Luigi de Luca Tupputi Schinosa

Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Apulia, Italy

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Publications (46)168.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of a cardiac surgery registry and to describe patients' characteristics, type of procedures performed, incidence of postoperative complications with short and middle-term mortality.
    Journal of cardiovascular medicine (Hagerstown, Md.). 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antithrombin (AT) concentrations are reduced after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with the preoperative levels. Low postoperative AT is associated with worse short- and mid-term clinical outcomes. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of AT administration on activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, platelet function, and the inflammatory response in patients with low postoperative AT levels. Sixty patients with postoperative AT levels of less than 65% were randomly assigned to receive purified AT (5000 IU in three administrations) or placebo in the postoperative intensive care unit. Thirty patients with postoperative AT levels greater than 65% were observed as controls. Interleukin 6 (a marker of inflammation), prothrombin fragment 1-2 (a marker of thrombin generation), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (a marker of fibrinolysis), and platelet factor 4 (a marker of platelet activation) were measured at six different times. Compared with the no AT group and control patients, patients receiving AT showed significantly higher AT values until 48 hours after the last administration. Analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of study treatment in reducing prothrombin fragment 1-2 (p = 0.009; interaction with time sample, p = 0.006) and plasmin-antiplasmin complex (p < 0.001; interaction with time sample, p < 0.001) values but not interleukin 6 (p = 0.877; interaction with time sample, p = 0.521) and platelet factor 4 (p = 0.913; interaction with time sample, p = 0.543). No difference in chest tube drainage, reopening for bleeding, and blood transfusion was observed. Antithrombin administration in patients with low AT activity after surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass reduces postoperative thrombin generation and fibrinolysis with no effects on platelet activation and inflammatory response.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate performance of the European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II), to assess the influence of model updating and to derive a hierarchical tree for modelling the relationship between EuroSCORE II risk factors and hospital mortality after cardiac surgery in a large prospective contemporary cohort of consecutive adult patients. Data on consecutive patients, who underwent on-pump cardiac surgery or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft intervention, were retrieved from Puglia Adult Cardiac Surgery Registry. Discrimination, calibration, re-estimation of EuroSCORE II coefficients and hierarchical tree analysis of risk factors were assessed. Out 6293 procedures, 6191 (98.4%) had complete data for EuroSCORE II assessment with a hospital mortality rate of 4.85% and EuroSCORE II of 4.40 ± 7.04%. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.830) showed good discriminative ability of EuroSCORE II in distinguishing patients who died and those who survived. Calibration of EuroSCORE II was preserved with lower predicted than observed risk in the highest EuroSCORE II deciles. At logistic regression analysis, the complete revision of the model had most of re-estimated regression coefficients not statistically different from those in the original EuroSCORE II model. When missing values were replaced with the mean EuroSCORE II value according to urgency and weight of intervention, the risk score confirmed discrimination and calibration obtained over the entire sample. A recursive tree-building algorithm of EuroSCORE II variables identified three large groups (55.1, 17.1 and 18.1% of procedures) with low-to-moderate risk (observed mortality of 1.5, 3.2 and 6.4%) and two groups (3.8 and 5.9% of procedures) at high risk (mortality of 14.6 and 32.2%). Patients with low-to-moderate risk had good agreement between observed events and predicted frequencies by EuroSCORE II, whereas those at greater risk showed an underestimation of expected mortality. This study demonstrates that EuroSCORE II is a good predictor of hospital mortality after cardiac surgery in an external validation cohort of contemporary patients from a multicentre prospective regional registry. The EuroSCORE II predicts hospital mortality with a slight underestimation in high-risk patients that should be further and better evaluated. The EuroSCORE II variables as a risk tree provides clinicians and surgeons a practical bedside tool for mortality risk stratification of patients at low, intermediate and high risk for hospital mortality after cardiac surgery.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac operations is a serious complication associated with postoperative mortality. Multiple factors contribute to AKI development, principally ischemia-reperfusion injury and inflammatory response. It is well proven that glucocorticoid administration, leukocyte filter application, and miniaturized extracorporeal circuits (MECC) modulate inflammatory response. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which one of these inflammatory system modulation strategies was used, with the aim to evaluate the effects on postoperative AKI. MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were screened through November 2011 for RCTs in which an inflammatory system modulation strategy was adopted. Included were trials that reported data about postoperative renal outcomes. Because AKI was defined by different criteria, including biochemical determinations, urine output, or dialysis requirement, we unified renal outcome as worsening renal function (WRF). We identified 14 trials for steroids administration (931 patients, WRF incidence [treatment vs. placebo]: 2.7% vs. 2.4%; OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.53-2.43; P = 0.79), 9 trials for MECC (947 patients, WRF incidence: 2.4% vs. 0.9%; OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.18-1.25; P = 0.13), 6 trials for leukocyte filters (374 patients, WRF incidence: 1.1% vs. 7.5%; OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.05-0.64; P = 0.008). Only leukocyte filters effectively reduced WRF incidence. Not all cardiopulmonary bypass-related anti-inflammatory strategies analyzed reduced renal damage after cardiac operations. In adult patients, probably other factors are predominant on inflammation in determining AKI, and only leukocyte filters were effective. Large multicenter RCTs are needed in order to better evaluate the role of inflammation in AKI development after cardiac operations.
    Artificial Organs 07/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL), its membrane receptor RANK and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) are all members of the tumour necrosis factor family involved in bone metabolism and immune response. We evaluated the activation of the OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery surgery were enrolled in the study and assigned either to the on-pump or to the off-pump group. Pre- and postoperative serum levels of OPG and RANKL were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; gene expression of OPG, RANKL, RANK and NF-κB p50 subunits were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood T-cells and monocytes. RESULTS: Serum levels of OPG significantly increased after surgery in both groups, whereas serum levels of RANKL did not differ over time. T-cells from the on-pump group showed increased gene expression of OPG, RANKL and RANK after the intervention, whereas no mRNA variation for these genes was detected in T-cells from off-pump patients. Gene expression of p50 subunit increased in T-cells and monocytes from both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac surgery induces the activation of the OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway; both on- and off-pump procedures are associated with increased postoperative OPG serum levels and up-regulation of the NF-κB p50 subunit.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 05/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of incomplete heparin reversal and heparin rebound after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ability of the activated coagulation time (ACT) and thromboelastography (TEG) to detect these phenomena. DESIGN: Prospective single-center study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB and with normal preoperative TEG parameters. INTERVENTIONS: ACT, TEG, and plasma heparin levels were measured in all patients at 5 different times between 20 minutes and 3 hours after protamine administration. The variability of TEG reaction time (R) with and without heparinase (delta-R [DR]) was used to detect the presence of residual heparin. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Plasma heparin expressed as anti-FXa activity was detected in 180 (88%) samples. At univariate analysis, ACT, R-kaolin (R-k), and DR significantly correlated with plasma heparin concentration (respectively, p = 0.007, p = 0.006, and p = 0.002). At multivariate analysis, R-k and DR remained associated with plasma heparin concentration (respectively, p = 0.014 and p = 0.004). Greater quartiles of heparin were associated with higher values of R-k and DR. Combined procedures had significantly lower DR than isolated procedures (p = 0.017), and CPB time and heparinization time positively correlated with R-k (respectively, p = 0.044 and p = 0.022). No association was observed between heparin concentration, ACT, and TEG parameters with postoperative bleeding and need for blood and blood components transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: Heparin rebound and incomplete heparin reversal are very common phenomena after cardiac surgery with CPB; ACT is not able to detect residual heparin activity, whereas TEG analysis with and without heparinase allows the diagnosis of heparin rebound.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 04/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To compare coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in off-pump coronary artery bypass operation and in patients in whom a closed phosphorylcoline-coated cardiopulmonary bypass system was applied. Cardiopulmonary bypass induces activation of coagulative and fibrinolytic systems, which together with intraoperative haemodilution augment the risk of postoperative bleeding and transfusion of blood products.METHODS Thirty-six off-pump coronary artery bypass and 36 coronary artery bypass grafting patients in whom a closed, phosphorylcholine-coated cardiopulmonary bypass system with a closed-collapsible venous reservoir (Physio group) was used were prospectively enrolled. Activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems was assessed evaluating the release of prothrombin fragment 1.2 and plasmin-antiplasmin complex preoperatively (T0), 30 min after heparin administration (T1), 15 min after protamin administration (T2), 3 h after protamin administration (T3) and on postoperative days 1 (T4) and 5 (T5). Platelet function was evaluated through Platelet Function Analyzer 100(®).RESULTSDuring the operation, prothrombin fragment 1.2 and plasmin-antiplasmin levels were slightly higher in the Physio group, the difference being not statistically significant. In the off-pump coronary artery bypass group, prothrombin fragment 1.2 was significantly higher at T3 (618.7 ± 282.7 vs 416.6 ± 250.2 pmol/l; P = 0.006), T4 (416.7 ± 278.8 vs 310.2 ± 394.6 pmol/l; P < 0.001) and T5 (629.3 ± 295.2 vs 408.4 ± 409.7 pmol/l; P = 0.002), and plasmin-antiplasmin was significantly higher at T4 (731.1 ± 790 vs 334 ± 300.8 ng/ml; P = 0.019) and T5 (1744.4 ± 820.7 vs 860.1 ± 488.4 ng/ml; P = 0.003). Platelet Function Analyzer 100® closure time values were significantly higher in the Physio group patients at T3 (131.3 ± 105.7 vs 215.6 ± 58.9 s; P = 0.002). The off-pump coronary artery bypass patients had greater chest tube drainage (874.3 ± 371.5 vs 629.1 ± 334.5 ml; P = 0.005). The mean priming volume was 1240 ± 215 ml in the Physio group. Much more Physio patients received red blood cell transfusions (14 vs 25 patient; P = 0.009), because of higher intraoperative transfusion rates (6 vs 15 patients; P = 0.016). Despite similar preoperative haemoglobin levels (13 ± 1.2 vs 12.6 ± 1.4 g/dl; P = 0.2), postoperative haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the Physio group.CONCLUSIONS The Physio cardiopulmonary bypass approach does not significantly alter haemostasis during the operation compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass providing a reduced activation in the postoperative period reducing also chest tube drainage. However, further priming volume reduction is required to decrease intraoperative red blood cell transfusion.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 01/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery for acute aortic dissection (AAD) is frequently complicated by excessive postoperative bleeding and blood product transfusion. Blood flow through the nonendothelialized false lumen is a potential trigger for the activation of the hemostatic system; however, the physiopathology of the aortic dissection induced coagulopathy has never been precisely studied. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems and platelet activation in patients undergoing surgery for AAD. Eighteen patients undergoing emergent surgery for Stanford type A AAD were enrolled in the study. The activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems and platelet activation were evaluated at 6 different time points before, during, and after the operation, measuring prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2), plasmin-antiplasmin complex, and platelet factor 4, respectively. All measured biomarkers were increased before, during, and after the operations indicating a systemic activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelets. These changes were pronounced even preoperatively (T0), and soon after the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (T1) when the influence of hypothermia and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time were not yet involved. Time from symptom onset to intervention inversely correlated with preoperative F1.2 (r=-0.75; p=0.002) and plasmin-antiplasmin levels (r=-0.57; p=0.034). Blood flow through the false lumen is a powerful activator of the hemostatic system even before the operation. This remarkable activation may influence postoperative outcome of AAD patients.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2011; 91(5):1364-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induce an acute inflammatory response contributing to postoperative morbidity. The use of steroids as anti-inflammatory agents in surgery using CPB has been tested in many trials and has been shown to have good anti-inflammatory effects but no clear clinical advantages for the lack of an adequately powered sample size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of steroid treatment on mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery. A systematic meta-analysis of randomized double-blind trials (RDBs). A university hospital. Adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. A trial search was performed through PubMed and Cochrane databases from 1966 to January 2009. Among 104 clinical trials reviewed, 31 RDB trials (1,974 patients) were considered suitable to be analyzed. A quality assessment of the trials was performed using the Jadad score. The types of steroid used in these trials were methylprednisolone (51.4%), dexamethasone (34.3%), hydrocortisone (5.7%), prednisolone (2.9%), or a combination of methylprednisolone and dexamethasone (5.7%). Steroid prophylaxis provided a protective effect preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation (odds ratio = 0.56; confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.72, p < 0.0001), reducing postoperative blood loss (mean difference = -204.2 mL; CI from -287.4 to -121 mL; p < 0.0001), and reducing intensive care unit (mean difference = -6.6 hours; CI from -10.5 to -2.7 hours, p = 0.0007) and overall hospital stay (mean difference = -0.8 days; CI from -1.4 to -0.2 days, p = 0.01). Steroid prophylaxis had no effect on postoperative mortality, mechanical ventilation duration, re-exploration for bleeding, and postoperative infection. A systematic review of RDB trials reveals that steroid prophylaxis may reduce morbidity after cardiac surgery and does not increase the risk of postoperative infections.
    Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 02/2011; 25(1):156-65. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal timing for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a widely accepted biomarker of myocardial damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether preoperative cTnI values could be used to determine risk stratification for CABG operations in patients with recent AMI. Evaluated were 184 patients who sustained an AMI within 21 days of undergoing nonurgent CABG operations. They were divided into two groups according to their preoperative cTnI values: 117 patients with cTnI of 0.15 ng/mL or less and 67 with cTnI exceeding 0.15 ng/mL. Associations between study variables and events were assessed with logistic regression modelling. Time from AMI to operation was evaluated to define preoperative cTnI variation. Values of cTnI tended to decrease when the interval between AMI and the operation increased. Preoperative cTnI values were significantly associated with a higher incidence of major postoperative complications (low cardiac output syndrome, intraaortic balloon pump necessity, mechanical ventilation >72 hours, acute renal failure, in-hospital mortality). Perioperative myocardial damage was more pronounced in patients with cTnI exceeding 0.15 ng/mL. Multivariate analyses revealed cTnI exceeding 0.15 ng/mL was an independent predictor for 6-month mortality (odds ratio, 3.7; p = 0.043). Preoperative cTnI exceeding 0.15 ng/mL in patients with recent AMI undergoing CABG is associated with higher postoperative myocardial damage and is a strong determinant of postoperative morbidity and mortality within the 6-month period.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2010; 89(3):696-702. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, no study has tested the effect of different heparin dosages on the hemostatic changes during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) surgery, and a wide variety of empirical anticoagulation protocols are being applied. We tested the effect of two different heparin dosages on the activation of the hemostatic system in patients undergoing OPCABG procedures. Forty-two patients eligible for OPCABG procedures were assigned in a randomized fashion to low-dose heparin (150 IU/kg) or high-dose heparin (300 IU/kg). Prothrombin fragment 1+2, plasmin/alpha(2)-plasmin inhibitor complex, D-dimer, soluble tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, total thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and activated TAFIa were assayed by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at six different timepoints, before, during, and after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by means of an in vitro bleeding time test, platelet function analyzer-100. The OPCABG surgery was accompanied by significant changes of all plasma biomarkers, indicative of systemic activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. A significant increase in circulating TAFIa was detected perioperatively and postoperatively, and multiple regression analysis indicated that prothrombin F1+2 but not plasmin/alpha(2)-antiplasmin complex was independently associated with TAFIa level. Platelet function analyzer-100 values did not change significantly after OPCABG. All hemostatic changes were similar in the two heparin groups, even perioperatively, when the difference in anticoagulation was maximal. Both early and late hemostatic changes, including TAFI activation, are similarly affected in the low-dose and high-dose heparin groups, suggesting that the increase in heparin dosage is not accompanied by a better control of clotting activation during OPCABG surgery.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2010; 89(2):421-7. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 01/2010; 121(4). · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The The aim of our study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy through the identification of remarkable genes for the myocardial function that are expressed differently between diabetic and normal subjects. Moreover, we intend to characterize both in human myocardial tissue and in the related cardiac progenitor cells the pattern of gene expression and the levels of expression and protein activation of molecular effectors involved in the regulation of the myocardial function and differentiation to clarify whether in specific human pathological conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure, coronary artery disease) specific alterations of the aforementioned factors could take place. Thirty-five patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or for aortic or mitral valve replacement were recruited into the study. There were 13 men and 22 women with a mean age of 64.8 +/- 13.4 years. A list of anamnestic, anthropometric, clinical, and instrumental data required for an optimal phenotypical characterization of the patients is reported. The small cardiac biopsy specimens were placed in the nourishing buffer, in a sterile tube provided the day of the procedure, to maintain the stability of the sample for several hours at room temperature. The cells were isolated by a dedicated protocol and then cultured in vitro. The sample was processed for total RNA extraction and levels of gene expression and protein activation of molecular effectors involved in the regulation of function and differentiation of human myocardium was analyzed. In particular, cardiac genes that modulate the oxidative stress response or the stress induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines (p66Shc, SOCS-1, SOCS-3) were analyzed. From a small sample of myocardium cardiac stem cells and cardiomyoblasts were also isolated and characterized. These cells showed a considerable proliferative capacity due to the fact that they demonstrate stability up to the eleventh passage. Analysis of gene expression in a subgroup of subjects showed the trend of a decrease in levels of expression of cardiac-specific transcription genes and oxidative stress-related proteins in tissues of diabetic patients compared with controls subjects. This trend is not confirmed in isolated cells. As for the coronary artery disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy could be associated with a reduction of the cardiac stem and progenitor cells pool. The expansion of the cardiac resident cells pool could be associated with a preservation of cardiac performance, suggesting that a preserved stamina compartment can counteract the impact of diabetes on the myocardium.
    Surgical technology international 01/2010; 19:165-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Restrictive annuloplasty with undersized mitral rings is used to correct functional mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Seventeen patients with severe coronary artery disease, previous myocardial infarction, moderate/severe functional MR and heart failure symptoms were prospectively evaluated. All patients received CABG associated with restrictive annuloplasty. Preoperatively and 6 months after the operation, clinical evaluation, echocardiography and blood sampling for BNP measurement were performed. Operative mortality occurred in 1 patient. MR degree decreased from 3.8+/-0.3 to 1.0+/-0.7 (p<0.01), LVEF increased from 36+/-11% to 43+/-8% (p<0.05), left ventricular end diastolic diameters changed from 54.7+/-5.2 mm to 51.5+/-5.8 mm (p=0.51). NYHA class improved from 2.94+/-1.02 to 1.21+/-0.42 (p<0.01). Mean plasma BNP levels decreased from 471+/-248 pmol/l to 55.6+/-52.8 pmol/l (p<0.05). Restrictive mitral annuloplasty is a safe procedure to be associated to CABG operation. We demonstrated mid-term reduction of BNP plasma values after MR correction thus suggesting the effectiveness of surgical treatment in modifying natural history of the disease.
    International journal of cardiology 09/2009; 137(1):57-60. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-dimer has been reported to be elevated in acute aortic dissection. Potential use as a "rule-out" marker has been suggested, but concerns remain given that it is elevated in other acute chest diseases, including pulmonary embolism and ischemic heart disease. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of D-dimer testing in a study population of patients with suspected aortic dissection. In this prospective multicenter study, 220 patients with initial suspicion of having acute aortic dissection were enrolled, of whom 87 were diagnosed with acute aortic dissection and 133 with other final diagnoses, including myocardial infarction, angina, pulmonary embolism, and other uncertain diagnoses. D-dimer was markedly elevated in patients with acute aortic dissection. Analysis according to control disease, type of dissection, and time course showed that the widely used cutoff level of 500 ng/mL for ruling out pulmonary embolism also can reliably rule out aortic dissection, with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.07 throughout the first 24 hours. D-dimer levels may be useful in risk stratifying patients with suspected aortic dissection to rule out aortic dissection if used within the first 24 hours after symptom onset.
    Circulation 06/2009; 119(20):2702-7. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with acute aortic dissection, an early diagnosis is essential to anticipate aortic rupture, cardiac tamponade, organ ischemia and improve surgical results. A specific blood laboratory marker able to rule out the presence of aortic dissection has not been identified yet. Recently, several studies suggested using D-dimers as a negative predicting test to rule out diagnosis of acute aortic dissection in patients presenting with chest pain. In 61 patients with confirmed aortic dissection, preoperative D-dimers were assayed and correlated with time from symptom onset and extension of the false lumen dissection (according with De Bakey classification). Abnormal D-dimers values were considered those being greater than 400 microg/l. D-dimers values were above 400 microg/l in 50 patients (82%) and below 400 microg/l in 11 patients (18%). There was no correlation between preoperative D-dimers values and time from symptoms onset (r = -0.232; P = 0.1). We found that D-dimers are not always elevated in patients presenting with acute aortic dissection. Given the potential devastating effects of denying the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection with consequent delay of adequate treatment, a word of caution regarding the negative predictive value of D-dimer test in the diagnosis of aortic dissection seems warranted.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 03/2009; 10(2):212-4. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Vascular Disease Prevention 01/2009; 6(1):47-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds Antithrombin (AT) drop during cardiac surgery has been described. The causes and the effects of this phenomenon are not clear. The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship of AT postoperative values on short and mid-term outcome after cardiac surgery. Methods Between January and June 2005, 405 patients, who underwent cardiac operations at our Institution had AT values available preoperatively and postoperatively. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, a cut-off equal to 63.7% for ICU-arrival AT was chosen in order to divide the entire population in two groups (117 patients with ICU-arrival AT<63.7%, Low AT group, and 288 patients with ICU-arrival AT≥63.7%, High AT group). Objective of the study was to evaluate the predictive role of ICU-arrival AT<63.7% on in-hospital mortality and morbidity and on 18months follow-up after cardiac surgery. Results ICU-arrival AT was significantly lower than preoperative AT (90.7±16.3% vs. 71.2±15.1%, P<0.0001). Patients in the Low AT group were older, more often female, had a worse Euroscore and required longer CPB duration and cross clamp time. They had significantly higher preoperative and postoperative d-dimer levels. ICU arrival AT<63.7% was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality but it was an independent risk factor for longer mechanical ventilation, need of inotropic support, excessive bleeding and blood products transfusion. ICU arrival-AT<63.7% was associated with worse survival during 18months follow up (92.3% vs. 85.4% in the High AT and Low AT group, respectively, P=0.05). Conclusions Low AT after cardiac surgery is associated with higher incidences of peri-operative complications and worse survival in the mid-term. Future studies should clarify the pathophysiologic mechanism of this findings and possible therapeutic directions.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 01/2009; 27(1):105-114. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anticoagulation therapy with heparin induces antibodies that recognize multimolecular complexes of platelet factor 4 bound to heparin (anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies). Considering that cardiac surgery induces an intense platelet activation and proinflammatory response, we examined the relationship between formation of anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies and plasma levels of platelet factor 4 and interleukin 6. We also examined the relationship between anti-platelet factor 4/heparin seroconversion and the histocompatibility leukocyte antigen system. In 71 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody levels were evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively. Platelet serotonin release assays were performed to assess the platelet-activating potential of the antibodies. Plasma levels of platelet factor 4 and interleukin 6 were assayed at prespecified time points. Histocompatibility leukocyte antigen status was assessed preoperatively in all patients and was compared with that of 6156 healthy subjects. Thirty-seven (52%) patients had anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies with an OD value of 0.45 or greater in 1 or more of the assays. Applying strict seroconversion criteria (>2-fold increase in Optical Density), only 16 (22.5%) patients had evidence of anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody seroconversion after the operation. Neither the presence of anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies nor seroconversion influenced postoperative outcomes. The CW4 allele was significantly more frequent among seroconverted patients (46.9% vs 19.1%, P = .002). Platelet factor 4 levels did not influence seroconversion. Patients with anti-platelet factor 4/heparin levels of 0.45 OD units or greater 14 days after the operation had significantly higher interleukin 6 levels measured 1 hour after protamine administration. Patients with a greater amount of perioperative inflammation could be more likely to have anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies 1 to 2 weeks later. We provide additional evidence that the histocompatibility leukocyte antigen CW4 confers genetic susceptibility in an acquired inflammatory disorder that includes the anti-platelet factor 4/heparin immune response.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 12/2008; 136(6):1456-63. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early diagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AD) remains challenging. We sought to determine the utility of the troponin-like protein of smooth muscle, calponin, as a diagnostic biomarker of acute AD. Immunoassays against calponin (acidic, basic, and neutral isoforms) were developed and the levels were compared in a convenience sample of 59 patients with radiographically proven AD [34 males, age 59 +/- 15 (SD) years] vs. 158 patients suspected of having AD at presentation (116 males, age 63 +/- 15 years) but whose final diagnosis was not AD. Basic calponin, which is the most specific and abundant in smooth muscle, and acidic calponin, respectively, showed greater than two-fold and three-fold elevations in patients with acute AD. Diagnostic performance as determined by receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis showed that both acidic and basic calponin have the potential to detect AD in the first 24 h [respective areas under the curve (AUCs) 0.63 and 0.58], with superior performance of basic calponin (when compared with acidic) in the initial 6 h (respective AUCs 0.63 and 0.67). Circulating calponin levels were elevated in acute AD compared with controls. These biomarkers have the potential for use as an early diagnostic biomarker for acute AD.
    European Heart Journal 07/2008; 29(11):1439-45. · 14.72 Impact Factor