[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Internet provides a widely accessible modality for meeting survivorship care needs of cancer survivors. In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of an Internet site designed as a base from which to conduct a randomized controlled trial to meet psycho-educational needs of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors.
A cross-disciplinary team designed, wrote content, and programmed an Internet site for online study registration, consent, assessment, and study implementation. All survivors who were 3-18 years after HSCT for hematologic malignancy and treated at one transplant center were approached by mail for participation. All study activities could be conducted without study staff contact. However, participants had options for phone or email contact with study staff as desired.
Of 1,775 participants approached for the study, 775 (58% of those eligible) consented and completed baseline assessment. Mean age was 51.7 (SD, 12.5; age range, 18-79 years), with 56% male. Fifty-seven percent required staff contact one or more times; a majority were for minor technical issues or delays in completion of enrollment or baseline assessment.
This study demonstrated the potential for providing Internet-based survivorship care to long-term survivors of HSCT. Although building a survivorship Internet site requires a team with diverse expertise, once built, these resources can be implemented rapidly with large numbers of survivors.
While Internet-based services will not meet all the needs of cancer survivors, this methodology represents an important modality for augmenting onsite clinical services as a method for meeting psycho-educational, information, and resource needs of cancer survivors.
Journal of Cancer Survivorship 05/2011; 5(3):292-304. · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genotyping technologies have enabled genomewide association studies (GWAS) of many complex traits including autoimmune disease, infectious disease, cancer and heart disease. To facilitate interpretations and establish biological basis, it could be advantageous to identify alleles of functional genes, beyond just single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or nearby genes. Leslie et al. ( Am J Hum Genet 82:48–56) have proposed an Identity-by-Decent method (IBD-based) for predicting human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles (multiallelic and highly polymorphic) with SNP data, and predictions have achieved a satisfactory accuracy on the order of 97%. Building upon their success, we introduce a complementary method for predicting highly polymorphic alleles using unphased SNP data as the training data set. Due to its generality and flexibility, the new method is readily applicable to large population studies. Applying it to HLA genes in a cohort of 630 healthy individuals as a training set, we constructed predictive models for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1. Then, we performed a validation study with another cohort of 630 healthy individuals, and the predictive models achieved predictive accuracies for HLA alleles defined at intermediate or high resolution ranging as high as (100%, 97%) for HLA-A, (98%, 96%) for B, (98%, 98%) for C, (97%, 96%) for DRB1 and (98%, 95%) for DQB1, respectively. These preliminary results suggest the feasibility of predicting other polymorphic genetic alleles, since HLA loci are almost certainly among most polymorphic genes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed transfusion requirements within the first 100 d among allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients with haematological malignancies given either myeloablative (n = 1353) or nonmyeloablative conditioning (n = 503). We confirmed that myeloablative recipients required more platelet and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions than nonmyeloablative recipients (P < 0.0001 for both). Myeloablative patients given peripheral blood stem cells required less platelet transfusions (P < 0.0001) than those given marrow while RBC transfusion requirements did not differ significantly. Subsequent analyses were restricted to nonmyeloablative recipients. Platelet and RBC transfusions were less frequent among related compared to unrelated recipients (P < 0.0001 for both), with comparable median numbers of transfused units. Major/bidirectionally ABO-mismatched recipients required more RBC transfusions than ABO-matched recipients (P = 0.006). Rates of graft rejection/failure, grades II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), 2-year relapse, 3-year survivals and non-relapse mortality were comparable among ABO-matched, minor-mismatched, and major/bidirectionally mismatched recipients (P = 0.93, 0.72, 0.57, 0.36, 0.17 and 0.79, respectively). Times to disappearance of anti-donor IgG and IgM isohemagglutinins among major/bidirectionally ABO-mismatched recipients were affected by magnitude of pre-HCT titres (P < 0.001 for both) but not GVHD (P = 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). In conclusion, nonmyeloablative recipients required fewer platelet and RBC transfusions and among them, both unrelated and major/bidirectionally ABO-mismatched recipients required more RBC transfusions. ABO incompatibility did not affect nonmyeloablative HCT outcomes.
British Journal of Haematology 04/2010; 149(1):101-10. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because morbidity early after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in large part from the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we previously proposed that a longitudinal assessment of morbidity involving the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract might provide a more complete, objective approach for comparing 2 arms of open-label randomized clinical trials for acute GVHD prevention. In this study, we determined both morbidity across time and GVHD across time in a retrospective analysis of a database from an open-label randomized clinical trial comparing tacrolimus/methotrexate and cyclosporine/methotrexate after myeloablative conditioning and marrow transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors. The results confirm differences in overall morbidity across time in patients with peak grade II-IV GVHD compared with those with grade 0-I GVHD, but no significant differences in morbidity associated with grade II GVHD compared with grade 0-I GVHD. We observed less skin morbidity and a trend toward less liver morbidity across time in the tacrolimus group (P = .04 and .09, respectively), but not for GI morbidity or overall morbidity, despite significantly decreased skin and liver stages and overall grades of GVHD across time in this group. Thus, our objective assessment of differences in morbidity (regardless of cause) as a measure of acute GVHD in a randomized clinical trial of acute GVHD prevention has only limited utility. The difficulty of demonstrating clinical benefits from objective parameters, such as survival and morbidity, and the subjectivity of grading acute GVHD emphasize the need for blinded assessments in clinical trials of GVHD prevention.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2009; 15(6):749-56. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We prospectively measured the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) in 142 patients. Total (intact) monomeric albumin was determined by liquid chromatography of untreated urine samples collected weekly to day 100 after HCT. Albuminuria was defined as ACR (mg/g creatinine) > 30; proteinuria, as ACR >300. Cox and logistic regression analyses evaluated ACR as a risk factor for clinical events. The prevalence of albuminuria was 37% at baseline, 64% at day 100, and 50% at 1 year. Proteinuria occurred in 4% of patients at baseline, in 15% at day 100, and in 4% at 1 year. Characteristics associated with albuminuria include age, sex, donor type, hypertension, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Albuminuria was associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and bacteremia, but not acute kidney injury (AKI). Albuminuria at day 100 was associated with CKD at 1 year (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 14.6). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) risk was elevated (hazard ratio = 6.8; 95% CI = 1.1 to 41.5) in patients with overt proteinuria at day 100. Albuminuria occurs frequently after HCT and is correlated with aGVHD, bacteremia, hypertension, and progression of renal disease. Proteinuria at day 100 is associated with an 6-fold increased risk of NRM by 1 year after HCT.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/2009; 14(12):1365-72. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a cohort study to identify risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). We studied 1635 patients transplanted at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) between 1991 and 2002, who survived to day +131 after transplant and had serum creatinine measured on at least two occasions after day +131. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/m(2) on two occasions separated by at least 30 days between days 100 and 540 post transplant. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) describing associations between demographic data, clinical variables and the risk of developing CKD. A total of 376 patients (23%) developed CKD at a median of 191 days post transplant (range 131-516 days). An increased risk of CKD was associated with acute renal failure (ARF) (HR=1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1), acute graft-vs-host disease (aGVHD) grade II (HR=2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.9) and grades III/IV (HR=3.1, 95% CI 2.1-4.6) and chronic GVHD (HR=1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2). Total body irradiation (TBI) (HR=1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.3) was not associated with an increased risk of CKD. CKD is relatively common among survivors of HCT. The presence of ARF and GVHD, but not receipt of TBI, appears to be associated with the occurrence of CKD.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 03/2007; 39(4):223-9. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival after myeloablative therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is limited by substantial treatment-related toxicities. Acute renal failure (ARF) develops in 25% to 50% of patients after HCT.
One hundred forty-seven patients were followed prospectively from time of transplant. ARF was defined as a doubling of baseline serum creatinine at any time during the first 100 days post-transplant. We conducted a nested case-control study to identify precipitants of ARF. For each person who developed ARF, 2 controls were selected at random from patients who had not developed ARF as of that time. An exposure period was defined for each case as the 2 weeks prior to the day on which the matched case met the criteria for ARF. The risk of ARF in relation to demographic and anthropometric characteristics, and to types of treatment and comorbidity, was examined using univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Odds ratios for the associations with ARF were estimated, taking into account the matching.
Fifty-three patients (36%) developed ARF at a median of 33 days after transplant (range 1 to 97). Elevated risks were observed in patients who received liposomal amphotericin (OR 6.58; 95%CI 1.45-29.95) and conventional (OR 3.60; 95%CI 0.79-16.55), and in those patients with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) (previously termed veno-occlusive disease) (OR 9.37; 95%CI 2.29-38.38). For every 0.1 mg/dL increase in baseline serum Cr, the risk of ARF decreased by 30%. Neither total body irradiation (TBI) dose, levels of metabolites of cyclophosphamide, sepsis, acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), nor cyclosporine (CSA) levels was associated with an increased risk of ARF.
The cumulative incidence of ARF after HCT remains high. Amphotericin use during the 2-week exposure period and presence of hepatic sinuosoidal injury increased the risk of ARF within the first 100 days after HCT. Higher levels of serum creatinine at baseline were associated with a lower risk of ARF.
Kidney International 02/2005; 67(1):272-7. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic marrow transplantation using related marrow donors for myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) arising from MDS results in 35–56% actuarial disease-free survival. Because the use of unrelated donors has not been well-characterized, we report on the outcome of 52 patients with MDS or MDS-related AML consecutively treated between 1987 and 1993 with unrelated donor marrow transplantation. The median age was 33 (range 1–53) years. 33 patients received chemotherapy and total body irradiation and the remainder busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The donors were phenotypically identical at the HLA-A, B and Dw/DRB1 loci in 34 cases and mismatched for one HLA locus in 17 cases and two loci in one case. Marrow was non-T-cell depleted and methotrexate with cyclosporine or FK506 was used for postgrafting immunosuppression. The 2-year disease-free survival, relapse, and non-relapse mortality rates were 38%, 28% and 48%, respectively. One patient who relapsed survives disease-free after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy. 16/19 survivors have a performance status of 90–100%. Patients with MDS in transformation or with AML had a significantly higher risk of relapse than patients with less advanced disease (P = 0.0014). Increased non-relapse mortality was significantly associated with higher age, longer disease duration before transplant, lower neutrophil count on admission and, unexpectedly, being seronegative for cytomegalovirus. We conclude that the outcome with transplantation using unrelated donors is similar to reported results using related donors and that a meaningful proportion of eligible patients with an otherwise incurable disease may be cured with this treatment. However, mortality from the transplant procedure is high and future studies should focus on reducing toxicity.
British Journal of Haematology 10/2003; 93(1):59 - 67. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with the refractory anemia (RA) subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome who undergo allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have a low risk of relapse, but they have a high risk of nonrelapse mortality when prepared with conventional preparative regimens. To try to reduce nonrelapse mortality, we treated 14 RA patients with a modified approach to total body irradiation (TBI) followed by cyclophosphamide (CY) and HLA-identical sibling BMT. Median patient age was 44 years (range, 28 to 65 years). Patients received TBI with shielding of the right lobe of the liver and both lungs followed by electron beam boosts to shielded ribs. Total radiation exposure in nonshielded areas was 12 Gy (n = 10), 10 Gy (n = 3), or 6 Gy (n = 1). After TBI, patients received CY at 120 mg/kg over 2 days, followed by transplantation of unmanipulated bone marrow. All patients initially achieved engraftment with donor cells, although 2 patients had subsequent reemergence of host hematopoiesis without evidence of disease relapse. Five patients died of transplantation-related causes between 22 and 1262 days post-BMT. Four patients relapsed between 157 and 1096 days post-BMT. These 14 patients were compared with 46 historical controls with RA who received conventional CY/TBI or busulfan/CY preparative regimens. Patients in the experimental group had a similar nonrelapse mortality rate compared with the historical control group (29% versus 37%, respectively; P = .8), but a higher relapse rate (34% versus 2%, P = .0004) and a lower disease-free survival (38% versus 61%, P = .16). We conclude that this modified TBI approach is associated with an unacceptably high risk of relapse for patients with RA undergoing BMT.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2001; 7(3):163-70. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic marrow transplantation offers curative therapy for patients with aplastic anemia. We analyzed retrospective results in 141 patients with severe aplastic anemia who received transplants between 1988 and 1995 from an unrelated volunteer donor identified through the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). All patients had failed one or more courses of immunosuppressive therapy. Of the patients, 121 (86%) received a radiation-containing conditioning regimen, and 20 (14%) were given chemotherapy only. Based on serologic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing (class I and II), 105 patients (74%) received HLA-matched marrow, and 36 (26%) received marrow mismatched for at least one HLA-A, -B, or -DR antigen. Allele-level (molecular) typing for HLA-DRB1 was available in 108 donor-recipient pairs; 77 patients received DRB -matched and 31 DRB1-mismatched transplants. All but 13% of patients were given a cyclosporine-containing regimen for graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and 45 patients (32%) received marrow that was T cell-depleted. Among 131 evaluable patients, 116 (89%) achieved sustained engraftment and 15 (11%) did not. Among patients with engraftment, acute GVHD of grades II-IV developed in 60 patients (52%) and extensive chronic GVHD in 24 patients at risk (31%). Currently, 51 patients (36%) are surviving at 11-94 months (median 36) after transplantation. All but five have Karnofsky scores > or =80. Patients who received a serologically matched transplant fared somewhat better than did patients given a serologically mismatched transplant p = 0.03). Patients with donors matched by both serology and allele-level DRB1 typing had significantly better survival than DRB1-mismatched patients with 56 vs. 15% surviving at 3 years p = 0.001). Outcome in patients transplanted within 3 years of diagnosis was superior to that among patients transplanted with greater delay. Major causes of death were graft failure, GVHD, and infections. These data suggest that unrelated marrow transplantation offers successful therapy for a proportion of patients who have failed immunosuppressive therapy.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/1999; 5(4):243-52. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with a lymphohematopoietic malignancy considered to be at high risk for posttransplant relapse were enrolled in a study to compare the use of cyclosporine (CSP) as a single agent with a combination of methylprednisolone (MP) and CSP for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor. Sixty patients were randomized to receive CSP only and 62 were randomized to receive CSP plus MP. Daily CSP was started on day -1 (5 mg/kg/d intravenously) and administered at gradually reduced doses until day 180. MP was started on day 7 at 0.5 mg/kg/d, increased to 1.0 mg/kg/d on day 15, started on a taper schedule on day 29, and discontinued on day 72. All 104 evaluable patients (surviving > or =28 days) had sustained engraftment. The incidence rates of grades II-IV acute GVHD were 73% and 60% for patients receiving CSP and CSP plus MP, respectively (P = .01). No difference was seen for grades III-IV GVHD. However, chronic GVHD occurred somewhat more frequently in patients receiving CSP plus MP (44%) than in patients receiving only CSP (21%; P = .02). The incidence of de novo chronic GVHD was marginally higher in patients receiving CSP plus MP (P = .08). No significant differences in the risk of infections were observed. There was a suggestion that the risk of relapse was lower in patients receiving CSP plus MP (P = .10) and, although the overall survival in the two groups was not different (P = .44), there was a slight advantage in favor of CSP plus MP-treated patients for relapse-free survival (P = .07). These results suggest that prophylactic MP, when combined with CSP, has only limited efficacy in acute GVHD prevention and may increase the probability of chronic GVHD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this report is to describe the results of stem cell transplantation as initial treatment for secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Forty-six patients (median age 42 years) with secondary AML (17 therapy-related, 29 myelodysplasia-related) who had not received remission induction chemotherapy underwent allogeneic (n = 43) or syngeneic (n = 3) transplantation. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 24.4%, and the cumulative incidences of relapse and nonrelapse mortality were 31.3% and 44.3%, respectively. Lower peripheral blood blast count was associated with a lower risk of relapse (P = .05) and shorter time from AML diagnosis to transplant was associated with a lower risk of nonrelapse mortality (P = .02) and improved disease-free survival (P = .026). Patients with therapy-related secondary AML tended to have lower disease-free survival (P = .16) and a higher relapse rate (P = .16) than patients whose leukemia was not therapy-related. The results of these 46 previously untreated patients were compared to 20 patients (median age 36 years, 12 therapy-related, 8 myelodysplasia-related) transplanted with chemotherapy-sensitive disease after induction chemotherapy (first complete remission [n = 6], second complete remission [n = 3], first untreated relapse [n = 11]). We found no statistically significant difference in outcome between these 2 groups of patients. These results suggest that prompt transplantation should be considered after diagnosis of secondary AML or, if possible, high-risk myelodysplasia, particularly in patients with low peripheral blast counts. Innovative transplant strategies are needed to reduce the high risks of relapse and nonrelapse mortality seen in this patient population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of busulfan (BU) plasma concentration on outcome of transplantation from HLA identical family members for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was examined in 45 patients transplanted in chronic phase (CP) (n = 39) or accelerated phase (AP) (n = 6). All patients received the same regimen of BU, 16 mg/kg orally and cyclophosphamide (CY), 120 mg/kg intravenously. Plasma concentrations of BU at steady state (C(SS)BU) during the dosing interval were measured for each patient. The mean C(SS)BU was 917 ng/mL (range, 642 to 1,749; median, 917; standard deviation, 213). Of patients with C(SS)BU below the median, seven (five of 18 in CP and two of four in AP) developed persistent cytogenetic relapse and three of these patients died. There were no relapses in patients with C(SS)BU above the median. The difference in the cumulative incidence of relapse between the two groups was statistically significant (P = .0003). C(SS)BU was the only statistically significant determinant of relapse in univariable or multivariable analysis. The 3-year survival estimates were 0.82 and 0.64 for patients with C(SS)BU above and below the median (P = .33). There was no statistically significant association of C(SS)BU with survival or nonrelapse mortality, although the power to detect a difference in survival between 0.82 and 0.64 was only 0.24, similarly C(SS)BU above the median was not associated with an increased risk of severe regimen-related toxicity. We conclude that low BU plasma levels are associated with an increased risk of relapse.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the relationship between severe neutropenia and risk of death in 2,276 patients after marrow transplantation to define objective and clinically relevant criteria that could be used to judge the timing and potential value of interventions designed to improve survival in patients with delayed initial engraftment. Proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relative risk of death before day 100 among patients alive on any given day with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 100/microL compared with those alive on the same day with an ANC > or = 100/microL. Between day 10 and 14, the risk ratio remained close to 1.0, indicating that the risk of death before day 100 for patients with an ANC less than 100/microL was similar to that for patients with an ANC > or = 100/microL. Between day 15, when 38% of patients had an ANC less than 100/microL, and day 26, when 3.8% of patients had an ANC less than 100/microL, the risk ratio showed an overall upward trend, indicating that patients with an ANC less than 100/microL had a higher risk of death before day 100 than those with an ANC > or = 100/microL. Thereafter, the risk ratio fluctuated between 2.01 and 5.78, indicating consistently higher risks of mortality in patients with severe neutropenia. However, allogeneic and autologous transplant recipients each had distinctive risk ratio patterns. These results could be helpful in deciding the appropriate timing for treatment given to improve graft function after marrow transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemiaguided ganciclovir treatment may be as effective, may require less treatment, and thus may cause less marrow toxicity than ganciclovir administered at engraftment, 226 marrow transplant recipients were randomized at engraftment to receive placebo (antigenemia-ganciclovir group) or ganciclovir (ganciclovir group) until day 100 in a double-blind study. In patients with antigenemia of 3 or more positive cells in 2 slides and/or viremia, study drug was discontinued and ganciclovir was started for at least 3 weeks or until negative CMV antigenemia and resumed only if antigenemia recurred. More patients in the antigenemia-ganciclovir group developed CMV disease before day 100 after transplantation compared with the ganciclovir group (14% v 2.7%, P = .002). Of the 16 patients with CMV disease before day 100 in the antigenemia-ganciclovir group, 10 (8.8%) had disease before or during the first episode of antigenemia and 6 (5.3%) developed disease after discontinuation of ganciclovir. Untreated low-grade antigenemia progressed to CMV disease in 19% of patients with grade 3-4 compared with 0% of patients with grade 0-2 acute graft-versus-host disease (P = .04). There was no significant difference in CMV disease by day 180 after transplantation and thereafter. CMV-related death, transplant survival, and neutropenia were not significantly different between the groups. In the ganciclovir group, more invasive fungal infections occurred (P = .03) and more ganciclovir was used (P < .0001). Thus, delaying the start of ganciclovir until highgrade antigenemia and discontinuing ganciclovir based on negative antigenemia results in more CMV disease by day 100 than ganciclovir administered at engraftment. However, ganciclovir at engraftment is associated with more early invasive fungal infections and more late CMV disease resulting in similar survival rates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic marrow transplantation using related marrow donors for myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) arising from MDS results in 35-56% actuarial disease-free survival. Because the use of unrelated donors has not been well-characterized, we report on the outcome of 52 patients with MDS or MDS-related AML consecutively treated between 1987 and 1993 with unrelated donor marrow transplantation. The median age was 33 (range 1-53) years. 33 patients received chemotherapy and total body irradiation and the remainder busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The donors were phenotypically identical at the HLA-A, B and Dw/DRB1 loci in 34 cases and mismatched for one HLA locus in 17 cases and two loci in one case. Marrow was non-T-cell depleted and methotrexate with cyclosporine or FK506 was used for postgrafting immunosuppression. The 2-year disease-free survival, relapse, and non-relapse mortality rates were 38%, 28% and 48%, respectively. One patient who relapsed survives disease-free after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy. 16/19 survivors have a performance status of 90-100%. Patients with MDS in transformation or with AML had a significantly higher risk of relapse than patients with less advanced disease (P = 0.0014). Increased non-relapse mortality was significantly associated with higher age, longer disease duration before transplant, lower neutrophil count on admission and, unexpectedly, being seronegative for cytomegalovirus. We conclude that the outcome with transplantation using unrelated donors is similar to reported results using related donors and that a meaningful proportion of eligible patients with an otherwise incurable disease may be cured with this treatment. However, mortality from the transplant procedure is high and future studies should focus on reducing toxicity.
British Journal of Haematology 05/1996; 93(1):59-67. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1990 to 1993 we performed a prospective study of busulfan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) in 30 patients with refractory anemia (RA) undergoing related (n = 17) or unrelated (n = 13) donor marrow transplantation. Nineteen patients survive disease free (63% 3-year actuarial disease-free survival [DFS]) and no patient relapsed. These results were compared to those of 38 historical controls with RA treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation, of whom 22 are disease-free survivors and 1 relapsed. After correcting for significant variables between the two treatment groups, we found no statistically significant difference in outcome based on preparative regimen. Combining data from these 68 patients plus 2 additional patients with RA treated before 1993 with busulfan and cyclophosphamide, we identified four variables independently associated with improved survival: younger age, shorter disease duration, lower neutrophil count pretransplant, and lower hematocrit pretransplant. We also found that 15 patients 40 to 55 years of age had a 46% 3-year actuarial DFS and 26 patients receiving unrelated or mismatched related donor marrow had a 50% 3-year actuarial DFS. We conclude that there does not appear to be any significant difference in outcome based on preparative regimen in this patient population. In addition, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be a reasonable approach to therapy of RA early after diagnosis. However, whether early intervention with transplantation prolongs survival over that expected without transplantation cannot be ascertained with certainty from available data.