Andrej A Romanovsky

St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center (AZ, USA), Phoenix, Arizona, United States

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Publications (110)448.47 Total impact

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    Dataset: Liu 2013
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    Alexandre A Steiner, Andrej A Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor mediate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever and hypothermia in rats. Two highly potent, structurally distinct antagonists of the PAF receptor, CV6209 and WEB2086, were used. At a neutral ambient temperature (Ta) of 30ºC, administration of LPS at a low (10 μg/kg, i.v.) or high (1,000 μg/kg, i.v.) dose resulted in fever. The response to the high dose was turned into hypothermia at a subneutral Ta of 22ºC. Neither LPS-induced fever nor hypothermia was affected by pretreatment with CV6209 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) or WEB2086 (5 mg/kg, i.v.). However, both PAF antagonists were efficacious in blocking the thermoregulatory response caused by PAF (334 pmol/kg/min, 1 h, i.v.), regardless of whether the response was a fever (at 30ºC) or hypothermia (at 22ºC). Additional experiments showed that the thermoregulatory responses to LPS and PAF are also distinct in terms of their mediation by prostaglandins. Neither PAF fever nor PAF hypothermia was affected by pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor SC236 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), which is known to abrogate LPS fever. The responses to PAF were also unaffected by pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor SC560 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), which is known to attenuate LPS hypothermia. In conclusion, PAF infusion at a picomolar dose causes fever at thermoneutrality but hypothermia in a subthermoneutral environment, both responses being dependent on the PAF receptor and independent of prostaglandins. However, the PAF receptor does not mediate LPS-induced fever or hypothermia, thus challenging the dogma that PAF is an upstream mediator of responses to LPS.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1080/23328940.2015.1030540
  • Andras Garami, Andrej A. Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, many channels, including several of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, have been shown to be highly sensitive to temperature and proposed to serve as thermosensors for physiological functions and behaviours that depend on temperature. However, it is still largely unknown which TRP channels detect skin, brain, and other body temperatures that drive physiological (autonomic) and behavioural cold and heat defences in mammals (Romanovsky, 2014). Arguably, the only exception is the TRP channel melastatin-8 (M8), which has been shown to sense a decreased skin temperature to drive tail-skin vasoconstriction, non-shivering thermogenesis, and cold-avoidance (warmth-seeking) behaviour in rodents (Almeida et al., 2012). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Physiologica 04/2015; 214(2). DOI:10.1111/apha.12510 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammation is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by either fever or hypothermia (or both). To study aseptic systemic inflammation, it is often induced in rats by the intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knowing that bilirubin is a potent ROS scavenger, we compared responses to LPS between normobilirubinemic Gunn rats (heterozygous, asymptomatic; J/+) and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (homozygous, jaundiced; J/J) to establish whether ROS mediate fever and hypothermia in aseptic systemic inflammation. These two genotypes correspond to undisturbed versus drastically suppressed (by bilirubin) tissue accumulation of ROS, respectively. A low dose of LPS (10 μg/kg) caused a typical triphasic fever in both genotypes, without any intergenotype differences. A high dose of LPS (1,000 μg/kg) caused a complex response consisting of early hypothermia followed by late fever. The hypothermic response was markedly exaggerated, whereas the subsequent fever response was strongly attenuated in J/J rats, as compared to J/+ rats. J/J rats also tended to respond to 1,000 μg/kg with blunted surges in plasma levels of all hepatic enzymes studied (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase), thus suggesting an attenuation of hepatic damage. We propose that the reported exaggeration of LPS-induced hypothermia in J/J rats occurs via direct inhibition of nonshivering thermogenesis by bilirubin and possibly via a direct vasodilatatory action of bilirubin in the skin. This hypothermia-exaggerating effect might be responsible, at least in part, for the observed tendency of J/J rats to be protected from LPS-induced hepatic damage. The attenuation of the fever response to 1,000 μg/kg could be due to either direct actions of bilirubin on thermoeffectors or the ROS-scavenging action of bilirubin. However, the experiments with 10 μg/kg strongly suggest that ROS signaling is not involved in the fever response to low doses of LPS.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2015; 14(8). DOI:10.1080/15384101.2015.1014150 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Miklós Székely, Andrej A. Romanovsky
    06/2014; 1(2):99-100. DOI:10.4161/temp.29006
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    ABSTRACT: The rodent transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel has been hypothesized to serve as a temperature sensor for thermoregulation in the cold. We tested this hypothesis by using deletion of the Trpa1 gene in mice and pharmacological blockade of the TRPA1 channel in rats. In both Trpa1(-/-) and Trpa1(+/+) mice, severe cold exposure (8°C) resulted in decreases of skin and deep body temperatures to ∼8°C and 13°C, respectively, both temperatures being below the reported 17°C threshold temperature for TRPA1 activation. Under these conditions, Trpa1(-/-) mice had the same dynamics of body temperature as Trpa1(+/+) mice and showed no weakness in the tail skin vasoconstriction response or thermogenic response to cold. In rats, the effects of pharmacological blockade were studied by using two chemically unrelated TRPA1 antagonists: the highly potent and selective compound A967079, which had been characterized earlier, and the relatively new compound 43 ((4R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-[3-(3-methoxypropoxy)phenyl]-2-thioxo-5H-indeno[1,2-d]pyrimidin-5-one), which we further characterized in the present study and found to be highly potent (IC50 against cold of ∼8 nm) and selective. Intragastric administration of either antagonist at 30 mg/kg before severe (3°C) cold exposure did not affect the thermoregulatory responses (deep body and tail skin temperatures) of rats, even though plasma concentrations of both antagonists well exceeded their IC50 value at the end of the experiment. In the same experimental setup, blocking the melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel with AMG2850 (30 mg/kg) attenuated cold-defense mechanisms and led to hypothermia. We conclude that TRPA1 channels do not drive autonomic thermoregulatory responses to cold in rodents.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(13):4445-52. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5387-13.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    A A Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non-glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non-human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non-hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat-exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory-related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non-hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.
    Acta Physiologica 03/2014; 210(3):498-507. DOI:10.1111/apha.12231 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological correlates of nausea.
    Oncotarget 02/2014; 5(6). · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with either fever or hypothermia, but the mechanisms responsible for switching from one to the other are unknown. In experimental animals, systemic inflammation is often induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To identify the diencephalic and brainstem structures involved in the fever-hypothermia switch, we studied the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in rats treated with the same high dose of LPS (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously) either in a thermoneutral (30°C) or cool (24°C) environment. At 30°C, LPS caused fever; at 24°C, the same dose caused profound hypothermia. Both fever and hypothermia were associated with the induction of c-Fos in many brain areas, including several structures of the anterior preoptic, paraventricular, lateral, and dorsal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior pretectal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, area postrema, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Every brain area studied showed a comparable response to LPS at the two different ambient temperatures used, with the exception of two areas: the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), which we studied together with the adjacent dorsal hypothalamic area (DA), and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH). Both structures had much stronger c-Fos expression during LPS hypothermia than during fever. We propose that PVH and DMH/DA neurons are involved in a circuit, which - depending on the ambient temperature - determines whether the thermoregulatory response to bacterial LPS will be fever or hypothermia.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75733. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075733 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite affecting millions of individuals, the etiology of hot flushes remains unknown. Here we review the physiology of hot flushes, CNS pathways regulating heat-dissipation effectors, and effects of estrogen on thermoregulation in animal models. Based on the marked changes in hypothalamic kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in postmenopausal women, we hypothesize that KNDy neurons play a role in the mechanism of flushes. In the rat, KNDy neurons project to preoptic thermoregulatory areas that express the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R), the primary receptor for NKB. Furthermore, activation of NK3R in the median preoptic nucleus, part of the heat-defense pathway, reduces body temperature. Finally, ablation of KNDy neurons reduces cutaneous vasodilatation and partially blocks the effects of estrogen on thermoregulation. These data suggest that arcuate KNDy neurons relay estrogen signals to preoptic structures regulating heat-dissipation effectors, supporting the hypothesis that KNDy neurons participate in the generation of flushes.
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.07.003 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cold allodynia, pain in response to cooling, occurs during or within hours of oxaliplatin infusion and is thought to arise from a direct effect of oxaliplatin on peripheral sensory neurons. To characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying acute oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia, we established a new intraplantar oxaliplatin mouse model that rapidly developed long-lasting cold allodynia mediated entirely through tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav pathways. Using selective inhibitors and knockout animals, we found that Nav1.6 was the key isoform involved, while thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels were not involved. Consistent with a crucial role for delayed-rectifier potassium channels in excitability in response to cold, intraplantar administration of the K(+)-channel blocker 4-aminopyridine mimicked oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia and was also inhibited by Navl.6 blockers. Intraplantar injection of the Nav1.6-activator Cn2 elicited spontaneous pain, mechanical allodynia and enhanced 4-aminopyridine-induced cold allodynia. These findings provide behavioural evidence for a crucial role of Nav1.6 in multiple peripheral pain pathways including cold allodynia.
    Pain 05/2013; 154(9). DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.032 · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A switch from fever to hypothermia occurs in severe cases of systemic inflammation, but its impacts on the pathophysiology and outcome of this malady are unknown. This question was addressed in the present study. Following administration of LPS (5 or 18 mg/kg) or E. coli (5 x 109or 1 x 1010CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia and the lung infiltration by neutrophils in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased the liver bacterial burden. Furthermore, hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in hypothermic rats. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory mediators and was not necessarily associated with tissue hypoxia. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ injury and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. It is concluded that naturally occurring hypothermia may be more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) and septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation. Support: AHA, NIH, FAPESP.
    The FASEB Journal 01/2013; 27:868.4. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    Andrej A Romanovsky
    Experimental physiology 11/2012; 97(11):1178-9. DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2011.064071 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Andrej A Romanovsky
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    ABSTRACT: Proposed by Hirsch as a quantitative measure of the total output of a researcher, the h index does not work well in the field of life sciences, where an author's position on a paper typically depends on the author's contribution. We revise the h index by weighing first and last authorship papers four times heavier than middle authorship papers. The revised index (r) signifies a shift in how we evaluate the research output in biology and medicine: it places more value on conducting and directing original, independent investigations as compared with contributing to projects conducted and directed by others.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2012; 11(22). DOI:10.4161/cc.22179 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    Clifford B Saper, Andrej A Romanovsky, Thomas E Scammell
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    ABSTRACT: During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the sickness syndrome occurs, which includes fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain and can be prevented by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are produced at which sites and how they interact with the nervous system, researchers have identified specific neural circuits that underlie the sickness syndrome.
    Nature Neuroscience 07/2012; 15(8):1088-95. DOI:10.1038/nn.3159 · 14.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The natural switch from fever to hypothermia observed in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation is a phenomenon that continues to puzzle clinicians and scientists. The present study was the first to evaluate in direct experiments how the development of hypothermia vs. fever during severe forms of systemic inflammation impacts the pathophysiology of this malady and mortality rates in rats. Following administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 or 18 mg/kg) or of a clinical Escherichia coli isolate (5 × 10(9) or 1 × 10(10) CFU/kg), hypothermia developed in rats exposed to a mildly cool environment, but not in rats exposed to a warm environment; only fever was revealed in the warm environment. Development of hypothermia instead of fever suppressed endotoxemia in E. coli-infected rats, but not in LPS-injected rats. The infiltration of the lungs by neutrophils was similarly suppressed in E. coli-infected rats of the hypothermic group. These potentially beneficial effects came with costs, as hypothermia increased bacterial burden in the liver. Furthermore, the hypotensive responses to LPS or E. coli were exaggerated in rats of the hypothermic group. This exaggeration, however, occurred independently of changes in inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins. Despite possible costs, development of hypothermia lessened abdominal organ dysfunction and reduced overall mortality rates in both the E. coli and LPS models. By demonstrating that naturally occurring hypothermia is more advantageous than fever in severe forms of aseptic (LPS-induced) or septic (E. coli-induced) systemic inflammation, this study provides new grounds for the management of this deadly condition.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 04/2012; 302(12):R1372-83. DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00023.2012 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (M8-B), a selective and potent antagonist of the transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel. In vitro, M8-B blocked cold-induced and TRPM8-agonist-induced activation of rat, human, and murine TRPM8 channels, including those on primary sensory neurons. In vivo, M8-B decreased deep body temperature (T(b)) in Trpm8(+/+) mice and rats, but not in Trpm8(-/-) mice, thus suggesting an on-target action. Intravenous administration of M8-B was more effective in decreasing T(b) in rats than intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration, indicating a peripheral action. M8-B attenuated cold-induced c-Fos expression in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, thus indicating a site of action within the cutaneous cooling neural pathway to thermoeffectors, presumably on sensory neurons. A low intravenous dose of M8-B did not affect T(b) at either a constantly high or a constantly low ambient temperature (T(a)), but the same dose readily decreased T(b) if rats were kept at a high T(a) during the M8-B infusion and transferred to a low T(a) immediately thereafter. These data suggest that both a successful delivery of M8-B to the skin (high cutaneous perfusion) and the activation of cutaneous TRPM8 channels (by cold) are required for the hypothermic action of M8-B. At tail-skin temperatures <23°C, the magnitude of the M8-B-induced decrease in T(b) was inversely related to skin temperature, thus suggesting that M8-B blocks thermal (cold) activation of TRPM8. M8-B affected all thermoeffectors studied (thermopreferendum, tail-skin vasoconstriction, and brown fat thermogenesis), thus suggesting that TRPM8 is a universal cold receptor in the thermoregulation system.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 02/2012; 32(6):2086-99. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5606-11.2012 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies in young rodents have shown that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel plays a suppressive role in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) by inhibiting production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and possibly by other mechanisms. We asked whether the anti-inflammatory role of TRPV1 changes with age. First, we studied the effect of AMG517, a selective and potent TRPV1 antagonist, on aseptic, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced SIRS in young (12 wk) mice. In agreement with previous studies, AMG517 increased LPS-induced mortality in the young. We then studied the effects of TRPV1 antagonism (AMG517 or genetic deletion of TRPV1) on SIRS in middle-aged (43-44 wk) mice. Both types of TRPV1 antagonism delayed and decreased LPS-induced mortality, indicating a reversal of the anti-inflammatory role of TRPV1 with aging. In addition, deletion of TRPV1 decreased the serum TNFα response to LPS, suggesting that the suppressive control of TRPV1 on TNFα production is also reversed with aging. In contrast to aseptic SIRS, polymicrobial sepsis (induced by cecal ligation and puncture) caused accelerated mortality in aged TRPV1-deficient mice as compared with wild-type littermates. The recovery of TRPV1-deficient mice from hypothermia associated with the cecal ligation and puncture procedure was delayed. Hence, the reversal of the anti-inflammatory role of TRPV1 found in the aged and their decreased systemic inflammatory response are coupled with suppressed defense against microbial infection. These results caution that TRPV1 antagonists, widely viewed as new-generation painkillers, may decrease the resistance of older patients to infection and sepsis.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 01/2012; 11(2):343-9. DOI:10.4161/cc.11.2.18772 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermia occurs in the most severe cases of systemic inflammation, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. This study evaluated whether the hypothermic response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is modulated by the endocannabinoid anandamide(AEA) and its receptors: cannabinoid-1 (CB1), cannabinoid-2 (CB2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). In rats exposed to an ambient temperature of 22◦C, a moderate dose of LPS (25 - 100 μg kg−1 I.V.) induced a fall in body temperature with a nadir at ∼100 minpostinjection. This response was not affected by desensitization of intra-abdominal TRPV1 receptors with resiniferatoxin (20 μg kg - 1 I.P.), by systemic TRPV1 antagonism with capsazepine(40mg kg−1 I.P.), or by systemic CB2 receptor antagonism with SR144528 (1.4 mg kg−1 I.P.).However, CB1 receptor antagonism by rimonabant (4.6mg kg−1 I.P.) or SLV319 (15mg kg−1 I.P.)blocked LPS hypothermia. The effect of rimonabant was further studied. Rimonabant blocked LPS hypothermia when administered I.C.V. at a dose (4.6 μg) that was too low to produce systemic effects. The blockade of LPS hypothermia by I.C.V. rimonabant was associated with suppression of the circulating level of tumour necrosis factor-α. In contrast to rimonabant,the I.C.V. administration of AEA (50 μg) enhanced LPS hypothermia. Importantly, I.C.V. AEAdid not evoke hypothermia in rats not treated with LPS, thus indicating that AEA modulates LPS-activated pathways in the brain rather than thermo effector pathways. In conclusion, the present study reveals a novel, critical role of brain CB1 receptors in LPS hypothermia. Brain CB1 receptors may constitute a new therapeutic target in systemic inflammation and sepsis.
    The Journal of Physiology 05/2011; 589(Pt 9):2415-31. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.202465 · 4.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
448.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2015
    • St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center (AZ, USA)
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2013
    • St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center
      Paterson, New Jersey, United States
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2001–2011
    • St. Joseph Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • St. Joseph's Hospital
      Savannah, Georgia, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
      • Institute of Physiology
      Myenyesk, Minsk, Belarus
  • 2003–2005
    • Emory University
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Howard County General Hospital
      Columbia, Maryland, United States
    • Barrow Neurological Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Southern Illinois University Carbondale
      Illinois, United States
  • 1993–2000
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Physiology
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 1998
    • Portland VA Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Pécs
      • Institute of Pathophysiology and Gerontology
      Fuenfkirchen, Baranya county, Hungary