[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the underlying genetic defect in a patient with intellectual disability, seizures, ataxia, macrothrombocytopenia, renal and cardiac involvement, and abnormal protein glycosylation.
Genetic studies involved homozygosity mapping by 250K single nucleotide polymorphism array and SLC35A1 sequencing. Functional studies included biochemical assays for N-glycosylation and mucin-type O-glycosylation and SLC35A1-encoded cytidine 5'-monophosphosialic acid (CMP-sialic acid) transport after heterologous expression in yeast.
We performed biochemical analysis and found combined N- and O-glycosylation abnormalities and specific reduction in sialylation in this patient. Homozygosity mapping revealed homozygosity for the CMP-sialic acid transporter SLC35A1. Mutation analysis identified a homozygous c.303G>C (p.Gln101His) missense mutation that was heterozygous in both parents. Functional analysis of mutant SLC35A1 showed normal Golgi localization but 50% reduction in transport activity of CMP-sialic acid in vitro.
We confirm an autosomal recessive, generalized sialylation defect due to mutations in SLC35A1. The primary neurologic presentation consisting of ataxia, intellectual disability, and seizures, in combination with bleeding diathesis and proteinuria, is discriminative from a previous case described with deficient sialic acid transporter. Our study underlines the importance of sialylation for normal CNS development and regular organ function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(20):16656-69. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.315911
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The succinate receptor (also known as GPR91) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is closely related to the family of P2Y purinoreceptors. It is expressed in a variety of tissues, including blood cells, adipose tissue, the liver, retina, and kidney. In these tissues, this receptor and its ligand succinate have recently emerged as novel mediators in local stress situations, including ischemia, hypoxia, toxicity, and hyperglycemia. Amongst others, the succinate receptor is involved in recruitment of immune cells to transplanted tissues. Moreover, it was shown to play a key role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. However, most prominently, the role of locally increased succinate levels and succinate receptor activation in the kidney, stimulating the systemic and local renin-angiotensin system, starts to unfold: the succinate receptor is a key mediator in the development of hypertension and possibly fibrosis in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This makes the succinate receptor a promising drug target to counteract or prevent cardiovascular and fibrotic defects in these expanding disorders. Recent development of SUCNR1-specific antagonists opens novel possibilities for research in models for these disorders and may eventually provide novel opportunities for the treatment of patients.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 02/2012; 3:22. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2012.00022
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capa peptide receptor, capaR (CG14575), is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for the D. melanogaster capa neuropeptides, Drm-capa-1 and -2 (capa-1 and -2). To date, the capa peptide family constitutes the only known nitridergic peptides in insects, so the mechanisms and physiological function of ligand-receptor signalling of this peptide family are of interest. Capa peptide induces calcium signaling via capaR with EC₅₀ values for capa-1 = 3.06 nM and capa-2 = 4.32 nM. capaR undergoes rapid desensitization, with internalization via a b-arrestin-2 mediated mechanism but is rapidly re-sensitized in the absence of capa-1. Drosophila capa peptides have a C-terminal -FPRXamide motif and insect-PRXamide peptides are evolutionarily related to vertebrate peptide neuromedinU (NMU). Potential agonist effects of human NMU-25 and the insect -PRLamides [Drosophila pyrokinins Drm-PK-1 (capa-3), Drm-PK-2 and hugin-gamma [hugg]] against capaR were investigated. NMU-25, but not hugg nor Drm-PK-2, increases intracellular calcium ([Ca²⁺]i) levels via capaR. In vivo, NMU-25 increases [Ca²⁺]i and fluid transport by the Drosophila Malpighian (renal) tubule. Ectopic expression of human NMU receptor 2 in tubules of transgenic flies results in increased [Ca²⁺]i and fluid transport. Finally, anti-porcine NMU-8 staining of larval CNS shows that the most highly immunoreactive cells are capa-producing neurons. These structural and functional data suggest that vertebrate NMU is a putative functional homolog of Drm-capa-1 and -2. capaR is almost exclusively expressed in tubule principal cells; cell-specific targeted capaR RNAi significantly reduces capa-1 stimulated [Ca²⁺]i and fluid transport. Adult capaR RNAi transgenic flies also display resistance to desiccation. Thus, capaR acts in the key fluid-transporting tissue to regulate responses to desiccation stress in the fly.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29897. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029897
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The G protein-coupled succinate and α-ketoglutarate receptors are closely related to the family of P2Y purinoreceptors. Although the α-ketoglutarate receptor is almost exclusively expressed in the kidney, its function is unknown. In contrast, the succinate receptor, SUCRN1, is expressed in a variety of tissues, including blood cells, adipose tissue, liver, retina, and the kidney. Recent evidence suggests SUCRN1 and its succinate ligand are novel detectors of local stress, including ischemia, hypoxia, toxicity, and hyperglycemia. Local levels of succinate in the kidney also activate the renin-angiotensin system and together with SUCRN1 may play a key role in the development of hypertension and the complications of diabetes mellitus, metabolic disease, and liver damage. This makes the succinate receptor a promising drug target to counteract an expanding number of interrelated disorders.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2011; 22(8):1416-22. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2010050481
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene can cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) characterized by the production of large amounts of urine and an inability to concentrate urine in response to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. We have identified a novel mutation in the AVPR2 gene (L170P) located in the fourth transmembrane domain in a Danish NDI male. Analysis of the mutant receptor in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell culture revealed that AVPR2-L170P was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the expression was dramatically downregulated compared to wild-type AVPR2. Inhibition of the lysosome resulted in increased intracellular accumulation of AVPR2-L170P, indicating that AVPR2-L170P is downregulated via the lysosome. Inhibition of the proteasome resulted in plasma membrane localization of AVPR2-L170P, although the overall levels of AVPR2-L170P were unchanged.
NDT Plus 06/2011; 4(3):158-163. DOI:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr010
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water homeostasis is regulated by a wide variety of hormones. When in need for water conservation, vasopressin, released from the brain, binds renal principal cells and initiates a signaling cascade resulting in the insertion of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in the apical membrane and water reabsorption. Conversely, hormones, including extracellular purines and dopamine, antagonize AVP-induced water permeability, but their mechanism of action is largely unknown, which was investigated here. Addition of these hormones to mpkCCD cells decreased total and plasma membrane abundance of AVP-induced AQP2, partly by increasing its internalization to vesicles and lysosomal degradation. This internalization was ubiquitin dependent, because the hormones increased AQP2 ubiquitination, and the plasma membrane localization of AQP2-K270R, which cannot be monoubiquitinated, was unaffected by these hormones. Both hormones also increased AQP2 phosphorylation at S261, which followed ubiquitination, but was not essential for hormone-induced AQP2 degradation. A similar process occurs in vivo, as incubation of dDAVP-treated kidney slices with both hormones also resulted in the internalization and S261 phosphorylation of AQP2. Both hormones also reduced cAMP and AQP2 mRNA levels, suggesting an additional effect on AQP2 gene transcription. Interestingly, phorbol esters only reduced AQP2 through the first pathway. Together, our results indicate that ATP and dopamine counteract AVP-induced water permeability by increasing AQP2 degradation in lysosomes, preceded by ubiquitin-dependent internalization, and by decreasing AQP2 gene transcription by reducing the AVP-induced cAMP levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasopressin-induced water reabsorption coincides with phosphorylation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) at S256 (pS256), dephosphorylation at S261, and its translocation to the apical membrane, whereas treatment with the phorbol ester 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces AQP2 ubiquitination at K270, its internalization, and lysosomal degradation. In this study we investigated the relationship between S256 and S261 phosphorylation in AQP2 and its ubiquitination and trafficking in MDCK cells. Forskolin stimulation associated with increased pS256 and decreased pS261 AQP2, indicating that MDCK cells are a good model. After forskolin stimulation, TPA-induced ubiquitination of AQP2 preceded phosphorylation of AQP2 at S261, which in the first instance occurred predominantly on ubiquitinated AQP2. Forskolin-induced changes in pS261 were also observed for AQP2-S256A and AQP2-S256D, which constitutively localize in vesicles and the apical membrane, respectively. Although pS261 varies with forskolin as with wild-type AQP2, AQP2-S256A is not increased in its ubiquitination. Our data reveal that pS261 occurred independently of AQP2 localization and suggest that pS261 follows ubiquitination and endocytosis and may stabilize AQP2 ubiquitination and intracellular localization. The absence of increased ubiquitination of AQP2-S256A indicates that its intracellular location is due to the lack of pS256. Furthermore, AQP2-S261A and AQP2-S261D localized to vesicles, which was due to their increased ubiquitination, because changing K270 into Arg in both mutants resulted in their localization in the apical membrane. Although still increased in its ubiquitination, AQP2-S256D-S261D localized in the apical membrane. AQP2-S256D-K270R-Ub, however, localized to intracellular vesicles. Although our localization of AQP2-S261A/D is different from that of others, these data indicate that constitutive S256 phosphorylation counterbalances S261D-induced ubiquitination and internalization or changes its structure to allow distribution to the apical membrane. The vesicular localization of AQP2-S256D-K270R-Ub, however, indicates that the dominant apical sorting of S256D can again be overruled by constitutive ubiquitination. These data indicate that the membrane localization of AQP2 is determined by the balance of the extents of phosphorylation and ubiquitination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in ANKH cause the highly divergent conditions familial chondrocalcinosis and craniometaphyseal dysplasia. The gene product ANK is supposed to regulate tissue mineralization by transporting pyrophosphate to the extracellular space.
We evaluated several family members of a large consanguineous family with mental retardation, deafness, and ankylosis. We compared their skeletal, metabolic, and serological parameters to that of the autosomal recessive progressive ankylosis (ank) mouse mutant, caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the murine ortholog Ank.
The studied patients had painful small joint soft-tissue calcifications, progressive spondylarthropathy, osteopenia, mild hypophosphatemia, mixed hearing loss, and mental retardation.
After mapping the disease gene to 5p15, we identified the novel homozygous ANK missense mutation L244S in all patients. Although L244 is a highly conserved amino acid, the mutated ANK protein was detected at normal levels at the plasma membrane in primary patient fibroblasts. The phenotype was highly congruent with the autosomal recessive progressive ankylosis (ank) mouse mutant. This indicates a loss-of-function effect of the L244S mutation despite normal ANK protein expression. Interestingly, our analyses revealed that the primary step of joint degeneration is fibrosis and mineralization of articular soft tissues. Moreover, heterozygous carriers of the L244S mutation showed mild osteoarthritis without metabolic alterations, pathological calcifications, or central nervous system involvement.
Beyond the description of the first human progressive ankylosis phenotype, our results indicate that ANK influences articular soft tissues commonly involved in degenerative joint disorders. Furthermore, this human disorder provides the first direct evidence for a role of ANK in the central nervous system.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2010; 96(1):E189-98. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-1539
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of VWF and FVIII.
We genotyped the control populations of two population-based studies for four AVPR2 variations: a-245c, G12E, L309L, and S331S. Rare alleles of a-245c, G12E, and S331S, which were in linkage disequilibrium, were associated with higher VWF propeptide, VWF and FVIII levels. The functionality of the G12E variant was studied in stably transfected MDCKII cells, expressing constructs of either 12G-V2R or 12E-V2R. Both V2R variants were fully glycosylated and expressed on the basolateral membrane. The binding affinity of V2R for AVP was increased three-fold in 12E-V2R-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, which is in accordance with increased levels of VWF propeptide associated with the 12E variant. The dissociation constant (K(D)) was 4.5 nm [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-5.4] for 12E-V2R-GFP and 16.5 nm (95% CI 10.1-22.9) for 12G-V2R-GFP. AVP-induced cAMP generation was enhanced in 12E-V2R-GFP cells.
The 12E-V2R variant has increased binding affinity for AVP, resulting in increased signal transduction, and is associated with increased levels of VWF propeptide, VWF, and FVIII.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2010; 8(7):1547-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.03884.x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the body's need, water is reabsorbed from the pro-urine that is formed by ultrafiltration in the kidney. This process is regulated by the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP), which binds to its type 2 receptor (V2R) in the kidney. Mutations in the gene encoding the V2R often lead to the X-linked inheritable form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which patients are unable to concentrate their urine despite the presence of AVP. Many of these mutations are missense mutations that do not interfere with the intrinsic functionality of V2R, but cause its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), making it unavailable for AVP binding. Because the current treatments for NDI relieve its symptoms to some extent, but do not cure the disorder, cell-permeable antagonists (pharmacological chaperones) have been successfully used to stabilise the mutant receptors and restore their plasma membrane localisation. Recently, cell-permeable agonists also were shown to rescue ER-retained V2R mutants, leading to increased cAMP levels and translocation of aquaporin-2 to the apical membrane. This makes V2R-specific cell-permeable agonists very promising therapeutics for NDI as a result of misfolded V2R receptors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology 02/2010; 22(5):393-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2826.2010.01983.x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When the succinate receptor (SUCNR1) is activated in the afferent arterioles of the glomerulus it increases renin release and induces hypertension. To study its location in other nephron segments and its role in kidney function, we performed immunohistochemical analysis and found that SUCNR1 is located in the luminal membrane of macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in close proximity to renin-producing granular cells, the cortical thick ascending limb, and cortical and inner medullary collecting duct cells. In order to study its signaling, SUCNR1 was stably expressed in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, where it localized to the apical membrane. Activation of the cells by succinate caused Gq and Gi-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization, transient phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and the release of arachidonic acid along with prostaglandins E2 and I2. Signaling was desensitized without receptor internalization but rapidly resensitized upon succinate removal. Immunohistochemical evidence of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was found in cortical collecting duct cells of wild type but not SUCNR1 knockout streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, indicating in vivo relevance. Since urinary succinate concentrations in health and disease are in the activation range of the SUCNR1, this receptor can sense succinate in the luminal fluid. Our study suggests that changes in the luminal succinate concentration may regulate several aspects of renal function.
Kidney International 09/2009; 76(12):1258-67. DOI:10.1038/ki.2009.360
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding to the V2 receptor (V2R) in renal collecting duct principal cells induces a cAMP signalling cascade resulting in the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical membrane and an increase in AQP2 expression. Consequently, concentration of urine is initiated. X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), characterized by the inability to concentrate urine in response to AVP, is caused by mutations in the V2R gene. Initiation of AQP2 translocation, while circumventing the V2R-cAMP-PKA pathway has been suggested as a putative therapy for these patients. In this respect, the activation of a cAMP-independent and cGMP-dependent pathway for AQP2 membrane insertion by different cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway activators, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), l-arginine and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), has been put forward. However, it is unclear whether they can increase AQP2 expression.
Mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells were incubated with ANP, l-arginine and 8-Br-cGMP for 2 h and subjected to immunocytochemistry and cell surface biotinylation assays to examine their effect on AQP2 translocation. To test the effect of cGMP pathway activators on AQP2 expression, the mpkCCD cells were treated with dDAVP, ANP and l-arginine for 4 days, or with 8-Br-cGMP for the last day. AQP2 protein levels were determined by immunoblotting.
ANP, l-arginine and 8-Br-cGMP induced the translocation of AQP2 in the mpkCCD cells. However, in contrast to dDAVP, ANP, l-arginine and 8-Br-cGMP did not increase the expression of AQP2.
Our results suggest that while activators of the cGMP pathway are likely beneficial in the treatment of X-linked NDI, their ability to relieve NDI in the patients may be improved when combined with agents stimulating AQP2 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding of the peptide hormone vasopressin to its type-2 receptor (V2R) in kidney triggers a cAMP-mediated translocation of Aquaporin-2 water channels to the apical membrane, resulting in water reabsorption and thereby preventing dehydration. Mutations in the V2R gene lead to Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which this process is disturbed, because the encoded, often intrinsically functional mutant V2 receptors are misfolded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Since plasma membrane expression is thought to be essential for V2R activation, cell permeable V2R antagonists have been used to induce maturation and rescue cell surface expression of V2R mutants, after which they need to be displaced by vasopressin for activation. Here, however, we show that 3 novel nonpeptide V2R agonists, but not vasopressin, activate NDI-causing V2R mutants at their intracellular location, without changing their maturation and at a sufficient level to induce the translocation of aquaporin-2 to the apical membrane. Moreover, in contrast to plasma membrane V2R, degradation of intracellular V2R mutants is not increased by their activation. Our data reveal that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) normally active at the plasma membrane can be activated intracellularly and that intracellular activation does not induce their degradation; the data also indicate that nonpeptide agonists constitute highly promising therapeutics for diseases caused by misfolded GPCRs in general, and NDI in particular.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2009; 106(29):12195-200. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0900130106
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasopressin binding to the V2 receptor in renal principal cells leads to activation of protein kinase A, phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at Ser256, and the translocation of AQP2 to the apical membrane, resulting in concentration of the urine. In contrast, phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C pathway leads to ubiquitination of AQP2 at Lys270 and its internalization to multivesicular bodies, where it is targeted for lysosomal degradation or stored for recycling. Because little is known about the regulation of AQP2 trafficking, we used the carboxy-terminal tail of constitutively nonphosphorylated AQP2 (S256A) as a bait for interacting proteins in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We isolated lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein 5 (LIP5) and found that LIP5 interacted with the proximal carboxy-terminal tail (L230-D243) of AQP2 in vitro but not with AQP3 or AQP4, which are also expressed in principal cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LIP5 co-localized with AQP2 in principal cells. LIP5 binding occurred independent of the state of Ser256 phosphorylation or Lys270 ubiquitination. LIP5 has been shown to facilitate degradation of the EGF receptor; here, LIP5 seemed to bind this receptor. Knockdown of LIP5 in mouse renal cells (mpkCCD) reduced the phorbol ester-induced degradation of AQP2 approximately two-fold. In summary, LIP5 binds cargo proteins and, considering the role of LIP5 in protein sorting to multivesicular bodies, plays a role in the degradation of AQP2, possibly by reducing the formation of late endosomes.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2009; 20(5):990-1001. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2008060648