Shingo Yamada

Keio University, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (49)202.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: High-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) has recently been identified as a late mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. A method for efficiently removing HMGB1 from systemic circulation could be a promising therapy for HMGB1-mediated inflammatory diseases. It is well known that the cationic portion of HMGB1 binds to heparin, which has abundant sulfates in its structure. In this study, we determined whether spherical sulfated cellulose (SC) efficiently adsorbed HMGB1, as well as other inflammatory mediators, in vitro. Then, we investigated the efficacy of hemoperfusion with the SC (SC group) or cellulose beads (control group) at adsorbing endogenous mediators, including HMGB1, in vivo. We have demonstrated that the SC adsorbed significantly larger amounts of HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-8 when compared with cellulose beads, in vitro. Hemoperfusion with the SC for 30 minute, starting 2 hour after an abdominal opening and closure operation, significantly reduced serum HMGB1 levels (p = 0.004) and consistently increased serum IL-10 levels, in vivo. These data suggest the potential benefits of hemoperfusion using the SC in treating HMGB1-mediated inflammatory diseases.
    ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 03/2010; 56(3):210-4. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a monocyte-derived inflammatory mediator that is released in some conditions including shock, tissue injury, and endotoxin-induced lethality. In this study, we determined the plasma and hepatic tissue levels of HMGB1 in a drug-induced rat acute liver failure (ALF) model and investigated the effect of HMGB1 blockade on ALF. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250 to 300 g, were used for this study. d-galactosamine was injected into the penile vein to induce ALF. To determine HMGB1 levels, plasma and hepatic tissue samples were serially collected after the d-galactosamine injection. To test the effect of HMGB1 blockade, anti-HMGB1 polyclonal antibodies or control antibodies were injected into the penile vein right after injection of d-galactosamine. Levels of HMGB1 were increased in plasma and decreased in hepatic tissue after induction of ALF. Immunohistochemical examination for HMGB1 showed that liver from animals with ALF had little staining, whereas normal liver had strong staining in the nuclei. Injection of anti-HMGB1 antibodies resulted in significant suppression of plasma HMGB1 and hepatic enzymes, marked suppression of plasma inflammatory cytokines, marked improvement of histological findings, and significant improvement of survival. The decrease of hepatic HMGB1 was also significantly suppressed in the group injected with anti-HMGB1 antibodies. The present study suggests that in ALF, the liver may release HMGB1 into the plasma, and that neutralizing the released HMGB1 has a protective effect against injury.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 03/2010; 34(6):573-9. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized lipoproteins play important roles in the atherosclerotic processes. Oxidized lipoprotein(a) (oxLp(a)) may be more potent in atherosclerotic pathophysiology than native Lp(a), a cardiovascular disease-relevant lipoprotein. Increased blood glucose concentrations can induce oxidative modification of lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between circulating oxLp(a) and cardiometabolic variables including blood glucose in healthy volunteers within the normal range of blood glucose. Several cardiometabolic variables and serum oxLp(a) (using an ELISA system) were measured among 70 healthy females (mean age, 22 years). Lp(a) and glucose were significantly and positively correlated with oxLp(a) in simple correlation test. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression analysis showed oxLp(a) to have a weakly, but significantly positive and independent correlation with only blood glucose (β = 0.269, P < 0.05). These results suggest that increased glucose may enhance the oxidization of Lp(a) even at normal glucose levels.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2010; 9:103. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sivelestat sodium hydrate is a selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, which is effective in acute lung injury associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. However, the effectiveness of sivelestat in sepsis has not been fully examined. In the present study, the effect of sivelestat on severe sepsis in a rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was investigated. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent CLP and were randomly divided into two groups: sivelestat-treated group and saline-treated controls. The serum concentrations of several inflammatory mediators were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemical staining for high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1), IL-8, and CD68 were performed on the lungs to assess pathological changes found 12 h after the CLP procedure. Treatment with sivelestat significantly improved the survival rate of the post-CLP septic animals (P = 0.030). Sivelestat also induced a significant reduction in serum IL-1beta (P = 0.038) and IL-10 (P = 0.008) levels in these CLP rats. Serum HMGB1 levels had no significant difference between the sivelestat-treated and the control group. The lungs from sivelestat-treated rats exhibited less severe pathological changes and decreased the numbers of HMGB1, IL-8, and CD68-positive cells (P < 0.001). Sivelestat significantly improved survival rate of rats with clinically relevant sepsis, possibly by attenuating sepsis-induced systemic inflammatory response and lung injury. This may explain the implicated health benefits of sivelestat in reducing morbidity and mortality from sepsis.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 11/2009; 33(5):526-31. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new antibody reacted with an epitope in Lp(a) that has undergone oxidation treatment, but is not present in native Lp(a), was developed. Thus, we determined serum oxidized Lp(a) concentration in healthy volunteers, and coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertensive patients. We measured serum levels of oxidized Lp(a), Lp(a), LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in 122 consecutive patients who underwent routine coronary angiography and had significant coronary artery stenosis (>75%), and 164 age-matched healthy volunteers. Moreover, serum native Lp(a), oxidized Lp(a) concentration, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were determined in 181 hypertensive patients. Oxidized Lp(a) level in CAD patients with DM was significantly higher than in healthy volunteers (p<0.01). Moreover, serum oxidized Lp(a) concentration showed a significant positive correlation with pulse wave velocity, an index of arteriosclerosis (r=0.431, p<0.01). Of importance, the deposition of oxidized Lp(a) was readily detected in calcified areas of coronary arteries in patients with myocardial infarction. The present study demonstrated that oxidized Lp(a) may be a new risk factor for coronary artery disease. As the deposition of oxidized Lp(a) was detected in calcified areas of coronary arteries, oxidized Lp(a) might be implicated in endothelial dysfunction.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2009; 16(4):410-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) contribute to autoimmune disease progression and pathogenesis. Mature DC have been reported to secrete high mobility group box protein (HMGB-1), a novel inflammatory cytokine, via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. We investigated whether DC are involved in progression of autoimmune diseases followed by secretion of HMGB-1 via p38 MAPK activation in a lupus-prone mouse model. FR167653, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, was given orally from 3 months of age in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. Cultured DC, treated with or without FR167653, were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Inhibition of p38 MAPK led to a reduction in the number of CD11c-positive cells, including those with the mature phenotype, in the diseased kidney and spleen, which resulted in improvement of kidney pathology in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. The number of CD11c-positive cells in circulation was also reduced. HMGB-1 protein and transcripts detected in the diseased kidney, and the number of cells dual-positive for HMGB-1 and CD11c, were reduced by inhibition of p38 MAPK. Maturation of cultured DC and increased cytokines, including HMGB-1, in the supernatant were inhibited by FR167653 treatment. These results suggest that DC are involved in the progression of autoimmune kidney diseases in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice followed by HMGB-1 secretion via p38 MAPK activation. Our results indicated that DC secrete HMGB-1 via p38 MAPK activation to participate in autoimmunity in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 03/2009; 36(2):306-14. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2009; 136(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is one of the recently defined damage-associated molecular pattern molecules derived from necrotic cells and activated macrophages. We investigated clinical implications of serum HMGB1 elevation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Then, we evaluated the effect of HMGB1 blockade on post-MI left ventricular (LV) remodelling in a rat MI model. Serum HMGB1 levels were examined in patients with ST-elevation MI (n = 35). A higher peak serum HMGB1 level was associated with pump failure, cardiac rupture, and in-hospital cardiac death. Then, an experimental MI model was induced in male Wistar rats. The mRNA and protein expression of HMGB1 were increased in the infarcted area compared with those values observed in sham-operated rats. We administered neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody (MI/anti-H) or control antibody (MI/C) to MI rats subcutaneously for 7 days. The mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta and the number of macrophages in the infarcted area were reduced on day 3 in MI/anti-H rats compared with MI/C rats. Interestingly, HMGB1 blockade resulted in thinning and expansion of the infarct scar and marked hypertrophy of the non-infarcted area on day 14. Elevated serum HMGB1 levels were associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with MI. However, HMGB1 blockade in a rat MI model aggravated LV remodelling, possibly through impairment of the infarct-healing process. HMGB1, a novel predictor of adverse clinical outcomes after MI, may have an essential role in the appropriate healing process after MI.
    Cardiovascular Research 12/2008; 81(3):565-73. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue hypoxia is closely associated with arthritis pathogenesis, and extracellular high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) released from injured cells also has a role in arthritis development. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that extracellular HMGB-1 may be a coupling factor between hypoxia and inflammation in arthritis. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and HMGB-1 were measured in synovial fluid (SF) samples from patients with inflammatory arthropathy (rheumatoid arthritis and pseudogout) and patients with noninflammatory arthropathy (osteoarthritis). The localization of tissue hypoxia and HMGB-1 was also examined in animal models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In cell-based experiments, the effects of hypoxia on HMGB-1 release and its associated cellular events (i.e., protein distribution and cell viability) were studied. In SF samples from patients with HMGB-1-associated inflammatory arthropathy (i.e., samples with HMGB-1 levels >2 SD above the mean level in samples from patients with noninflammatory arthropathy), concentrations of HMGB-1 were significantly correlated with those of lactic acid, a marker of tissue hypoxia. In CIA models in which the pathologic phenotype could be attenuated by HMGB-1 neutralization, colocalization of HMGB-1 with tissue hypoxia in arthritis lesions was also observed. In cell-based experiments, hypoxia induced significantly increased levels of extracellular HMGB-1 by the cellular processes of secretion and/or apoptosis-associated release, which was much more prominent than the protein release in necrotic cell injury potentiated by oxidative stress. These findings indicate that tissue hypoxia and its resultant extracellular HMGB-1 might play an important role in the development of arthritis.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 10/2008; 58(9):2675-85. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) was identified as a mediator of endotoxin lethality. We previously reported that thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial thrombin-binding protein, bound to HMGB1, thereby protecting mice from lethal endotoxemia. However, the fate of HMGB1 bound to TM remains to be elucidated. TM enhanced thrombin-mediated cleavage of HMGB1. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the HMGB1 degradation product demonstrated that thrombin cleaved HMGB1 at the Arg10-Gly11 bond. Concomitant with the cleavage of the N-terminal domain of HMGB1, proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 was significantly decreased (P<0.01). HMGB1 degradation products were detected in the serum of endotoxemic mice and in the plasma of septic patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), indicating that HMGB1 could be degraded under conditions in which proteases were activated in the systemic circulation. TM not only binds to HMGB1 but also aids the proteolytic cleavage of HMGB1 by thrombin. These findings highlight the novel antiinflammatory role of TM, in which thrombin-TM complexes degrade HMGB1 to a less proinflammatory form.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2008; 28(10):1825-30. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein, has recently been recognized as a new proinflammatory cytokine. The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of HMGB1 in patients with renal diseases. HMGB1 concentrations in sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and antibodies against HMGB1 were examined by Western blotting in patients who underwent renal biopsies and in healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry for HMGB1 was also performed. Serum HMGB1 was more likely to be positive in patients who underwent renal biopsies as compared with the controls. Patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) and those with Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis showed a significantly higher tendency to be HMGB1 positive. The presence of anti-HMGB1 antibody was not associated with the presence of serum HMGB1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HMGB1 was expressed in mononuclear cells in the interstitium or in the glomeruli of some patients with ANCA-GN or IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Subanalysis demonstrated that among patients with IgAN, those who had crescent formation showed a higher tendency to be HMGB1 positive than those who did not. HMGB1 was expressed in the sera of patients with renal diseases who underwent renal biopsies, especially among those who had vasculitis including ANCA-GN, Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis, and IgAN with glomerular crescents.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 02/2008; 108(3):c194-201. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2008; 134(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine whether neutrophil and its elastase activity played consequential roles in the progression of gut barrier dysfunction during acute alveolar hypoxia by using a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, sivelestat. With our institutional approval, 20 male rabbits (weight, 2.0-2.5 kg) were randomly allocated into two groups: control (n = 11) or sivelestat group (n = 9; bolus, 10 mg/kg, followed by 10 mg/kg per hour). At 4 h of alveolar hypoxia exposure (fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.10) under mechanical ventilation, the white blood cell counts and their function to produce oxygen radicals were measured. Intestinal permeability and myeloperoxidase activity were also assessed concurrently with the examination of histological changes of gut mucosa. The examination of sham animals (n = 4) exposed to normoxia was performed under the same study protocol. The circulating leukocyte counts and the neutrophil chemiluminescence were not different between the groups, whereas the neutrophil elastase activity was significantly increased in the control but not in the sivelestat and sham groups. Permeability, leukocyte accumulation, and myeloperoxidase activity of ileal wall in the control group were significantly elevated, accompanied by apparent destruction of gut mucosa compared with the sivelestat group (P < 0.05). Despite no significant differences in systemic inflammatory responses, the neutrophil elastase activity is a key element in the progression of functional and structural injury of gut mucosa during acute alveolar hypoxia.
    Shock 08/2007; 28(1):101-5. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Shingo Yamada, Ikuro Maruyama
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    ABSTRACT: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) exhibits unique biochemical functions as a biologically intrinsic requisite factor and as a toxin. As such, it is imperative to understand the mechanism by which these seemingly and diametrically opposed functions are exerted. To effectively discriminate these actions is important to accurately and precisely determine the concentration of HMGB1 in biological samples. Research in this fascinating field, however, has been lacking due to the absence of a simple analytical system for HMGB1 that can be adapted for large sample numbers. In this report, we review the physiological and pathological significance of HMGB1 and describe the development of an assay method for this pleiotropic protein.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 02/2007; 375(1-2):36-42. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    Inflammation and Regeneration 01/2007; 27(2):88-95.
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    ABSTRACT: High-sensitivity sandwich ELISA methods have been developed using chemiluminescent substrates. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) protein has been shown to play a critical role in several inflammatory diseases and it may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Anti-human HMGB1 monoclonal antibodies and anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies against the peptide sequence (KPDAAKKGVVKAEK) with high antigenicity and different from the sequence of HMGB2 were developed, and the antibodies were used to construct sandwich ELISA methods with a chromogenic substrate (TMBZ) and a chemiluminescent substrate (PS-atto). Highly purified human HMGB1 was used as a standard material and high-sensitivity CRP was measured to compare with HMGB1. The analytical characteristics of the ELISA method we developed were validated inter-assay and intra-assay CVs were <10%, and the detection limit was 0.3 microg/l by the chemiluminescent method and 1 microg/l with the chromogenic substrates. HMGB1 was detected in the serum of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). When a cut-off of 0.6 microg/l HMGB1 upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) was used, the risk of developing an acute cardiac event within 1 month after discharge of ACS patients with an abnormal HMGB1 was significantly higher than for the patients with normal values (P<0.0001). The usefulness of HMGB1 as an acute prognostic marker was suggested. The assay is easy to perform and suitable for use in the hospital laboratory and for screening large populations. HMGB1 is detectable in the serum of ACS patients and that the serum concentration of HMGB1 may be a prognostic indicator in ACS patients.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 11/2006; 372(1-2):173-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a macrophage-derived proinflammatory cytokine that can cause lung injury. This study tested the hypothesis that HMGB1 is released in intact lungs ventilated with large Vt. A second objective was to identify the source of HMGB1. A third objective was to examine the effects of blocking HMGB1 on the subsequent development of VILI. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained from rabbits mechanically ventilated for 4 h with a small (8 ml/kg) versus a large (30 ml/kg) Vt. BALF was also obtained from rabbits with intratracheal instillation of anti-HMGB1 antibody before the initiation of large Vt ventilation. The concentrations of HMGB1 in BALF were fivefold higher in the large than in the small Vt group. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies revealed expression of HMGB1 in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils in lungs ventilated with large Vt. Blocking HMGB1 improved oxygenation, limited microvascular permeability and neutrophil influx into the alveolar lumen, and decreased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in BALF. These observations suggest that HMGB1 could be one of the deteriorating factors in the development of VILI.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2006; 174(4):400-7. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) has recently been shown to be an important late mediator of endotoxin shock, intraabdominal sepsis, and acute lung injury, and a promising therapeutic target of severe sepsis. We sought to investigate the effect of antibodies to HMGB1 on severe sepsis in a rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent CLP and then were randomly divided into two groups: treatment with anti-HMGB1 polyclonal antibodies, and non-immune IgG-treated controls. The serum HMGB1 concentrations were measured at ten time points (preoperatively, and postoperatively at 4, 8, 20, 32, and 48 h and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 days). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, elastica-Masson staining, and immunohistochemical staining for HMGB1 were performed on the cecum and the lung to assess pathological changes 24 h after the CLP procedure. Treatment with anti-HMGB1 antibodies significantly increased survival [55% (anti-HMGB1) vs. 9% (controls); P< 0.01]. The serum HMGB1 concentrations at postoperative hours 20 and 32 of the anti-HMGB1 antibody-treated animals were significantly lower than those of the controls (P < 0.05). Treatment with anti-HMGB1 antibodies markedly diminished the pathological changes and the number of HMGB1-positive cells in the cecum and the lung. The present study demonstrates that anti-HMGB1 antibodies are effective in the treatment of severe sepsis in a rat model, thereby supporting the relevance of HMGB1 eradication therapy for severe sepsis.
    World Journal of Surgery 09/2006; 30(9):1755-62. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), originally described as a DNA-binding protein, can also be released extracellularly and functions as a late mediator of inflammatory responses. Although recent reports have indicated that the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) as well as Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are involved in cellular activation by HMGB1, there has been little evidence of direct association between HMGB1 and these receptors. To examine this issue, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and immunoprecipitation to directly investigate cell surface interactions of HMGB1 with TLR2, TLR4, and RAGE. FRET images in RAW264.7 macrophages demonstrated association of HMGB1 with TLR2 and TLR4 but not RAGE. Transient transfections into human embryonic kidney-293 cells showed that HMGB1 induced cellular activation and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription through TLR2 or TLR4 but not RAGE. Coimmunoprecipitation also found interaction between HMGB1 and TLR2 as well as TLR4, but not with RAGE. These studies provide the first direct evidence that HMGB1 can interact with both TLR2 and TLR4 and also supply an explanation for the ability of HMGB1 to induce cellular activation and generate inflammatory responses that are similar to those initiated by LPS.
    AJP Cell Physiology 04/2006; 290(3):C917-24. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High Mobility Group Box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA-binding protein acting as a proinflammatory cytokine when released in the extracellular space from necrotic cells,activated macrophages and dendritic cells. HMGB1 acts on a specific receptor, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products), and induces prolonged inflammation, organ failure, septicaemia and death. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of plasma HMGB1 concentration and its role in the development of organ failure in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Plasma HMGB-1 levels were measured in patients with suspected DIC and their relationships with DIC, organ failure and clinical outcome were determined. The study took place at the intensive care facility, Mie University School of Medicine and comprised 201 patients with suspected DIC. Plasma HMGB1 was below the detection limit in normal subjects, but moderately elevated in patients with infectious diseases (4.54 +/- 8.18 ng/ml, mean +/- SD), malignancies (2.15 +/- 5.34 ng/ml),and traumas (6.47 +/- 13.13 ng/ml). DIC was associated with significantly high plasma HMGB1 (14.05 +/- 12.56 ng/ml) in these patients. The highest HMGB1 levels were in patients with organ failure (8.29 +/- 10.99 ng/ml) and non-survivors (16.58 +/- 11.01 ng/ml). HMGB1 plasma levels correlated with the DIC score and sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. In conclusion, our data suggest that HMGB-1 is a potentially suitable prognostic marker of OF or DIC.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2005; 94(5):975-9. · 5.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
202.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • Keio University
      • Department of Surgery
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2003–2013
    • Kagoshima University
      • • Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
      • • Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken, Japan
  • 2011
    • Fujita Health University
      • Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2010–2011
    • Jichi Medical University
      • Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan