact with a small size of graphitic crystallite and large number of disordered band. Interfacial contact resistance (ICR) results show that the surface conductivity of the bare SS316L is significantly increased by the a-C coating, with values of 8.3–5.2 mΩ cm2 under 120–210 N/cm2. The corrosion potential (Ecorr) shifts from about −0.3 V vs SCE to about 0.2 V vs SCE in both the simulated anode and cathode environments. The passivation current density is reduced from 11.26 to 3.56 μA/cm2 with the aid of the a-C coating in the simulated cathode environment. The a-C coated SS316L is cathodically protected in the simulated anode environment thereby exhibiting a stable and lower current density compared to the uncoated one in the simulated anode environment as demonstrated by the potentiostatic results.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 01/2009; 34(16):6771-6777. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure on the mechanical properties of (Ti,Al)N films deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering using a Ti–Al mosaic target at a substrate bias of −100 V is investigated. Nanoindentation tests reveal that with increasing N2 partial pressure, the film hardness and elastic modulus increase initially and then decrease afterwards. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus are 43.4 GPa and 430.8 GPa, respectively. The trend is believed to stem from the variations in the grain size and preferential orientation of the crystals in the (Ti,Al)N films fabricated at varying N2 partial pressure. The phenomenon is confirmed by results acquired using glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).