Andrej A Romanovsky

St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center, Paterson, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (103)419.22 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rodent transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel has been hypothesized to serve as a temperature sensor for thermoregulation in the cold. We tested this hypothesis by using deletion of the Trpa1 gene in mice and pharmacological blockade of the TRPA1 channel in rats. In both Trpa1(-/-) and Trpa1(+/+) mice, severe cold exposure (8°C) resulted in decreases of skin and deep body temperatures to ∼8°C and 13°C, respectively, both temperatures being below the reported 17°C threshold temperature for TRPA1 activation. Under these conditions, Trpa1(-/-) mice had the same dynamics of body temperature as Trpa1(+/+) mice and showed no weakness in the tail skin vasoconstriction response or thermogenic response to cold. In rats, the effects of pharmacological blockade were studied by using two chemically unrelated TRPA1 antagonists: the highly potent and selective compound A967079, which had been characterized earlier, and the relatively new compound 43 ((4R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-[3-(3-methoxypropoxy)phenyl]-2-thioxo-5H-indeno[1,2-d]pyrimidin-5-one), which we further characterized in the present study and found to be highly potent (IC50 against cold of ∼8 nm) and selective. Intragastric administration of either antagonist at 30 mg/kg before severe (3°C) cold exposure did not affect the thermoregulatory responses (deep body and tail skin temperatures) of rats, even though plasma concentrations of both antagonists well exceeded their IC50 value at the end of the experiment. In the same experimental setup, blocking the melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel with AMG2850 (30 mg/kg) attenuated cold-defense mechanisms and led to hypothermia. We conclude that TRPA1 channels do not drive autonomic thermoregulatory responses to cold in rodents.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(13):4445-52. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • A A Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non-glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non-human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non-hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat-exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory-related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non-hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.
    Acta Physiologica 03/2014; 210(3):498-507. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological correlates of nausea.
    Oncotarget 02/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite affecting millions of individuals, the etiology of hot flushes remains unknown. Here we review the physiology of hot flushes, CNS pathways regulating heat-dissipation effectors, and effects of estrogen on thermoregulation in animal models. Based on the marked changes in hypothalamic kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in postmenopausal women, we hypothesize that KNDy neurons play a role in the mechanism of flushes. In the rat, KNDy neurons project to preoptic thermoregulatory areas that express the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R), the primary receptor for NKB. Furthermore, activation of NK3R in the median preoptic nucleus, part of the heat-defense pathway, reduces body temperature. Finally, ablation of KNDy neurons reduces cutaneous vasodilatation and partially blocks the effects of estrogen on thermoregulation. These data suggest that arcuate KNDy neurons relay estrogen signals to preoptic structures regulating heat-dissipation effectors, supporting the hypothesis that KNDy neurons participate in the generation of flushes.
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 07/2013; · 7.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cold allodynia, pain in response to cooling, occurs during or within hours of oxaliplatin infusion and is thought to arise from a direct effect of oxaliplatin on peripheral sensory neurons. To characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying acute oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia, we established a new intraplantar oxaliplatin mouse model that rapidly developed long-lasting cold allodynia mediated entirely through tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav pathways. Using selective inhibitors and knockout animals, we found that Nav1.6 was the key isoform involved, while thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels were not involved. Consistent with a crucial role for delayed-rectifier potassium channels in excitability in response to cold, intraplantar administration of the K(+)-channel blocker 4-aminopyridine mimicked oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia and was also inhibited by Navl.6 blockers. Intraplantar injection of the Nav1.6-activator Cn2 elicited spontaneous pain, mechanical allodynia and enhanced 4-aminopyridine-induced cold allodynia. These findings provide behavioural evidence for a crucial role of Nav1.6 in multiple peripheral pain pathways including cold allodynia.
    Pain 05/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with either fever or hypothermia, but the mechanisms responsible for switching from one to the other are unknown. In experimental animals, systemic inflammation is often induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To identify the diencephalic and brainstem structures involved in the fever-hypothermia switch, we studied the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in rats treated with the same high dose of LPS (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously) either in a thermoneutral (30°C) or cool (24°C) environment. At 30°C, LPS caused fever; at 24°C, the same dose caused profound hypothermia. Both fever and hypothermia were associated with the induction of c-Fos in many brain areas, including several structures of the anterior preoptic, paraventricular, lateral, and dorsal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior pretectal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, area postrema, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Every brain area studied showed a comparable response to LPS at the two different ambient temperatures used, with the exception of two areas: the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), which we studied together with the adjacent dorsal hypothalamic area (DA), and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH). Both structures had much stronger c-Fos expression during LPS hypothermia than during fever. We propose that PVH and DMH/DA neurons are involved in a circuit, which - depending on the ambient temperature - determines whether the thermoregulatory response to bacterial LPS will be fever or hypothermia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75733. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Andrej A Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: Proposed by Hirsch as a quantitative measure of the total output of a researcher, the h index does not work well in the field of life sciences, where an author's position on a paper typically depends on the author's contribution. We revise the h index by weighing first and last authorship papers four times heavier than middle authorship papers. The revised index (r) signifies a shift in how we evaluate the research output in biology and medicine: it places more value on conducting and directing original, independent investigations as compared with contributing to projects conducted and directed by others.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2012; 11(22). · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 10(9) or 1 × 10(10) CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 04/2012; 302(12):R1372-83. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (M8-B), a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (T(b)) in Trpm8(+/+) mice and rats, but not in Trpm8(-/-) mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. Intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing T(b) in rats than intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect T(b) at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (T(a)), but the same dose readily decreased T(b) if rats were kept at a high T(a) during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low T(a) immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail-skin temperatures <23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in T(b) was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail-skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2012; 32(6):2086-99. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in young rodents have shown that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel plays a suppressive role in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) by inhibiting production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and possibly by other mechanisms. We asked whether the anti-inflammatory role of TRPV1 changes with age. First, we studied the effect of AMG517, a selective and potent TRPV1 antagonist, on aseptic, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced SIRS in young (12 wk) mice. In agreement with previous studies, AMG517 increased LPS-induced mortality in the young. We then studied the effects of TRPV1 antagonism (AMG517 or genetic deletion of TRPV1) on SIRS in middle-aged (43-44 wk) mice. Both types of TRPV1 antagonism delayed and decreased LPS-induced mortality, indicating a reversal of the anti-inflammatory role of TRPV1 with aging. In addition, deletion of TRPV1 decreased the serum TNFα response to LPS, suggesting that the suppressive control of TRPV1 on TNFα production is also reversed with aging. In contrast to aseptic SIRS, polymicrobial sepsis (induced by cecal ligation and puncture) caused accelerated mortality in aged TRPV1-deficient mice as compared with wild-type littermates. The recovery of TRPV1-deficient mice from hypothermia associated with the cecal ligation and puncture procedure was delayed. Hence, the reversal of the anti-inflammatory role of TRPV1 found in the aged and their decreased systemic inflammatory response are coupled with suppressed defense against microbial infection. These results caution that TRPV1 antagonists, widely viewed as new-generation painkillers, may decrease the resistance of older patients to infection and sepsis.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 01/2012; 11(2):343-9. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    Clifford B Saper, Andrej A Romanovsky, Thomas E Scammell
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    ABSTRACT: During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the sickness syndrome occurs, which includes fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain and can be prevented by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are produced at which sites and how they interact with the nervous system, researchers have identified specific neural circuits that underlie the sickness syndrome.
    Nature Neuroscience 01/2012; 15(8):1088-95. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermia occurs in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. This study evaluated whether the hypothermic response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is modulated by the endocannabinoid anandamide(AEA) and its receptors: cannabinoid-1 (CB1), cannabinoid-2 (CB2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). In rats exposed to an ambient temperature of 22◦C, a moderate dose of LPS (25 - 100 μg kg−1 I.V.) induced a fall in body temperature with a nadir at ∼100 minpostinjection. This response was not affected by desensitization of intra-abdominal TRPV1 receptors with resiniferatoxin (20 μg kg - 1 I.P.), by systemic TRPV1 antagonism with capsazepine(40mg kg−1 I.P.), or by systemic CB2 receptor antagonism with SR144528 (1.4 mg kg−1 I.P.).However, CB1 receptor antagonism by rimonabant (4.6mg kg−1 I.P.) or SLV319 (15mg kg−1 I.P.)blocked LPS hypothermia. The effect of rimonabant was further studied. Rimonabant blocked LPS hypothermia when administered I.C.V. at a dose (4.6 μg) that was too low to produce systemic effects. The blockade of LPS hypothermia by I.C.V. rimonabant was associated with suppression of the circulating level of tumour necrosis factor-α. In contrast to rimonabant,the I.C.V. administration of AEA (50 μg) enhanced LPS hypothermia. Importantly, I.C.V. AEAdid not evoke hypothermia in rats not treated with LPS, thus indicating that AEA modulates LPS-activated pathways in the brain rather than thermo effector pathways. In conclusion, the present study reveals a novel, critical role of brain CB1 receptors in LPS hypothermia. Brain CB1 receptors may constitute a new therapeutic target in systemic inflammation and sepsis.
    The Journal of Physiology 05/2011; 589(Pt 9):2415-31. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Samuel P Wanner, Andras Garami, Andrej A Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently found that, at a young age, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (Trpv1) knockout (-/-) mice have a higher locomotor activity than their wild-type littermates (+/+). We have also found that, with age, Trpv1(-/-) mice become substantially heavier than Trpv1(+/+) controls, thus forming a paradoxical association between locomotor hyperactivity and overweight. The present study solves this contradiction. By using two experimental paradigms, we show that aged Trpv1(-/-) mice have not an increased, but a decreased, locomotor activity, as compared to age-matched Trpv1(+/+) controls. We also confirm that aged Trpv1(-/-) mice are overweight. We conclude that TRPV1 channels are involved in the regulation of both general locomotor activity and body mass in an age-dependent manner.
    Aging 04/2011; 3(4):450-4. · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at determining the thermoregulatory phenotype of mice lacking transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. We used Trpv1 knockout (KO) mice and their genetically unaltered littermates to study diurnal variations in deep body temperature (T(b)) and thermoeffector activities under basal conditions, as well as thermoregulatory responses to severe heat and cold. Only subtle alterations were found in the basal T(b) of Trpv1 KO mice or in their T(b) responses to thermal challenges. The main thermoregulatory abnormality of Trpv1 KO mice was a different pattern of thermoeffectors used to regulate T(b). On the autonomic side, Trpv1 KO mice were hypometabolic (had a lower oxygen consumption) and hypervasoconstricted (had a lower tail skin temperature). In agreement with the enhanced skin vasoconstriction, Trpv1 KO mice had a higher thermoneutral zone. On the behavioral side, Trpv1 KO mice preferred a lower ambient temperature and expressed a higher locomotor activity. Experiments with pharmacological TRPV1 agonists (resiniferatoxin and anandamide) and a TRPV1 antagonist (AMG0347) confirmed that TRPV1 channels located outside the brain tonically inhibit locomotor activity. With age (observed for up to 14 months), the body mass of Trpv1 KO mice exceeded that of controls, sometimes approaching 60 g. In summary, Trpv1 KO mice possess a distinct thermoregulatory phenotype, which is coupled with a predisposition to age-associated overweight and includes hypometabolism, enhanced skin vasoconstriction, decreased thermopreferendum, and hyperkinesis. The latter may be one of the primary deficiencies in Trpv1 KO mice. We propose that TRPV1-mediated signals from the periphery tonically suppress the general locomotor activity.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2011; 31(5):1721-33. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a high percentage of smokers among trauma patients. Cigarette smoking has been associated with the development of acute lung injury and the adult respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill patients. It is also known that nicotine exerts immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects with chronic use. Trauma patients who are smokers usually go through acute nicotine withdrawal after the traumatic event and during their stay in ICU. How the smoking status and acute nicotine withdrawal affect outcomes after trauma is unknown. This question was addressed in this study by analyzing the incidence of sepsis, septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and other outcomes in smoking and nonsmoking trauma patients. A retrospective cohort of trauma patients who met the criteria was randomly selected from the trauma registry. Individual charts were reviewed to confirm documented smoking status. Criteria for selection included the following: Injury Severity Score >or=20, age 18 to 65 years, hospital length of stay >72 hours. Patients with COPD/emphysema, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, malignancy, pregnancy, or steroid use were excluded. Overall, 327 patient charts were reviewed: 156 smokers and 171 nonsmokers. Men outnumbered women in the smoking group fourfold (p = 0.003 versus nonsmokers). Age, Injury Severity Score, the presence of shock on admission, the type of trauma (blunt or penetrating), ICU and hospital length of stay, and the duration of ventilator support were similar between smokers and nonsmokers. There were no differences in the incidence of sepsis, pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Mortality was low (1.2% in smokers; 0.6% in nonsmokers) and did not differ significantly between the groups. The smoking status plays a minimal role in the outcome of healthy trauma patients. This suggests that the acute nicotine withdrawal that usually occurs in critically ill patients has no clinically significant implications after injury.
    The Journal of trauma 08/2010; 69(2):308-12. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Andrej A Romanovsky, Andras Garami
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 06/2010; 298(6):R1509-11. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • 02/2010: pages 349 - 402; , ISBN: 9780470588284
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    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) antagonists are widely viewed as next-generation pain therapeutics. However, these compounds cause hyperthermia, a serious side effect. TRPV1 antagonists differentially block three modes of TRPV1 activation: by heat, protons, and chemical ligands (e.g., capsaicin). We asked what combination of potencies in these three modes of TRPV1 activation corresponds to the lowest potency of a TRPV1 antagonist to cause hyperthermia. We studied hyperthermic responses of rats, mice, and guinea pigs to eight TRPV1 antagonists with different pharmacological profiles and used mathematical modeling to find a relative contribution of the blockade of each activation mode to the development of hyperthermia. We found that the hyperthermic effect has the highest sensitivity to the extent of TRPV1 blockade in the proton mode (0.43 to 0.65) with no to moderate sensitivity in the capsaicin mode (-0.01 to 0.34) and no sensitivity in the heat mode (0.00 to 0.01). We conclude that hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists do not block TRPV1 activation by protons, even if they are potent blockers of the heat mode, and that decreasing the potency to block the capsaicin mode may further decrease the potency to cause hyperthermia.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2010; 30(4):1435-40. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of antagonists of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as pain therapeutics has revealed that these compounds cause hyperthermia in humans. This undesirable on-target side effect has triggered a surge of interest in the role of TRPV1 in thermoregulation and revived the hypothesis that TRPV1 channels serve as thermosensors. We review literature data on the distribution of TRPV1 channels in the body and on thermoregulatory responses to TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. We propose that two principal populations of TRPV1-expressing cells have connections with efferent thermoeffector pathways: 1) first-order sensory (polymodal), glutamatergic dorsal-root (and possibly nodose) ganglia neurons that innervate the abdominal viscera and 2) higher-order sensory, glutamatergic neurons presumably located in the median preoptic hypothalamic nucleus. We further hypothesize that all thermoregulatory responses to TRPV1 agonists and antagonists and thermoregulatory manifestations of TRPV1 desensitization stem from primary actions on these two neuronal populations. Agonists act primarily centrally on population 2; antagonists act primarily peripherally on population 1. We analyze what roles TRPV1 might play in thermoregulation and conclude that this channel does not serve as a thermosensor, at least not under physiological conditions. In the hypothalamus, TRPV1 channels are inactive at common brain temperatures. In the abdomen, TRPV1 channels are tonically activated, but not by temperature. However, tonic activation of visceral TRPV1 by nonthermal factors suppresses autonomic cold-defense effectors and, consequently, body temperature. Blockade of this activation by TRPV1 antagonists disinhibits thermoeffectors and causes hyperthermia. Strategies for creating hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists are outlined. The potential physiological and pathological significance of TRPV1-mediated thermoregulatory effects is discussed.
    Pharmacological reviews 09/2009; 61(3):228-61. · 17.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammation is associated with either fever or hypothermia. Fever, a response to mild systemic inflammation, is mediated by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and not by COX-1. However, it is still disputed whether COX-2, COX-1, neither, or both mediate(s) responses to severe systemic inflammation, and, in particular, the hypothermic response. We compared the effects of SC-236 (COX-2 inhibitor) and SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) on the deep body temperature (T(b)) of rats injected with a lower (10 microg/kg i.v.) or higher (1,000 microg/kg i.v.) dose of LPS at different ambient temperatures (T(a)s). At a neutral T(a) (30 degrees C), the rats responded to LPS with a polyphasic fever (lower dose) or a brief hypothermia followed by fever (higher dose). SC-236 (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) blocked the fever induced by either LPS dose, whereas SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.v.) altered neither the febrile response to the lower LPS dose nor the fever component of the response to the higher dose. However, SC-560 blocked the initial hypothermia caused by the higher LPS dose. At a subneutral T(a) (22 degrees C), the rats responded to LPS with early (70-90 min, nadir) dose-dependent hypothermia. The hypothermic response to either dose was enhanced by SC-236 but blocked by SC-560. The hypothermic response to the higher LPS dose was associated with a fall in arterial blood pressure. This hypotensive response was attenuated by either SC-236 or SC-560. At the onset of LPS-induced hypothermia and hypotension, the functional activity of the COX-1 pathway (COX-1-mediated PGE(2) synthesis ex vivo) increased in the spleen but not liver, lung, kidney, or brain. The expression of splenic COX-1 was unaffected by LPS. We conclude that COX-1, but not COX-2, mediates LPS hypothermia, and that both COX isoforms are required for LPS hypotension.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 07/2009; 297(2):R485-94. · 3.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
419.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center
      Paterson, New Jersey, United States
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 2000–2012
    • St. Joseph Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center (AZ, USA)
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      • Neurobiology & Nutrition Laboratory
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2010
    • Good Samaritan Hospital
      Suffern, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Flinders University
      • Centre for Neuroscience
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 2004–2008
    • St. Joseph's Hospital
      Savannah, Georgia, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • Emory University
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Barrow Neurological Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • University of Pécs
      • Institute of Pathophysiology and Gerontology
      Fuenfkirchen, Baranya county, Hungary
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • Portland VA Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • Kanazawa Medical University
      • Department of Physiology
      Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken, Japan
  • 1993–1997
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Physiology
      Knoxville, TN, United States