[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most of the approximately 250,000 cases occurring annually in the United States are small, nonaggressive, and cured by excision alone. However, a subset of these tumors which are defined by poorly differentiated histology, large tumor size, invasion of adjacent structures, and/or regional metastases can prove resistant to treatment despite adjuvant radiotherapy and can have an increased risk of recurrence and nodal metastasis. Novel therapeutic approaches are necessary to improve the outcomes for patients with aggressive CSCC.
We analyzed the effect of targeted therapy on the growth and survival of CSCC cell lines using an anti-insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) antibody, A12, alone or in combination with an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, cetuximab, both in vitro and in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model of CSCC.
Treatment with A12 and cetuximab inhibited the signaling pathways of IGF-IR and EGFR and inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining revealed decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), microvessel density, and increased apoptosis within the treated tumor xenografts. In addition, the administration of A12, alone or in combination with cetuximab inhibited the growth of tumors by 51% and 92%, respectively, and significantly enhanced survival in the nude mouse model of CSCC (p = .044 and p < .001, respectively).
These data suggest that dual treatment with monoclonal antibodies to the EGFR and IGF-IR may be therapeutically useful in the treatment of CSCC.
Head & Neck 02/2011; 33(2):189-98. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of S100A7 (psoriasin), a small calcium-binding protein, has been associated with the development of psoriasis and carcinomas in different types of epithelia, but its precise functions are still unknown. Using human tissue specimens, cultured cell lines, and a mouse model, we found that S100A7 is highly expressed in preinvasive, well-differentiated and early staged human squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCCOC), but little or no expression was found in poorly differentiated, later-staged invasive tumors. Interestingly, our results showed that S100A7 inhibits both SCCOC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth/invasion in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S100A7 is associated with the beta-catenin complex, and inhibits beta-catenin signaling by targeting beta-catenin degradation via a noncanonical mechanism that is independent of GSK3beta-mediated phosphorylation. More importantly, our results also indicated that beta-catenin signaling negatively regulates S100A7 expression. Thus, this reciprocal negative regulation between S100A7 and beta-catenin signaling implies their important roles in tumor development and progression. Despite its high levels of expression in early stage SCCOC tumorigenesis, S100A7 actually inhibits SCCOC tumor growth/invasion as well as tumor progression. Downregulation of S100A7 in later stages of tumorigenesis increases beta-catenin signaling, leading to promotion of tumor growth and tumor progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a locally aggressive type of thyroid tumor with high rate of distant metastases. With conventional treatment, the median survival ranges from 4 to 12 months; therefore, new treatment options are needed. AZD2171 is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3. The objective of the study is to determine whether AZD2171 can inhibit VEGFR-2 signaling and decrease tumor growth and prolong survival of ATC in an orthotopic nude mouse model.
We examined the effects of AZD2171 on phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and AKT in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. To determine the antiproliferative and antiapoptotic effects of AZD2171, we did 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays, respectively. We assessed the antitumor effects of AZD2171 in a xenograft model of ATC using control, AZD2171, paclitaxel, and combination groups by measuring tumor size and survival.
Treatment with AZD2171 led to dose-dependent inhibition of VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (IC(50) for cell proliferation, 500 nmol/L). In the ATC cell lines DRO and ARO, IC(50) was 7.5 micromol/L. AZD2171 induced apoptosis in 50% of endothelial and ATC cells at 3 and 10 micromol/L concentrations, respectively. In vivo, AZD2171 led to a significant reduction in tumor size between control and AZD2171 (P = 0.002) or AZD2171 + paclitaxel group (P = 0.002) but not the paclitaxel alone group (P = 0.11). Survival was significantly higher among AZD2171 (P < 0.001) and combination groups (P < 0.001) compared with control.
AZD2171 effectively inhibits tumor growth and prolongs survival of ATC-bearing mice. The main effect of AZD2171 is mediated through angiogenesis inhibition.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2007; 13(15 Pt 1):4519-27. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) remains one of the most lethal human cancers. We hypothesized that sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of the BRaf, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta kinase, would decrease tumor growth and angiogenesis in an orthotopic model of ATC. The in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of sorafenib on ATC cell lines were examined. To study the in vivo effects of sorafenib on orthotopic ATC tumors in nude mice, sorafenib was given p.o. at 40 or 80 mg/kg daily. Intratumoral effects were studied using immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of sorafenib on survival of the mice was also studied. Sorafenib inhibited the in vitro proliferation of ATC cell lines. Sorafenib also significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis via the induction of endothelial apoptosis in an orthotopic model of thyroid cancer. As result, the growth of orthotopic ATC xenografts was reduced and the survival of the test animals was improved. Sorafenib exerts significant antitumor activity in an orthotopic xenograft model of ATC via a potent antiangiogenic effect. The antiangiogenic effects of sorafenib suggest that its use in clinical setting may not depend on the BRAF mutational status of thyroid tumors. Given the lack of curative options for patients with ATC, sorafenib warrants further study as a therapeutic agent against ATC.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 07/2007; 6(6):1785-92. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) tumor specimens and cell lines and the efficacy of the novel small molecule QLT0267.
Immunohistochemical analysis of 17 SCCHN tumor tissue specimens and 3 normal tongue tissue specimens for ILK expression and in vitro analysis of the effectiveness of QLT0267 on SCCHN cells.
Academic medical center.
Expression levels of ILK in SCCHN tumor specimens and cell lines and the efficacy of QLT0267 in inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in SCCHN cell lines.
Most SCCHN tumor specimens stained for ILK, whereas none of the 3 normal tongue tissue specimens stained for ILK. Integrin-linked kinase was expressed in all 6 SCCHN cell lines tested. In 4 pairs of normal and SCCHN tumor specimens, ILK expression and activity were higher in most tumor samples tested. A kinase assay showed that QLT0267 inhibited the ILK activity of 2 SCCHN cell lines (TU167 and MDA1986). Modified tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, DNA fragmentation ladder, and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end()labeling) assays showed that QLT0267 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in these 2 cell lines. A dose-dependent decrease in Akt phosphorylation was observed for these 2 cell lines on treatment with QLT0267.
Integrin-linked kinase is overexpressed in SCCHN tumor specimens. Targeting ILK with the small-molecule ILK inhibitor QLT0267 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in SCCHN cell lines by reducing ILK activity and Akt phosphorylation. Integrin-linked kinase may be an attractive target for molecular therapy with which to enhance treatment of SCCHN.
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 02/2007; 133(1):15-23. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) activation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenic signals are important for the progression and metastasis of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of AEE788, a dual inhibitor of EGF and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases, on human salivary ACC. In clinical specimens of salivary ACC, EGF and VEGF signaling proteins were expressed at markedly higher levels than in adjacent normal glandular tissues. We examined the effects of AEE788 on salivary ACC cell growth and apoptosis and on the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR-2 in salivary ACC cells. Treatment of salivary ACC cells with AEE788, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, led to growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and dose-dependent inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation. To determine the in vivo antitumor effects of AEE788, nude mice with orthotopic parotid tumors were randomized to receive oral AEE788 alone, paclitaxel alone, cisplatin alone, a combination of AEE788 plus paclitaxel, a combination of AEE788 plus cisplatin, or a placebo. AEE788 inhibited tumor growth and prevented lung metastasis in nude mice. To study the mechanism of interaction between AEE788 and chemotherapy, AEE788 was found to potentiate growth inhibition and apoptosis of ACC tumor cells mediated by chemotherapy. Tumors of mice treated with AEE788 and AEE788 plus chemotherapy exhibited down-regulation of activated EGFR and VEGFR-2, increased tumor and endothelial cell apoptosis, and decreased microvessel density, which correlated with a decrease in the level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and a decrease in the incidence of vascular metastasis. These data show that EGFR and VEGFR can be molecular targets for therapy of salivary ACC.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2006; 5(11):2696-705. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and its ligands have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various cancers, including those arising in the thyroid gland. We therefore evaluated whether the IGF-IR could serve as a potential target for therapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
The expression and activation of the IGF-IR and some of its downstream signaling pathway components were evaluated in both human thyroid cancer specimens and thyroid cancer cell lines. The therapeutic potential of a humanized monoclonal antibody (A12) directed against IGF-IR was assessed in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic model of ATC. Tumor volume and overall survival time were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of A12 in vivo.
IGF-IR was overexpressed in 94% of the thyroid cancers. Blockade of IGF-IR with A12 was effective in attenuating IGF-IR signaling both in vitro and in vivo. However, the inhibitory effects of A12 on cell proliferation were cell line dependent, as those ATC cell lines that had detectable levels of pIGF-IR were more sensitive to A12 treatment. A12 was equally effective in vivo, where it brought approximately 57% (P = 0.041) inhibition in tumor volume. The concomitant use of A12 and irinotecan produced additive effects and resulted in a 93% (P < 0.001) reduction in tumor volume. Blocking IGF-IR blocked Akt phosphorylation and decreased proliferation and microvessel density but increased apoptosis within the tumor xenografts. Our results also highlighted a previously undefined IGF-IR-mediated antiangiogenic effect on tumor-associated endothelium in thyroid cancers.
Blocking the IGF-IR with A12 seems to be a potential avenue for treating patients with ATC by its direct antitumor effects and its effects on the tumor vasculature.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2006; 12(15):4755-65. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with radioiodine-resistant follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) have a poor prognosis, if metastasized, with currently available treatment modalities. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their receptors (EGFR and VEGFR) have been reported to be overexpressed in FTC and have been implicated in FTC development. We hypothesized that inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR by treatment with NVP-AEE788 (AEE788), a novel dual specific EGFR and VEGFR inhibitor, either alone or in combination with paclitaxel, would inhibit the growth of FTC xenografts in an orthotopic nude mouse model.
To confirm previous reports, EGF and EGFR expression and vascularity were analyzed in human samples of FTC, Hürthle cell carcinoma, and normal thyroid tissues. EGFR expression in four FTC cell lines was measured using Western blotting. The antitumor effect of AEE788 on FTC cells in vitro was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays and Western blotting. The effect of AEE788, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, on FTC tumor growth in an orthotopic nude mouse model was also investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR and VEGFR signaling status, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and microvessel density was done.
EGF, EGFR, and vascularity were increased in human thyroid tumor samples and EGFR was increased in FTC cells. AEE788 inhibited FTC cell growth in vitro and reduced the phosphorylation status of EGFR, VEGFR, and two downstream targets, AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase, in FTC cells. AEE788 alone and, to a greater extent, AEE788 plus paclitaxel suppressed FTC tumor growth in the thyroids of nude mice.
Dual inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR by AEE788 could represent a novel approach to the treatment of radioiodine-resistant FTC.
Clinical Cancer Research 07/2006; 12(11 Pt 1):3425-34. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapies that target signaling pathways critical to the pathogenesis and progression of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are needed. One such target, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and its downstream target serine/threonine kinase, Akt, are up-regulated in HNSCC. Targeted therapy could consist of inhibitors of these kinases or, alternatively, of inhibitors of the pathways that they regulate. To explore the effect of Akt inhibition on the growth and survival of HNSCC tumors, we evaluated the effect of a novel Akt inhibitor, KP372-1, on the growth, survival, and sensitivity to anoikis of HNSCC cell lines in culture. Using Western blotting of head and neck cancer cell lines and squamous mucosa and carcinoma specimens, we found that Akt was highly phosphorylated in head and neck cancer cell lines and human head and neck squamous carcinoma specimens. Treatment of HNSCC cell lines with KP372-1 blocked the activation of Akt, inhibited head and neck cancer cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis and anoikis in several HNSCC cell lines. Furthermore, KP372-1 decreased the phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal (Ser240/244) protein, which is a downstream target of Akt. Taken together, these findings indicate that KP372-1 may be a useful therapeutic agent for HNSCC and should be further evaluated in preclinical models of HNSCC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) remains one of the most lethal known human cancers. Targeted molecular therapy with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor, offers new treatment potentials for patient with ATC. Cetuximab has also been reported to have synergistic effects when combined with irinotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor. Therefore, we hypothesized that cetuximab and irinotecan would be effective in inhibiting the growth and progression of ATC in a murine orthotopic model.
The in vitro antiproliferative effects of cetuximab and irinotecan on ATC cell line ARO were examined. We also studied the in vivo effects of cetuximab and irinotecan on the growth, invasion, and metastasis of orthotopic ATC tumors in nude mice. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of cetuximab/irinotecan combination was also compared with that of doxorubicin.
Cetuximab alone did not show any antiproliferative or proapoptotic effect on this cell line. However, when combined with irinotecan, cetuximab potentiated the in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect of irinotecan. Cetuximab, irinotecan, and cetuximab/irinotecan combination resulted in 77%, 79%, and 93% in vivo inhibition of tumor growth, respectively. Incidences of lymph node metastasis, laryngeal invasion, and tumor microvessel density were also significantly decreased in these treatment groups. Furthermore, the cetuximab/irinotecan combination was significantly more effective than doxorubicin in inhibiting the growth of orthotopic ATC xenografts.
Combination therapy with cetuximab/irinotecan inhibits the growth and progression of orthotopic ATC xenografts in nude mice. Given the lack of curative options for patients with ATC, combination therapy with cetuximab and irinotecan treatment warrants further study.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2006; 12(2):600-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) SCH66336 has been shown to have antitumor activities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo. However, its mechanism of action has not been well defined. Here, we report that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-3 mediates antitumor activities of SCH66336 in HNSCC by inhibiting angiogenesis. SCH66336 significantly suppressed HNSCC tumor growth and angiogenesis via mechanisms that are independent of H-Ras and RhoB. By inducing IGFBP-3 secretion from HNSCC cells, this compound suppresses angiogenic activities of endothelial cells, including vessel formation in chorioallantoic membranes of chick, endothelial cell sprouting from chick aorta, and capillary tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Knockdown of IGFBP-3 expression in HNSCC cells by RNA interference or depletion of IGFBP-3 in HUVECs by neutralizing antibody effectively blocked the effects of IGFBP-3 secreted from SCH66336-treated HNSCC cells on HUVECs. These findings suggest that IGFBP-3 could be a primary target for antitumor activities of FTIs and that IGFBP-3 is an effective therapeutic approach against angiogenesis in HNSCC.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2006; 12(2):653-61. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a focal adhesion serine-threonine protein kinase, as a new molecular target for treating anaplastic thyroid cancer. ILK mediates cell growth and survival signals and is overexpressed in a number of cancers. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of ILK leads to growth arrest and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells. According to Western blotting, the level of ILK protein was highly expressed in one papillary (NPA187) and four of five (Hth74, DRO, ARO, KAT4, and K4) anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of a human tissue microarray revealed that ILK was highly expressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer but not in normal human thyroid tissue. Treating thyroid cancer cell lines with a new ILK inhibitor, QLT0267, inhibited epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of AKT, inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in the NPA187, DRO, and K4 cell lines. QLT0267 also inhibited the kinase activity of immunoprecipitated ILK in four of five cell lines. Tumor volumes in mice treated with QLT0267 were significantly reduced compared with those in untreated mice. In immunohistochemical studies, QLT0267 suppressed phosphorylated p-AKT and angiogenesis (i.e., reduced mean vascular density) and induced apoptosis in both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells of the thyroid DRO xenografts. In summary, we found that ILK expression and activity were elevated in human anaplastic thyroid cancer and ILK inhibition led to growth arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ILK is a potential therapeutic target for treating anaplastic thyroid cancer.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 09/2005; 4(8):1146-56. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from bone metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) have a poor prognosis because of the lack of effective treatment strategies. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) associated with increased vascularity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of FTC and subsequent bone metastases. We hypothesized that inhibiting the phosphorylation of the EGFR and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) by AEE788, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR, in combination with paclitaxel would inhibit experimental FTC bone lesions and preserve bone structure. We tested this hypothesis using the human WRO FTC cell line. In culture, AEE788 inhibited the EGF-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt in culture. AEE788, alone and in combination with paclitaxel, inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. When WRO cells were injected into the tibia of nude mice, tumor and endothelial cells within the lesions expressed phosphorylated EGFR, VEGFR, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase that were inhibited by the oral administration of AEE788. Therapy consisting of orally given AEE788 and i.p. injected paclitaxel induced a high level of apoptosis in tumor-associated endothelial cells and tumor cells with the inhibition of tumor growth in the bone and the preservation of bone structure. Collectively, these data show that blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR with AEE788 combined with paclitaxel can significantly inhibit experimental human FTC in the bone of nude mice.
Cancer Research 07/2005; 65(11):4716-27. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten/Akt pathway, which is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and survival, is mutated or activated in a wide variety of cancers. Akt appears to be a key central node in this pathway and thus is an attractive target for targeted molecular therapy. We demonstrated that Akt is highly phosphorylated in thyroid cancer cell lines and human thyroid cancer specimens, and hypothesised that KP372-1, an Akt inhibitor, would block signalling through the PI3K pathway and inhibit cell proliferation while inducing apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells. KP372-1 blocked signalling downstream of Akt in thyroid tumour cells, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. As thyroid cancer consistently expresses phosphorylated Akt and KP372-1 effectively blocks Akt signalling, further preclinical evaluation of this compound for treatment of thyroid cancer is warranted.
British Journal of Cancer 06/2005; 92(10):1899-905. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) in athymic nude mice.
Various thyroid carcinoma cell lines were injected into the thyroid gland of athymic nude mice to determine whether such injection was technically feasible. ATC cells were then injected into the thyroid gland or the subcutis of nude mice at various concentrations, and the mice were then followed for tumor development. The tumors were examined histopathologically for local invasion or regional or distant metastasis.
Injection of tumor cells into the thyroid glands of nude mice was technically feasible and resulted in the formation of thyroid tumors. The ATC cell line DRO showed significantly higher tumorigenicity in the thyroid gland than in the subcutis. In contrast, oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line TU167 shows no significantly higher tumorigenicity in the thyroid gland than in the subcutis. ATC tumors established in the thyroid gland also produced symptomatic compression of the esophagus and the trachea. Local invasion of the larynx and trachea was as well as high rates of pulmonary metastasis were also observed. Immunohistochemical staining showed higher microvessel density as well as higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 in the orthotopic thyroid tumors than in ectopic tumors.
An orthotopic model of ATC in athymic nude mice was developed that closely recapitulates the clinical findings of human ATC. This model should facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of ATC and aid in the development of novel therapies against ATC.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2005; 11(5):1713-21. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether concomitant blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathways by AEE788, a dual inhibitor of EGFR and VEGFR tyrosine kinases, would inhibit the growth of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and human cutaneous cancer xenografts in nude mice.
We examined the effects of AEE788 on the phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR-2 in cutaneous SCC cells expressing EGFR and VEGFR-2 and cutaneous SCC cell growth and apoptosis. We assessed the in vivo antitumor effects of AEE788 in a xenograft model in nude mice. AEE788 (50 mg/kg) was given orally thrice weekly to mice that had been s.c. injected with Colo16 tumor cells. Mechanisms of in vivo AEE788 activity were determined by immunohistochemical analysis.
Treatment of cutaneous SCC cells with AEE788 led to dose-dependent inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, growth inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. In mice treated with AEE788, tumor growth was inhibited by 54% at 21 days after the start of treatment compared with control mice (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AEE788 inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR and induced apoptosis of tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells.
In addition to inhibiting cutaneous cancer cell growth by blocking EGFR and VEGFR signaling pathways in vitro, AEE788 inhibited in vivo tumor growth by inducing tumor and endothelial cell apoptosis.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2005; 11(5):1963-73. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No effective treatment options currently are available to patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), resulting in high mortality rates. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of many types of cancer, and its receptor (EGFR) provides an attractive target for molecular therapy.
The expression of EGFR was determined in ATC in vitro and in vivo and in human tissue arrays of ATC. We assessed the potential of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib ("Iressa," ZD1839) to inhibit EGFR activation in vitro and in vivo, inhibit ATC cellular proliferation, induce apoptosis, and reduce the growth of ATC cells in vivo when administered alone and in combination with paclitaxel.
EGFR was overexpressed in ATC cell lines in vitro and in vivo and in human ATC specimens. Activation of EGFR by EGF was blocked by the addition of gefitinib. In vitro studies showed that gefitinib greatly inhibited cellular proliferation and induced apoptosis in ATC cell lines and slowed tumor growth in a nude mouse model of thyroid carcinoma cells injected subcutaneously.
ATC cells consistently overexpress EGFR, rendering this receptor a potential target for molecular therapy. Gefitinib effectively blocks activation of EGFR by EGF, inhibits ATC cellular proliferation, and induces apoptosis in vitro. Our in vivo results show that gefitinib has significant antitumor activity against ATC in a subcutaneous nude mouse tumor model and therefore is a potential candidate for human clinical trials.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2005; 10(24):8594-602. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and activation of its receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase, are associated with progressive growth of head and neck cancer. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with angiogenesis and progressive growth of tumor. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEE788 (AEE788) blocks the EGF and VEGF signaling pathways. We examined the effects of AEE788 administered alone, or with paclitaxel (Taxol), on the progression of human head and neck cancer implanted orthotopically into nude mice. Cells of two different human oral cancer lines, JMAR and MDA1986, were injected into the tongues of nude mice. Mice with established tumors were randomized to receive three times per week oral AEE788, once weekly injected paclitaxel, AEE788 plus paclitaxel, or placebo. Oral tumors were resected at necropsy. Kinase activity, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mean vessel density were determined by immunohistochemical immunofluorescent staining. AEE788 inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, and reduced the phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR-2, AKT, and mitogen-activated protein kinase in both cell lines. Mice treated with AEE788 and AEE788 plus paclitaxel had decreased microvessel density, decreased proliferative index, and increased apoptosis. Hence, AEE788 inhibited tumor vascularization and growth and prolonged survival. Inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR phosphorylation by AEE788 effectively inhibits cellular proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, induces apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and tumor cells, and is well tolerated in mice. These data recommend the consideration of patients with head and neck cancer for inclusion in clinical trials of AEE788.
Cancer Research 12/2004; 64(21):7977-84. · 8.65 Impact Factor