[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mmt1 and Mmt2 are highly homologous yeast members of the cation diffusion facilitator transporter family localized to mitochondria.
Overexpression of MMT1/2 led to changes in cellular metal homeostasis (increased iron sensitivity, decreased cobalt sensitivity, increased sensitivity
to copper), oxidant generation, and increased sensitivity to H2O2. The phenotypes due to overexpression of MMT1&2 were similar to that seen in cells with deletions in MRS3 and MRS4, genes that encode the mitochondrial iron importers. Overexpression of MMT1&2 resulted in induction of the low iron transcriptional response, similar to that seen in Δmrs3Δmr4 cells. This low iron transcriptional response was suppressed by deletion of CCC1, the gene that encodes the vacuolar iron importer. Measurement of the activity of the iron-dependent gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans expressed in yeast cytosol, showed that changes in Mmt1/2 levels affected cytosol iron concentration even in the absence
of Ccc1. Overexpression of MMT1 resulted in increased cytosolic iron whereas deletion of MMT1/MMT2 led to decreased cytosolic iron. These results support the hypothesis that Mmt1/2 function as mitochondrial iron exporters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial iron is essential for the biosynthesis of heme and iron-sulfur ([Fe-S]) clusters in mammalian cells. In developing
erythrocytes, iron is imported into the mitochondria by MFRN1 (mitoferrin-1, SLC25A37). Although loss of MFRN1 in zebrafish and mice leads to profound anemia, mutant animals showed no overt signs of
porphyria, suggesting that mitochondrial iron deficiency does not result in an accumulation of protoporphyrins. Here, we developed
a gene trap model to provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP1) inhibits protoporphyrin accumulation. Mfrn1+/gt;Irp1−/− erythroid cells exhibit a significant increase in protoporphyrin levels. IRP1 attenuates protoporphyrin biosynthesis by binding
to the 5′-iron response element (IRE) of alas2 mRNA, inhibiting its translation. Ectopic expression of alas2 harboring a mutant IRE, preventing IRP1 binding, in Mfrn1gt/gt cells mimics Irp1 deficiency. Together, our data support a model whereby impaired mitochondrial [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis in Mfrn1gt/gt cells results in elevated IRP1 RNA-binding that attenuates ALAS2 mRNA translation and protoporphyrin accumulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania causes significant human disease in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, India and South America. The parasite is transmitted by sand flies, which are difficult to control and are becoming increasingly common in urban areas. With domestic dogs serving as reservoirs of the disease and global travel increasing the population of infected human patients, the overall burden of leishmaniasis is on the rise. In mammals these parasites replicate inside macrophages, and therefore need strategies to survive within a cell that is specialized in killing pathogens. Earlier work demonstrated that iron is one of the essential nutrients that Leishmania must acquire from host cells to survive. Acquiring iron is particularly challenging inside macrophages, which play an important role in host iron homeostasis and export iron extracellularly through the membrane transporter ferroportin. We found that Leishmania amazonesis induces their host macrophages to produce hepcidin, a peptide that triggers internalization and degradation of ferroportin. This strategy increases the macrophage intracellular iron pool, and stimulates Leishmania replication. These results suggest that defects in iron homeostasis, which occur frequently in the human population, can have an important role in susceptibility to Leishmania infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The facile ability of iron to gain and lose electrons has made iron an important participant in a wide variety of biochemical reactions. Binding of ligands to iron modifies its redox potential, thereby permitting iron to transfer electrons with greater or lesser facility. The ability to transfer electrons, coupled with its abundance, as iron is the fourth most abundant mineral in the earth's crust, have contributed to iron being an element required by almost all species in the six kingdoms of life. Iron became an essential element for both Eubacteria and Archeabacteria in the early oxygen-free stages of the earth's evolution. With the advent of an oxygen-rich environment, the redox properties of iron made it extremely useful, as much of iron utilization in eukaryotes is focused on oxygen metabolism, either as an oxygen carrier or as an electron carrier that can facilitate oxygen-based chemistry.
Current biology: CB 08/2013; 23(15):R642-6. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.033 · 9.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sorting of endocytic ligands and receptors is critical for diverse cellular processes. The physiological significance of endosomal sorting proteins in vertebrates, however, remains largely unknown. Here we report that sorting nexin 3 (Snx3) facilitates the recycling of transferrin receptor (Tfrc) and thus is required for the proper delivery of iron to erythroid progenitors. Snx3 is highly expressed in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues. Silencing of Snx3 results in anemia and hemoglobin defects in vertebrates due to impaired transferrin (Tf)-mediated iron uptake and its accumulation in early endosomes. This impaired iron assimilation can be complemented with non-Tf iron chelates. We show that Snx3 and Vps35, a component of the retromer, interact with Tfrc to sort it to the recycling endosomes. Our findings uncover a role of Snx3 in regulating Tfrc recycling, iron homeostasis, and erythropoiesis. Thus, the identification of Snx3 provides a genetic tool for exploring erythropoiesis and disorders of iron metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defects in the availability of haem substrates or the catalytic activity of the terminal enzyme in haem biosynthesis, ferrochelatase (Fech), impair haem synthesis and thus cause human congenital anaemias. The interdependent functions of regulators of mitochondrial homeostasis and enzymes responsible for haem synthesis are largely unknown. To investigate this we used zebrafish genetic screens and cloned mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (atpif1) from a zebrafish mutant with profound anaemia, pinotage (pnt (tq209)). Here we describe a direct mechanism establishing that Atpif1 regulates the catalytic efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize haem. The loss of Atpif1 impairs haemoglobin synthesis in zebrafish, mouse and human haematopoietic models as a consequence of diminished Fech activity and elevated mitochondrial pH. To understand the relationship between mitochondrial pH, redox potential, [2Fe-2S] clusters and Fech activity, we used genetic complementation studies of Fech constructs with or without [2Fe-2S] clusters in pnt, as well as pharmacological agents modulating mitochondrial pH and redox potential. The presence of [2Fe-2S] cluster renders vertebrate Fech vulnerable to perturbations in Atpif1-regulated mitochondrial pH and redox potential. Therefore, Atpif1 deficiency reduces the efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize haem, resulting in anaemia. The identification of mitochondrial Atpif1 as a regulator of haem synthesis advances our understanding of the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial haem homeostasis and red blood cell development. An ATPIF1 deficiency may contribute to important human diseases, such as congenital sideroblastic anaemias and mitochondriopathies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast respond to increased cytosolic iron by activating the transcription factor Yap5 increasing transcription of CCC1, which encodes a vacuolar iron importer. Using a genetic screen to identify genes involved in Yap5 iron sensing, we discovered that a mutation in SSQ1, which encodes a mitochondrial chaperone involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, prevented expression of Yap5 target genes. We demonstrated that mutation or reduced expression of other genes involved in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster synthesis (YFH1, ISU1) prevented induction of the Yap5 response. We took advantage of the iron-dependent catalytic activity of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase expressed in yeast to measure changes in cytosolic iron. We determined that reductions in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis did not affect the activity of cytosolic gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. We show that loss of activity of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly complex proteins or deletion of cytosolic glutaredoxins did not reduce expression of Yap5 target genes. These results suggest that the high iron transcriptional response, as well as the low iron transcriptional response, senses iron-sulfur clusters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a critical role at the crossroad between iron metabolism and immunity, being able to store and recycle iron derived from the phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes. The way by which macrophages manage non-heme iron at physiological concentration is still not fully understood. We investigated protein changes in mouse bone marrow macrophages incubated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC 10 μM iron). Differentially expressed spots were identified by nano RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Transcriptomic, metabolomics and western immunoblotting analyses complemented the proteomic approach. Pattern analysis was also used for identifying networks of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. FAC treatment resulted in higher abundance of several proteins including ferritins, cytoskeleton related proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) at the membrane level, vimentin, arginase, galectin-3 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Interestingly, GAPDH has been recently proposed to act as an alternative transferrin receptor for iron acquisition through internalization of the GAPDH-transferrin complex into the early endosomes. FAC treatment also induced the up-regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins (PRDX), which was further confirmed at the metabolic level (increase in GSSG, 8-isoprostane and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates) through mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics approaches. This study represents an example of the potential usefulness of "integarated omics" in the field of iron biology, especially for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in normal and disease conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Integrated omics - functional applications to blood and blood therapeutics."
Journal of proteomics 07/2012; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.07.018 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mon1a was originally identified as a modifier gene of vesicular traffic, as a mutant Mon1a allele resulted in increased localization of cell surface proteins, whereas reduced levels of Mon1a showed decreased secretory activity. Here we show that Mon1a affects different steps in the secretory pathway including endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic. siRNA-dependent reduction of Mon1a levels resulted in a delay in the reformation of the Golgi apparatus after Brefeldin A treatment. Endoglycosidase H treatment of ts045VSVG-GFP confirmed that knockdown of Mon1a delayed endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi trafficking. Reductions in Mon1a also resulted in delayed trafficking from Golgi to the plasma membrane. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis showed that Mon1a associates with dynein intermediate chain. Reductions in Mon1a or dynein altered steady state Golgi morphology. Reductions in Mon1a delayed formation of ERGIC-53-positive vesicles, whereas reductions in dynein did not affect vesicle formation. These data provide strong evidence for a role for Mon1a in anterograde trafficking through the secretory apparatus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distinguishing feature between iron homeostasis in single versus multicellular organisms is the need for multicellular organisms to transfer iron from sites of absorption to sites of utilization and storage. Ferroportin is the only known iron exporter and ferroportin plays an essential role in the export of iron from cells to blood. Ferroportin can be regulated at many different levels including transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally, through mRNA stability and post-translationally, through protein turnover. Additionally, ferroportin may be regulated in both cell-dependent and cell-autonomous fashions. Regulation of ferroportin is critical for iron homeostasis as alterations in ferroportin may result in either iron deficiency or iron overload. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chediak-Higashi syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects vesicle morphology. The Chs1/Lyst protein is a member of the BEige And CHediak family of proteins. The absence of Chs1/Lyst gives rise to enlarged lysosomes. Lysosome size is regulated by a balance between vesicle fusion and fission and can be reversibly altered by acidifying the cytoplasm using Acetate Ringer's or by incubating with the drug vacuolin-1. We took advantage of these procedures to determine rates of lysosome fusion and fission in the presence or absence of Chs1/Lyst. Here, we show by microscopy, flow cytometry and in vitro fusion that the absence of the Chs1/Lyst protein does not increase the rate of lysosome fusion. Rather, our data indicate that loss of this protein decreases the rate of lysosome fission. We further show that overexpression of the Chs1/Lyst protein gives rise to a faster rate of lysosome fission. These results indicate that Chs1/Lyst regulates lysosome size by affecting fission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this issue of Molecular Cell, Sanvisens et al. (2011) report a new mechanism for regulation of yeast ribonucleotide reductase activity that occurs during iron deprivation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The iron exporter ferroportin (Fpn) is essential to transfer iron from cells to plasma. Systemic iron homeostasis in vertebrates is regulated by the hepcidin-mediated internalization of Fpn. Here, we demonstrate a second route for Fpn internalization; when cytosolic iron levels are low, Fpn is internalized in a hepcidin-independent manner dependent upon the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 and the Nedd4-2 binding protein Nfdip-1. Retention of cell-surface Fpn through reductions in Nedd4-2 results in cell death through depletion of cytosolic iron. Nedd4-2 is also required for internalization of Fpn in the absence of ferroxidase activity as well as for the entry of hepcidin-induced Fpn into the multivesicular body. C. elegans lacks hepcidin genes, and C. elegans Fpn expressed in mammalian cells is not internalized by hepcidin but is internalized in response to iron deprivation in a Nedd4-2-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that Nedd4-2-induced internalization of Fpn is evolutionarily conserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to high cytosolic iron by inducing Yap5-mediated transcription. We identified genes regulated by Yap5 in response to iron and show that one of the genes induced is TYW1, which encodes an iron-sulfur cluster enzyme that participates in the synthesis of wybutosine-modified tRNA. Strains deleted for TYW1 do not show a phenotype in standard yeast medium. In contrast, overexpression of TYW1 results in decreased cell growth and induction of the iron regulon, leading to increased expression of the high affinity iron transporters. We identified a minimal domain of S. cerevisiae Tyw1 that is sufficient to induce the iron regulon. CCC1, a vacuolar iron importer, is a Yap5-regulated gene, and deletion of either CCC1 or YAP5 resulted in high iron sensitivity. Deletion of TYW1 in a Δccc1 strain led to increased iron sensitivity. The increased iron sensitivity of Δccc1Δtyw1 could be suppressed by overexpression of iron-sulfur cluster enzymes. We conclude that the Yap5-mediated induction of TYW1 provides protection from high iron toxicity by the consumption of free cytosolic iron through the formation of protein-bound iron-sulfur clusters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic iron homeostasis is regulated by the interaction of the peptide hormone, hepcidin and the iron exporter, ferroportin. Mutations in FPN1, the gene that encodes ferroportin, result in iron-overload disease that shows dominant inheritance and variation in phenotype. The inheritance of ferroportin-linked disorders can be explained by the finding that ferroportin is a multimer and the product of the mutant allele participates in multimer formation. The nature of the ferroportin mutant can explain the variation in phenotype, which is due to either decreased iron export activity or decreased ability to be downregulated by hepcidin. Iron export through ferroportin is determined by the concentration of ferroportin in plasma membrane, which is the result of both synthetic and degradation events. Ferroportin degradation can occur by hepcidin-dependent and hepcidin-independent internalization. Ferroportin expression is regulated transcriptionally and posttranslationally.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria have deficient ferrochelatase (FECH) activity due to changes in FECH DNA. We evaluated seven patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria phenotype in whom abnormalities of FECH DNA were not found by conventional analysis. The major focus was mitoferrin-1 (MFRN1), the mitochondrial transporter of Fe used for heme formation by FECH and for 2Fe2S cluster synthesis, which is critical to FECH activity/stability.
Four patients had a deletion in ALAS2 that causes enzyme gain-of-function, resulting in increased formation of protoporphyrin; one had a heterozygous major deletion in FECH DNA. All had an abnormal transcript of MFRN1 in messenger RNA extracted from blood leukocytes and/or liver tissue. The abnormal transcript contained an insert of intron 2 that had a stop codon. The consequences of abnormal MFRN1 expression were examined using zebrafish and yeast MFRN-deficient strains and cultured lymphoblasts from the patients.
Abnormal human MFRN1 complementary DNA showed loss-of-function in zebrafish and yeast mutants, whereas normal human MFRN1 complementary DNA rescued both. Using cultured lymphoblasts, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed increased formation of abnormal transcript that was accompanied by decreased formation of normal transcript and reduced FECH activity in patients compared to normal lines. A positive correlation coefficient (0.75) was found between FECH activity and normal MFRN1 messenger RNA in lymphoblasts. However, no obvious cause for increased formation of abnormal transcript was identified in MFRN1 exons and splice junctions.
Abnormal MFRN1 expression can contribute to erythropoietic protoporphyria phenotype in some patients, probably by causing a reduction in FECH activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitoferrin 1 (Mfrn1; Slc25a37) and mitoferrin 2 (Mfrn2; Slc25a28) function as essential mitochondrial iron importers for heme and Fe/S cluster biogenesis. A genetic deficiency of Mfrn1 results in a profound hypochromic anemia in vertebrate species. To map the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control expression of the Mfrn genes, we utilized genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) datasets for the major erythroid transcription factor GATA-1. We identified the CRMs that faithfully drive the expression of Mfrn1 during blood and heart development and Mfrn2 ubiquitously. Through in vivo analyses of the Mfrn-CRMs in zebrafish and mouse, we demonstrate their functional and evolutionary conservation. Using knockdowns with morpholinos and cell sorting analysis in transgenic zebrafish embryos, we show that GATA-1 directly regulates the expression of Mfrn1. Mutagenesis of individual GATA-1 binding cis elements (GBE) demonstrated that at least two of the three GBE within this CRM are functionally required for GATA-mediated transcription of Mfrn1. Furthermore, ChIP assays demonstrate switching from GATA-2 to GATA-1 at these elements during erythroid maturation. Our results provide new insights into the genetic regulation of mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis and, more generally, illustrate the utility of genome-wide ChIP analysis combined with zebrafish transgenesis for identifying long-range transcriptional enhancers that regulate tissue development.