[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δB (CaMKIIδB) is one of the predominant isoforms of CaMKII in the heart. The precise role of CaMKIIδB in the transcriptional cross-talk of Ca²⁺-handling proteins during heart failure remains unclear. In this work, we aim to determine the mechanism of CaMKIIδB in modulating the expression of sarcolemmal Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchange (NCX1). We also aim to address the potential effects of calmodulin antagonism on the imbalance of NCX1 and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase (SERCA) during heart failure. Eight weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced heart failure in mice, we found that the heart weight/tibia length (HW/TL) ratio and the lung weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio increased by 59% and 133%, respectively. We further found that the left ventricle-shortening fraction decreased by 40% compared with the sham-operated controls. Immunoblotting revealed that the phosphorylation of CaMKIIδB significantly increased 8 weeks after TAC-induced heart failure. NCX1 protein levels were also elevated, whereas SERCA2 protein levels decreased in the same animal model. Moreover, transfection of active CaMKIIδB significantly increased NCX1 protein levels in adult mouse cardiomyocytes via class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC)/myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2)-dependent signaling. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of calmodulin/CaMKIIδB activity improved cardiac function in TAC mice, which partially normalized the imbalance between NCX1 and SERCA2. These data identify NCX1 as a cellular target for CaMKIIδB. We also suggest that the CaMKIIδB-induced imbalance between NCX1 and SERCA2 is partially responsible for the disturbance of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and the pathological process of heart failure.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24724. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, has widely been used for patients with Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine on glutamate transporter. Since the astroglial glutamate transporter GLT-1 (EAAT2) is the predominant isoform in the forebrain, we generated EAAT2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells and immortalized mouse astrocytes. In the present studies, we observed a GLT-1-immunoreactive band and significant Na(+)-dependent d-[(3)H] aspartate uptake. Furthermore, the glutamate transporter inhibitors, dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) and dihydrokainate (DHK), displayed a dose-dependent reduction of d-[(3)H] aspartate uptake in both types of cells. In contrast, cells exposed to either chemical anoxia or high KCl elicited a marked release of d-[(3)H] aspartate, and the release was inhibited by TBOA and DHK, implying the contribution of glutamate transporter reversal. Interestingly, we found that bromocriptine dose-dependently inhibits d-[(3)H] aspartate release elicited by chemical anoxia or high KCl, while no changes occurred in the uptake. The inhibitory action of bromocriptine was not affected by sulpiride, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist. On the other hand, bromocriptine had no effect on swelling-induced d-[(3)H] aspartate release, which is mediated by volume-regulated anion channels. In vivo studies revealed that bromocriptine suppresses the excessive elevation of glutamate levels in gerbils subjected to transient forebrain ischemia in a manner similar to DHK. Taken together, these results provide evidence that bromocriptine inhibits excitatory amino acid release via reversed operation of GLT-1 without altering forward transport.
European journal of pharmacology 09/2010; 643(1):48-57. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a heart ischemia/reperfusion model in rats, we recently demonstrated that 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), a calmodulin inhibitor, is a cardioprotective drug. Here, we examined cardioprotective mechanisms of DY-9760e in hypertrophy and heart failure using a mouse transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model. Mice were subjected to TAC and 2 weeks later they were administered DY-9760e for another 6 weeks (at 10 or 20 mg/kg/day p.o.). Chronic administration inhibited TAC-induced increased heart-to-body weight ratio dose-dependently. Consistent with inhibition of hypertrophy, fraction shortening, an indicator of heart contractile function, assessed by echocardiography was completely restored by DY-9760e (20 mg/kg/day) administration. Inhibition of TAC-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) up-regulation further confirmed an antihypertrophic effect of DY-9760e. It is noteworthy that we found that breakdown of dystrophin and spectrin by calpain was associated with heart failure in TAC mice. Caveolin-3 breakdown was closely associated with endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) dissociation from the plasma membrane and its subsequent uncoupling. Uncoupled monomeric eNOS formation was associated with increased protein tyrosine nitration, suggesting peroxynitrite production and NO and superoxide formation. It is important to note that 6 weeks of DY-9760e treatment significantly blocked hypertrophic responses, such as increased heart weight and ANP induction. Overall, we show that inhibition of both dystrophin/spectrin breakdown and uncoupling of eNOS probably underlies the cardioprotective mechanisms of DY-9760e. The observed protection of sarcolemmal proteins and eNOS by DY-9760e during pressure overload suggests a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue the heart from hypertrophy-induced failure.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 11/2009; 332(2):421-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) have pivotal roles in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We here tested whether a novel CaM antagonist, DY-9760e inhibits ET-1-induced hypertrophy through inhibition of CaMKII and ERK activities. We first confirmed that Ca(2+) oscillation induced by ET-1 treatment elicits transient activation of CaMKII and ERK in cultured cardiomyocytes. DY-9760e treatment with 3 microM totally and partially inhibited the ET-1-induced CaMKII and ERK activation, respectively. The ET-1-induced ERK activation was also partially blocked by a CaMKII inhibitor, KN93. To confirm involvement of CaMKII activity in the ERK activation by ET-1 and A23187, cultured cardiomyocytes were transfected with a constitutively active CaMKII. The transfection with the active CaMKII elicited ERK activation in cultured cardiomyocytes and cotransfection with dominant negative CaMKII eliminated its ERK activation. Consistent with inhibitory actions of DY-9760e on the ET-1-induced CaMKII and ERK activation, induction of hypertrophy-related genes including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was significantly inhibited by DY-9760e treatment. Combination treatment with DY-9760e and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, totally blocked the ET-1-induced ANP and BNP expression. DY-9760e treatment (3 microM) significantly inhibited the ET-1-induced hypertrophy and combination treatment with DY-9760e and U0126 totally blocked the ET-1-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that DY-9760e elicits antihypertrophic action on ET-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of CaMKII and ERK activation and that CaMKII activity in part mediates ET-1-induced ERK activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological relevance of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS)-induced superoxide production in cardiomyocyte injury after prolonged phenylephrine (PE) exposure remains unclear. The aims of this study were to define the mechanism of O2(*) production by uncoupled eNOS and evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel calmodulin antagonist 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxyindazole (DY-9836) to rescue hypertrophied cardiomyocytes from PE-induced injury. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, prolonged exposure for 96 h to PE led to translocation from membrane to cytosol of eNOS and breakdown of caveolin-3 and dystrophin. When NO and O2(*) production were monitored in PE-treated cells by 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein and dihydroethidium, respectively, Ca(2+)-induced NO production elevated by 5.7-fold (p < 0.01) after 48-h PE treatment, and the basal NO concentration markedly elevated (16-fold; p < 0.01) after 96-h PE treatment. On the other hand, the O2(*) generation at 96 h was closely associated with an increased uncoupled eNOS level. Coincubation with DY-9836 (3 microM) during the last 48 h inhibited the aberrant O2(*) generation nearly completely and NO production by 72% (p < 0.01) after 96 h of PE treatment and inhibited the breakdown of caveolin-3/dystrophin in cardiomyocytes. PE-induced apoptosis assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining was also attenuated by DY-9836 treatment. These results suggest that O2(*) generation by uncoupled eNOS probably triggers PE-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Inhibition of abnormal O2(*) and NO generation by DY-9836 treatment represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for PE/hypertrophy-induced cardiomyocyte injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and, subsequently, hyperactivation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent processes might play an important role in the pathologic events following cerebral ischemia. PEP-19 is a neuronally expressed polypeptide that acts as an endogenous negative regulator of calmodulin by inhibiting the association of calmodulin with enzymes and other proteins. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of PEP-19 overexpression on cell death triggered by Ca2+ overload and how the polypeptide levels are affected by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia. Expression of PEP-19 in HEK293T cells suppressed calmodulin-dependent signaling and protected against cell death elicited by Ca2+ ionophore. Likewise, primary cortical neurons overexpressing PEP-19 became resistant to glutamate-induced cell death. In immunoprecipitation assay, wild type PEP-19 associated with calmodulin, whereas mutated PEP-19, which contains mutations within the calmodulin binding site of PEP-19, failed to associate with calmodulin. We found that the mutation abrogates both the ability to suppress calmodulin-dependent signaling and to protect cells from death. Additionally, the endogenous PEP-19 levels in neurons were significantly reduced following glutamate exposure, this reduction precedes neuronal cell death and can be blocked by treatment with calpain inhibitors. These data suggest that PEP-19 is a substrate for calpain, and that the decreased PEP-19 levels result from its degradation by calpain. A similar reduction of PEP-19 also occurred in the hippocampus of gerbils subjected to transient global ischemia. In contrast to the reduction in PEP-19, no changes in calmodulin occurred following excitotoxicity, suggesting the loss of negative regulation of calmodulin by PEP-19. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PEP-19 overexpression enhances resistance to Ca2+-mediated cytotoxicity, which might be mediated through calmodulin inhibition, and also raises the possibility that PEP-19 degradation by calpain might produce an aberrant activation of calmodulin functions, which in turn causes neuronal cell death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy impairs Ca(2+) handling in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby impairing cardiac contraction. To identify the mechanisms underlying impaired Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, we assessed Ca(2+)-dependent signaling and the phosphorylation of phospholamban, which regulates Ca(2+) uptake during myocardial relaxation and is in turn regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, treatment with endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy and increased CaMKII autophosphorylation and calcineurin expression. The calcineurin level reached its maximum at 72h and remained elevated for at least 96h after endothelin-1 or angiotensin II treatment. By contrast, CaMKII autophosphorylation, phospholamban phosphorylation, and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) mobilization all peaked 48h after these treatments. By 96h after treatment, CaMKII autophosphorylation and phospholamban phosphorylation had returned to baseline, and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) mobilization was impaired relative to baseline. A similar biphasic change was observed in dystrophin levels in endothelin-1-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, and treatment with the novel CaM antagonists DY-9760e and DY-9836 significantly inhibited the hypertrophy-induced dystrophin breakdown. Taken together, the abnormal Ca(2+) regulation in cardiomyocytes following hypertrophy is in part mediated by an imbalance in calcineurin and CaMKII activities, which leads to abnormal phospholamban activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in brain microvessels maintains homeostasis of the brain microenvironment mostly through maintenance of tight junctions between brain vascular endothelial cells, thereby preventing passage of hydrophilic molecules or toxic substances from the blood to the brain. Vascular damage following embolic stoke leads to disruption of BBB, thereby eliciting brain edema. Therefore, microvascular endothelial cell is likely potential therapeutic target to rescue neurons from brain edema. Vasoprotective agents such as free radical scavengers, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and HMGCoA reductase inhibitors are potential candidates to inhibit BBB disruption. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of decreased brain infarction by these vasoprotective agents. In addition, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are known to elicit cerebral microvascular injury resulting BBB disruption following cerebral ischemia. Of note, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) attenuates BBB disruption following brain ischemia. We recently introduced a novel vasoprotective drug, DY-9760e, which is a novel calmodulin-dependent NOS inhibitor. We confirmed that DY-9760e, can protect microvascular endothelial cells in rat embolic stoke model, thereby attenuating BBB disruption. Taken together, we propose a therapeutic modality that target cerebrovascular would represent powerful approaches to prevent brain edema following cerebral ischemia.
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery: Structure-Based Drug Design in the 21st Century. 02/2007; 3(1):433-454.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsphere embolism (ME)-induced up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells of brain microvessels was observed 2-48 h after ischemia. eNOS induction preceded disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) observed 6-72 h after ischemia. In vascular endothelial cells, ME-induced eNOS expression was closely associated with protein tyrosine nitration, which is a marker of generation of peroxynitrite. Leakage of rabbit IgG from microvessels was also evident around protein tyrosine nitration-immunoreactive microvessels. To determine whether eNOS expression and protein tyrosine nitration in vascular endothelial cells mediates BBB disruption in the ME brain, we tested the effect of a novel calmodulin-dependent NOS inhibitor, 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), which inhibits eNOS activity and, in turn, protein tyrosine nitration. Concomitant with inhibition of protein tyrosine nitration in vascular endothelial cells, DY-9760e significantly inhibited BBB disruption as assessed by Evans blue (EB) excretion. DY-9760e also inhibited cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as a marker of the apoptotic pathway in vascular endothelial cells. Taken together with previous evidence in which DY-9760e inhibited brain edema, ME-induced eNOS expression in vascular endothelial cells likely mediates BBB disruption and, in turn, brain edema.
Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2006; 99(1):97-106. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease, in vitro converts calcineurin (CaN) to constitutively active forms of 45 kDa and 48 kDa by cleaving the autoinhibitory domain of the 60 kDa subunit. In a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, calpain converted the CaN A subunit to the constitutively active form with 48 kDa in vivo. We also confirmed increased Ca(2+)/CaM-independent CaN activity in brain extracts. The generation of constitutively active and Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity of CaN peaked 2 h after reperfusion in brain extracts. Increased constitutively active CaN activity was associated with dephosphorylation of dopamine-regulated phosphoprotein-32 in the brain. Generation of constitutively active CaN was accompanied by translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) into nuclei of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In addition, a novel calmodulin antagonist, DY-9760e, blocked the generation of constitutively active CaN by calpain, thereby inhibiting NFAT nuclear translocation. Together with previous studies indicating that NFAT plays a critical role in apoptosis, we propose that calpain-induced CaN activation in part mediates delayed neuronal death in brain ischemia.
Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2006; 98(1):310-20. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsphere embolism (ME)-induced cerebral ischemia can elicit various pathological events leading to neuronal death. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed that expression of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, decreased after ME induction. Calpain activation after ME was apparently due to, in part, a decrease in calpastatin in a late phase of neuronal injury. The time course of that decrease also paralleled caspase-3 activation. In vitro studies demonstrated that calpastatin was degraded by caspase-3 in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent manner. Because CaM binds directly to calpastatin, we asked whether a novel CaM antagonist, 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydro-chloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), inhibits caspase-3-induced calpastatin degradation during ME-induced neuronal damage. We also tested the effect of DY-9760e on degradation of fodrin, a calpain substrate. Consistent with our hypothesis, DY-9760e (25 or 50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment inhibited degradation of calpastatin and fodrin in a dose-dependent manner. Because DY-9760e showed powerful neuroprotective activity with concomitant inhibition of calpastatin degradation, cross-talk between calpain and caspase-3 through calpastatin possibly accounts for ME-induced neuronal injury. Taken together, both inhibition of caspase-3-induced calpastatin degradation and calpain-induced fodrin breakdown by DY-9760e in part mediate its neuroprotective action.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2006; 317(2):529-36. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence indicates that disturbances of Ca(2+) homeostasis may be a causative factor in the neurotoxicity following cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) overload leads to neuronal cell death have not been fully elucidated. Calmodulin, a major intracellular Ca(2+)-binding protein found mainly in the central nervous system, mediates many physiological functions in response to changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas Ca(2+) overload in neurons after excitotoxic insult may induce excessive activation of calmodulin signaling pathways, leading to neuronal cell death. To determine the role of calmodulin in the induction of neuronal cell death, we generated primary rat cortical neurons that express a mutant calmodulin with a defect in Ca(2+)-binding affinity. Neurons expressing the mutant had low responses of calmodulin-dependent signaling to membrane depolarization by high KCl and became resistant to glutamate-triggered excitotoxic neuronal cell death compared with the vector or wild-type calmodulin-transfected cells, indicating that blocking calmodulin function is protective against excitotoxic insult. These results suggest that calmodulin plays a crucial role in the processes of Ca(2+)-induced neuronal cell death and the possibility that the blockage of calmodulin attenuates brain injury after cerebral ischemia.
Brain Research 05/2006; 1083(1):189-95. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride-3.5 hydrate) inhibits Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thereby inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production. In cardiomyocytes from ischemic rat heart NO and superoxide levels are increased causing protein tyrosine nitration. In hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion DY-9760e totally abolishes protein tyrosine nitration. Notably, DY-9760e also inhibits calpain and cas-pase-3 activation that occurs prior to apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In ischemic hearts fodrin is the substrate for calpain. DY-9760e inhibits fodrin breakdown in the peri-infarct area rather than in the infarct core. In the ischemic rat brain DY-9760e inhibits caspase-3-induced proteolysis of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, suggesting that crosstalk between calpain and caspase-3 is mediated by calpastatin breakdown. Thus, DY-9760e rescues neurons and cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury by inhibiting crosstalk between calpain and caspase-3 as well as protein tyrosine nitration.
Cardiovascular Drug Reviews 02/2006; 24(2):88-100. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsphere embolism (ME)-induced ischemia model in rat resembles to multiple brain embolism in human with several clinical features. We here tested whether nitric oxide (NO) production contributes to the neuronal injury in the ME model. A novel calmodulin antagonist, DY-9760e, having a potent inhibitory effect on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), reduced brain infarct size in the ME-induced brain ischemia. Consistent with our previous observation with gerbil ischemia/reperfusion model, DY-9760e completely inhibited NO production immediately after and 24 or 48 h after ME. Unlike the gerbil ischemia/reperfusion model, protein tyrosine nitration markedly increased 6-48 h after ME. DY-9760e treatment completely inhibited the marked increase in the protein tyrosine nitration at 24 h after ME. These results suggest that the inhibition of NO production and protein tyrosine nitration by DY-9760e contribute to its neuroprotective action in the ME-induced brain damage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We here assessed the effects of 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), a novel calmodulin antagonist, on infarct size in the rat heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Rats were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by a 24-h reperfusion. DY-9760e was intravenously infused for 20 min, starting at 20 min after coronary occlusion. Treatment with DY-9760e (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size in the risk area assessed by Evans Blue/TTC (triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining. DY-9760e treatment also ameliorated contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle 72 h after reperfusion. DY-9760e significantly inhibited fodrin breakdown and caspase-3 activation. The inhibitory effect of DY-9760e on the fodrin breakdown was prominent in the rim rather than in the center of the risk area. DY-9760e also blocked protein tyrosine nitration associated with infarction. These results suggest that the cardioprotective effect of DY-9760e involved inhibition of calpain/caspase activation and protein tyrosine nitration.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 07/2005; 98(2):142-50. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate), a calmodulin antagonist, provides protection against Ca(2+) overload-associated cytotoxicity and brain injury after cerebral ischemia in rats. In this study, we assessed the effect of DY-9760e on ischemic infarct volume in cats subjected to permanent focal cerebral ischemia. DY-9760e was infused for 6 h, beginning 5 min after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The infarct volume was measured at the end of drug infusion. DY-9760e, at the dose of 0.25 but not 0.1 mg/kg/h, significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume without affecting any physiological parameters, and its protective effect was mainly evident in the cerebral cortex, where the penumbra, a salvageable zone, exists. The present study demonstrates that DY-9760e protects against brain injury after focal ischemia in a gyrencephalic animal as well as in the rodents reported previously and suggests its therapeutic value for the treatment of acute stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An excessive elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels is known to play a key role in the pathological events following cerebral ischemia. DY-9760e, 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate, is a potent calmodulin antagonist that attenuates brain damage in focal ischemia models. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DY-9760e on neuronal cell death induced by a variety of cell-toxic stimuli that increase intracellular Ca(2+). Cell death was induced by the exposure of primary cultured neurons to excitotoxic agents such as glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate, membrane-depolarizing agents such as veratridine and high KCl, or thapsigargin an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor. Treatment with DY-9760e resulted in a dose-dependent prevention of neuronal cell death elicited by excitotoxicity, voltage-gated channel opening, and inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. These results indicate that DY-9760e can rescue neurons from various types of cell-toxic stimuli, which may contribute to attenuation of brain injury after cerebral ischemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study of biomarkers associated with stroke has proved to be of considerable utility. The astroglial protein S-100b is a candidate marker for cerebral tissue damage. We used a rat embolic model produced by injection of microspheres to demonstrate that serum S-100b is a useful biochemical marker for ischemic brain injury. Serum S-100b levels were significantly increased following microsphere injection, which was closely correlated with the development of brain edema. We found that structurally and mechanistically independent neuroprotective agents, such as 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), a novel calmodulin antagonist, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801, are capable of attenuating increased serum S-100b levels and brain edema. In contrast, the hyperosmolar agent glycerol, which has no direct neuroprotective action, had little effect on serum S-100b levels, despite a significant decrease in brain water content. These results suggest that lowering of serum S-100b is mediated by neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury. Thus, serum S-100b reflects the extent of brain damage following cerebral ischemia and serves as a useful biomarker for the assessment of neuroprotectants.
Brain Research 10/2004; 1021(2):159-66. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel calmodulin (CaM) antagonist DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate) with an apparent neuroprotective effect in vivo preferentially inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase IIalpha (CaMKIIalpha), and calcineurin in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect with the gerbil transient forebrain ischemia model, by focusing on its inhibition of these Ca2+/CaM-dependent enzymes. Post-ischemic DY-9760e treatment (5 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after 5-min ischemia significantly reduced the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. CaMKIIalpha was transiently autophosphorylated immediately after reperfusion with concomitant sustained decrease in its total amounts in the Triton X-100-soluble fractions. Calcineurin activity, accessed by the phosphorylation state of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32) at Thr34, was elevated at 6 h after reperfusion. Post-treatment of DY-9760e had no effects on both CaMKIIalpha and DARPP-32 phosphorylation at 6 h after reperfusion. However, DY-9760e significantly inhibited nitrotyrosine formation, as a biomarker of NO, and in turn, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) production. These results suggest that DY-9760e primarily inhibits Ca2+/CaM-dependent neuronal NOS, without any effects on CaMKII and calcineurin, and the inhibition of NO production possibly accounts for its neuroprotective action in brain ischemic injury.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 10/2004; 96(1):65-72. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate), a novel calmodulin antagonist, provides effective protection against Ca(2+) ionophore-induced cytotoxicity and brain injury induced by transient focal ischemia. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DY-9760e on ischemic infarct volume in rats subjected to permanent focal ischemia. DY-9760e (0.5 mg/kg/h for 6 h) significantly reduced the infarct volume when administered immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Furthermore, this neuroprotection was also exerted by treatment with a 3-hour delay, implying that the therapeutic time window for this compound is at least 3 h. In addition, although treatment with 0.1 mg/kg/h for 24 h was ineffective, the combination of a loading dose of 0.3 mg/kg/h for 2 h followed by 0.1 mg/kg/h for 22 h yielded a significant reduction in infarct volume. Thus, prolonged infusion preceded by a loading dose is an efficacious dosing regimen for DY-9760e, especially at a low infusion rate. These data demonstrate the substantial neuroprotective effect of DY-9760e in a permanent focal ischemia model and indicate that this neuroprotectant may be of therapeutic value for the treatment of acute stroke.