[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP.International Journal of Oral Science (2013) 5, doi:10.1038/ijos.2013.10; published online 15 March 2013.
International Journal of Oral Science 03/2013; 5. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in mitochondrial genome such as mutation, deletion and depletion are common in cancer and can determine advanced phenotype of cancer; however, detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. We observed that loss of mitochondrial genome reversibly induced overexpression and activation of proto-oncogenic Ras, especially K-Ras 4A, responsible for the activation of AKT and ERK leading to advanced phenotype of prostate and breast cancer. Ras activation was induced by the overexpression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. Hypoxia is known to induce proteasomal degradation of HMGR. Well differentiated prostate and breast cancer cells with high mitochondrial DNA content consumed a large amount of oxygen and induced hypoxia. Loss of mitochondrial genome reduced oxygen consumption and increased in oxygen concentration in the cells. The hypoxic-to-normoxic shift led to the overexpression of HMGR through inhibiting proteasomal degradation. Therefore, reduction of mitochondrial genome content induced overexpression of HMGR through hypoxic to normoxic shift and subsequently the endogenous induction of the mevalonate pathway activated Ras that mediates advanced phenotype. Reduction of mitochondrial genome content was associated with the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer in vitro cell line model and tissue specimens in vivo. Our results elucidate a coherent mechanism that directly links the mitochondrial genome with the advanced progression of the disease.
Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e258. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the roles of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members and their ligands in oral lichen planus (OLP).
The expressions of 4 EGFR-like receptors and 6 EGF-like ligands were measured in OLP tissues from 10 patients and compared with the levels in normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 10 healthy donors.
Of the receptors, only EGFR mRNA and protein were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Regarding the ligands, the mRNAs of amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. These ligands were strongly expressed by infiltrating lamina propria lymphocytes as well as epithelial keratinocytes in OLP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry.
The enhanced EGFR expression on the keratinocytes in OLP lesions and the up-regulation of EGF-like ligands in keratinocytes and infiltrating mononuclear cells could contribute to the carcinogenesis and pathogenesis of OLP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate the differences in antitumor immune responses between primary tumors and metastatic regional lymph nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
The clonality of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tissue specimens from 17 HNSCC patients was examined regarding their T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires and their complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) size spectratyping. Cytokine expression profiles and T-cell phenotypes also were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
The host immune responses to HNSCC cells, reflected by the TCR repertoire, differed between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. CD8+-T cells and T helper type 1 (TH1)/T cytotoxic 1 (TC1) cell cytokine production in metastatic and nonmetastatic lymph nodes were similar.
The antitumor immune response to HNSCC cells changes during lymph node metastasis, and HNSCC cells can escape the cytotoxic immune responses mediated by CD8+-T cells and TH1/TC1 cells. These results suggest that lymph node metastasis might be associated with changes in the nature of the primary tumor antigens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of arthroscopically observed synovitis before and after visually guided TMJ irrigation (VGIR) in patients with chronic closed lock (CCL). In addition, the findings were correlated with the clinical outcome.
Twenty-four patients with unilateral CCL, who underwent a second VGIR either as a repeated therapeutic TMJ irrigation or as a follow-up arthroscopy, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into either successful (s-group; n = 11) and unsuccessful (u-group; n = 13) groups. The VEGF level in the aspirated SF and the severity of synovitis were compared between the s- and u-groups. In each group, the same parameters were compared before and after VGIR. The correlation of the VEGF level with the severity of synovitis was also studied.
At the first VGIR, the VEGF levels showed no significant differences when comparing s- and u-groups. At the second VGIR, the VEGF level was significantly higher in the u-group. The VEGF level significantly decreased after the first VGIR in the s-group but remained unchanged in the u-group. There was no significant correlation between the VEGF level and the severity of synovitis.
The level of VEGF in TMJ SF seems to reflect the clinical status in patients with CCL. Moreover, VEGF may be an important target molecule in future chemotherapy of TMJ CCL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the blockade of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-1 (SHPS-1) has any therapeutic effects on rheumatoid arthritis.
A functional blocking monoclonal antibody for SHPS-1 (anti-SHPS-1 mAb) was administered at various doses to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice, and severity of the arthritis was evaluated by clinical and histological scores of the limbs. To clarify the mechanisms of action of the antibody, the serum concentration of anti-type II collagen antibody was measured in those mice, and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the antibody on the induction of osteoclasts and the release of cytokines from mouse spleen cells.
Compared with mice given control IgG, the administration of anti-SHPS-1 mAb significantly reduced the severity of inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage in CIA mice. This therapeutic effect was observed even when the antibody treatment was started after the onset of arthritis. The appearance of anti-type II collagen antibody in CIA mice was not altered by the antibody treatment. In in vitro experiments, the anti-SHPS-1 mAb significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells, and significantly reduced the release of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-2, IL-12, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not that of IL-4 or IL-10, from the spleen cells after stimulation with concanavalin A.
Administration of a monoclonal antibody for SHPS-1 reduced the severity of arthritis in CIA mice. Regulation of biological functions of SHPS-1 may be a novel and potent strategy to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
The Journal of Rheumatology 12/2008; 35(12):2316-24. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a refractory disorder of the oral mucosa. Its predominant symptoms are pain and haphalgesia that impair the quality of life of patients. OLP develops via a T cell-mediated immune process. Here, we examined the characteristics of the infiltrating T cells in terms of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires, T cell clonality, T cell phenotypes and cytokine production profiles. TCR repertoire analyses and CDR3 size spectratyping were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tissue specimens of OLP biopsies from 12 patients. The cytokine expression profiles and T cell phenotypes were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed that there were skewed TCR repertoires in the tissue samples (TCRVA8-1, VA22-1, VB2-1, VB3-1 and VB5-1) and PBMCs (TCRVA8-1, VB2-1, VB3-1 and VB5-1) from OLP patients. Furthermore, the CDR3 distributions in the skewed TCR subfamilies exhibited polyclonal patterns. We observed increases in CD4(+) T lymphocytes, interleukin (IL)-5, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and human leucocyte antigen D-related in the OLP tissue specimens. Taken together, the present results suggest that T cells bearing these TCRs are involved in the pathogenesis of OLP, and that IL-5 and TNF-alpha may participate in its inflammatory process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the severity of arthroscopically observed pathologies and the levels of a set of inflammatory cytokines in aspirated synovial fluid (A-SF) in patients with chronic closed lock (CCL) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) before and after visually guided TMJ irrigation (VGIR). Furthermore, the findings were correlated with the clinical outcome after VGIR.
VGIR was performed in 56 consecutive patients with unilateral CCL. Forty-nine of them, who underwent a second VGIR either as a follow-up arthroscopy or as a repeated therapeutic irrigation, were analyzed. They were assigned to either the successful (s-) group (n = 31) or unsuccessful (u-) group (n = 18), according to the clinical success criteria. The severity of arthroscopic findings of osteoarthritis (OA), synovitis, and fibrous adhesion (FA) were evaluated as arthroscopic scores. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and IL-10 in the A-SF were measured. At the first and second VGIR, the arthroscopic scores and the levels of each investigated cytokine were compared between the s- and u-groups. In each group, same parameters were compared between the first and second VGIR.
At the first and second VGIR, there are no differences in the arthroscopic scores between the s- and u-groups. After the first VGIR, the severity of synovitis significantly improved, that of OA was unchanged, and that of FA became worse in the s- and u-groups. At the first VGIR, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the u-group, and the IL-10 level was significantly higher in the s-group. At the second VGIR, however, there were no differences in the levels of each investigated cytokine between the s- and u-groups. The levels of each cytokine did not significantly change between the first and second VGIR, regardless of the clinical outcome.
VGIR may contribute to the remission of synovitis in patients with TMJ CCL. However, the severity of arthroscopically observed pathologies and the levels of each investigated cytokine do not seem to be reflected by the clinical state. Moreover even if the intra-articular inflammation is asymptomatic, an exacerbation may not be ruled out even after a successful VGIR.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon and the rectum producing debilitating symptoms, which impair ability to function and quality of life. The aetiology of IBD is incompletely understood, but within the lymphocyte population, specific T cell subsets are known to be major factors in the development of intestinal immune pathology while different subsets are essential regulators, controlling IBD. Hence, IBD is thought to reflect dysregulated T cell behaviour. This study was to investigate if the normal molecular configuration of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is compromised in patients with UC. The percentage of T cell-bearing beta-chain 4 (TCRBV4) was high in patients with UC, and T cells showed polyclonal expansion in the presence of bacterial superantigens (SA) such as streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2 (SMEZ-2), indicating that bacterial SA promote specific TCRBV family expansion. Further, in patients with UC, the duration of UC was significantly longer in patients with skewed TCRBV4 compared with patients without TCRBV4 skewing, suggesting that long-term exposure to bacterial SA such as SMEZ-2 might promote systemic immune disorders like the remission-relapsing cycles seen in patients with UC. In conclusion, our observations in this study support the perception that the systemic activation of T cells by enteric bacterial SA might lead to a dysregulated, but exuberant immune activity causing the remission and flare-up cycle of mucosal inflammation in patients with UC. Future studies should strengthen our findings and increase understanding on the aetiology of IBD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer progresses from an androgen-dependent to androgen-independent stage after androgen ablation therapy. Mitochondrial DNA plays a role in cell death and metastatic competence. Further, heteroplasmic large-deletion mitochondrial DNA is very common in prostate cancer. To investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA in androgen dependence of prostate cancers, we tested the changes of normal and deleted mitochondrial DNA in accordance with the progression of prostate cancer. We demonstrated that the androgen-independent cell line C4-2, established by inoculation of the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line into castrated mice, has a greatly reduced amount of normal mitochondrial DNA and an accumulation of large-deletion DNA. Strikingly, the depletion of mitochondrial DNA from androgen-dependent LNCaP resulted in a loss of androgen dependence. Reconstitution of normal mitochondrial DNA to the mitochondrial DNA-depleted clone restored androgen dependence. These results indicate that mitochondrial DNA determines androgen dependence of prostate cancer cell lines. Further, mitochondrial DNA-deficient cells formed tumors in castrated athymic mice, whereas LNCaP did not. The accumulation of large deletion and depletion of mitochondrial DNA may thus play a role in the development of androgen independence, leading to progression of prostate cancers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection has been shown to be quite complicated and often difficult to diagnose and treat. For appropriate diagnosis, it is very important to find the correct Gram stain classification as soon as possible, especially in severe cases where there is a possibility of severe sepsis developing. In order to solve this problem, we developed a new method to detect a Gram stain of bacteria obtained from 1 ml of urine from urinary tract infection patients using a consensus real-time PCR protocol with a TaqMan probe that allows detection of spiked bacterial 16S DNA from urine. We extracted DNA of 55 urine samples obtained from patients with complicated urinary tract infection and at the same time performed urine culture testing. After DNA extraction, they were subjected to real-time PCR using a TaqMan discrimination system. Sixteen kinds of bacteria were cultured from the urine culture testing. Of these bacteria, eight were classified as Gram-positive bacteria and the other eight were classified as Gram-negative bacteria. Of the 55 samples, the TaqMan technique result showed 27 samples that were classified as Gram-negative bacteria; 11 samples that were Gram-positive, 10 that included both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, and 7 that showed no amplification. The classifications of all samples corresponded exactly to those determined by urine culture testing. The present genotyping method of real-time PCR using a TaqMan discrimination system could be applied to the rapid detection of Gram-positive or -negative bacteria in urine of urinary tract infection patients. This assay can differentiate those species tested, but whether the presence of other (untested) bacteria could lead to misinterpretation is unknown. For further investigation, it is important to test other (untested) bacteria in the near future.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine 04/2005; 4(4):196-201. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decreasing susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fluoroquinolones has been reported in several countries. Knowledge of local N gonorrhoeae susceptibilities to various antimicrobials is important for establishing a rational treatment strategy in each region.
Isolates of N gonorrhoeae from male urethritis patients attending four urological clinics in Hyogo and Osaka prefectures in Japan were collected during 2002. The MICs for nine antimicrobials: penicillin G, tetracycline, cefixime, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and spectinomycin were determined for each isolate. All isolates were also tested for beta lactamase producing profiles.
Among the 87 isolates obtained, only one isolate was revealed to produce beta lactamase. MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin were over 8 microg/ml, over 8 microg/ml, 4 microg/ml, and 2 microg/ml, respectively. The proportion of isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones was over 60% (ciprofloxacin, 70.1%; levofloxacin, 65.5%; gatifloxacin, 70.1%). Chromosomally mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance was identified in 12.6% and 33.3% of the isolates. MIC90 values for cefixime and ceftriaxone and were 0.5 microg/ml and 0.0063 microg/ml. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and 90.8% of them were sensitive to cefixime. MIC90 for spectinomycin was 32 microg/ml and all isolates were sensitive to it. Fluoroquinolone resistance correlated significantly with MICs for penicillin G but not tetracycline.
Ceftriaxone and spectinomycin demonstrated lower MICs and so are recommended for N gonorrhoeae. Susceptibilities of N gonorrhoeae should be monitored periodically by region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the potential of p21 as a gene therapy treatment for prostate cancer, by introducing p21 into both androgen-dependent (AD) and -independent (AI) human prostate cancer cell lines via a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad5CMV-p21, carrying human p21 cDNA.
The LNCaP, DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines were cultured and infected with Ad5CMV-p21. Cell growth, cell-cycle progression and tumorigenicity were then assessed by thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA, and cell number, flow cytometry, and tumour growth after inoculating the cells into nude mice.
Growth was inhibited in Ad5CMV-p21 viral-infected AD and AI prostate cancer cells. The effects were dose-dependent, regardless of the androgen status of the cell lines. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad5CMV-p21 arrested cell-cycle progression at G1/S with no appreciable effect on the levels of apoptotic cells. The tumorigenicity of cancer cells infected with Ad5CMV-p21 was greatly reduced in athymic mice.
These results suggest that Ad5CMV-p21 may be a new therapeutic agent for human prostate cancer gene therapy.
BJU International 09/2003; 92(3):314-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after radical cystectomy in patients with an ileal conduit or an orthotopic neobladder.Patients and Methods:The study included 85 men who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer, comprising 48 with an orthotopic neobladder (26 with an ileal and 22 with a colon neobladder) and 37 with an ileal conduit. HRQoL was evaluated using the Short Form-36 survey containing 36 questions assessing eight aspects, including physical functioning, role-physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional functioning, and mental health.Results:The mean follow-up periods for patients with a neobladder (ileal and sigmoid) and with an ileal conduit was 45.9 (38.2 and 53.1, respectively) and 130.9 months, respectively. Scale scores were not affected by the duration of follow-up in either group. There was no significant difference in any scale scores between the neobladder and ileal conduit groups. However, general health and social functioning in both the neobladder and ileal conduit groups appeared to be significantly lower than those in the general population in the United States. Furthermore, patients with a colon neobladder had a significantly higher score for role-emotional functioning than those with an ileal neobladder, while there was no significant difference in the remaining seven scores between patients with ileal and colon neobladders.Conclusions:Six of the eight scales of HRQoL were favourable in both patients with a neobladder or an ileal conduit, and there was no significant difference between these groups. In addition, the HRQoL of patients with an orthotopic neobladder (except for role-emotional functioning) was unaffected by the segment of the intestine used for neobladder construction. Therefore, patients with both types of urinary diversion were generally satisfied with their overall health and quality of life.
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 01/2003;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after radical cystectomy in patients with an ileal conduit or an orthotopic neobladder.
The study included 85 men who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer, comprising 48 with an orthotopic neobladder (26 with an ileal and 22 with a colon neobladder) and 37 with an ileal conduit. HRQoL was evaluated using the Short Form-36 survey containing 36 questions assessing eight aspects, including physical functioning, role-physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional functioning and mental health.
The mean follow-up periods for patients with a neobladder (ileal and sigmoid) and with an ileal conduit was 45.9 (38.2 and 53.1, respectively) and 130.9 months, respectively. Scale scores were not affected by the duration of follow-up in either group. There was no significant difference in any scale scores between the neobladder and ileal conduit groups. However, general health and social functioning in both the neobladder and ileal conduit groups appeared to be significantly lower than those in the general population in the USA. Furthermore, patients with a colon neobladder had a significantly higher score for role-emotional functioning than those with an ileal neobladder, while there was no significant difference in the remaining seven scores between patients with ileal and colon neobladders.
Six of the eight scales of HRQoL were favourable in both patients with a neobladder or an ileal conduit, and there was no significant difference between these groups. In addition, the HRQoL of patients with an orthotopic neobladder (except for role-emotional functioning) was unaffected by the segment of the intestine used for neobladder construction. Therefore, patients with both types of urinary diversion were generally satisfied with their overall health and quality of life.
BJU International 02/2002; 89(1):10-3. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of combination therapy of ionizing radiation (IR) and adenoviral p53 gene therapy and to evaluate its molecular mechanisms.
Two human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC-3 cells, containing different types of p53 gene mutations, were investigated. The recombinant adenovirus vector containing the wild-type p53 gene (Ad5CMV-p53) was used for this study. Cells were irradiated (in 0, 2, 4, and 6 Gy, 300 cGy/min) and after 12 h of irradiation, the cells were infected with various doses of Ad5CMV-p53 (0-40 multiplicity of infection [MOI]). Cytotoxicity was determined by clonogenic assay. The molecular mechanisms were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), apoptotic cell detection, and cell cycle analysis.
The cell growth inhibition in DU145 (p53-mutated) cells by IR was strongly enhanced by additional Ad5CMV-p53 infection in a viral dose-dependent manner. In DU145 cells, IR alone induced minimal p53 mRNA expression. However, IR combined with Ad5CMV-p53 infection stimulated significant increase in p53 mRNA expression supplemented with Bax and p21 mRNA expressions. In PC-3 (p53-null), IR induced Bax and p21 mRNA expression, while the combination effects were observed in p53, Bax, and p21 mRNA expression. Apoptotic cell deaths were rarely observed after IR alone (DU145: 3%, PC-3: 5%). However, after combination therapy, the proportion of apoptotic cells greatly increased (sevenfold in DU145 cells, and twice in PC-3 cells). G1 cell cycle arrest was observed after Ad5CMV-p53 infection and the combination in both cell lines.
In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IR and Ad5CMV-p53 gene therapy resulted in remarkable synergistic effects in human prostate cancer cells. This combination therapy could be one of the optimal treatment strategies for radioresistant prostate cancer.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 01/2002; 51(5):1336-45. · 4.52 Impact Factor