[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are often diagnosed with advanced diseases that respond poorly to chemotherapy. Here we reported that Apollon, a membrane-associated inhibitor of apoptosis protein, was overexpressed in ESCC cell lines and clinical ESCC tissues, and Apollon overexpression clinically correlated with poor response to chemotherapy (P = 0.001), and short overall survival (P = 0.021). Apollon knockdown increased cisplatin/docetaxel-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release in two ESCC cell lines. Apollon knockdown potentiated cisplatin/docetaxel-induced long-term cell growth inhibition, and enhanced chemosensitivity of ESCC cells to cisplatin/docetaxel in xenograft tumor models. Apollon knockdown also enhanced cisplatin/docetaxel-induced activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic pathway) and caspase-9 (intrinsic pathway) in ESCC cells and xenograft tumor models. Mechanism studies revealed that the effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity is mainly mediated by Smac. Apollon expression strongly and negatively correlated with Smac expression in clinical ESCC tissues (P = 0.001). Apollon targeted Smac for degradation in ESCC cells. The effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity was reversed by Smac knockdown in ESCC cells. Taken together, our data show association of Apollon expression with chemotherapeutic response in ESCC, and provide a strong rationale for combining Apollon antagonism with chemotherapy to treat ESCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical data of a patient with acute-on-chronic liver failure were analyzed retrospectively. The patient has suffered from hepatitis B for 30 years. His liver function deteriorated, yielding Child-Pugh grade C and reaching a model for end-stage liver disease score of 33 points within a short period; this condition was complicated with highly active variceal bleeding and coagulation system failure (PT > 100 s). The patient also presented hepatocellular carcinoma. Comprehensive treatments included effective inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication and intensive care support. Piggyback orthotopic liver transplantation was performed as the final treatment. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged after surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR(-/-)) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR(-/-) mice fed MCD diet (FXR(-/-)/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR(-/-)/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR(-/-)/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR(-/-)/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasis the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acids homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquaporins (AQPs) plays an important role in transcellular water movement, but the AQPs expression profile has not been demonstrated in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis which closely mimics human Crohn's disease (CD) histopathologically. To solve the problem, 30 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a model group (n=18), an ethanol control group (n=6) and a normal control group (n=6). On day 1, the rats in the model group received TNBS+50% ethanol via the rectum, while the ethanol control rats received an equal volume of 50% ethanol and the normal control rats did not receive any treatment. All rats were sacrificed on day 7, and ileum, proximal colon and distal colon specimens were obtained to examine the alteration in AQP3 and AQP8 using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. As a result, exposure to TNBS+ethanol resulted in a marked decrease in both the mRNA and protein expression of AQP3 and AQP8, with the exception of AQP8 protein which was negative in the distal colon in all three groups. These reductions in AQP3 and AQP8 were accompanied by an increase in intestinal inflammation and injury. The results obtained here implied that both AQP3 and AQP8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. However, the genetic alterations and molecular mechanism of the early onset CRCs are not fully investigated. The present study aimed to characterize early onset CRC by analyzing its gene expression compared with normal controls and to identify network-based biomarkers of early onset CRC. The gene expression profiles of early onset CRC were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CRC patients were identified. Then, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and the clusters in PPI were analyzed by ClusterONE. Furthermore, the gene ontology functional analysis and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted to the modules in PPI network. A systems biology approach integrating microarray data and PPI was further applied to construct a PPI network in CRC. Total 631 DEGs were identified from the early onset CRC compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in several biological processes, including cell communication, cell proliferation, cell shape and apoptosis. Five functional modules which may play important roles in the initiation of early onset CRC were identified from the PPI network. Functional annotation revealed that these five modules were involved in the pathways of signal transduction, carcinogenesis and metastasis. The hub nodes of these five modules, CDC42, TEX11, QKI, CAV1 and FN1, may serve as the biomarkers of early onset CRC and have the potential to be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, further investigations are still needed to confirm our findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neoangiogenesis and the development of an abnormal angio-architecture in the liver are strongly linked with progressive fibrogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of curcumin to protect liver fibrosis-associated angiogenesis and capillarization of the sinusoids in experimental rats. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without curcumin for 6 weeks. The results suggest that curcumin treatment markedly attenuated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, as assessed by histology and hydroxyproline content, and inhibited hepatic stellate cell activation. Curcumin ameliorated hepatic angiogenesis, as assessed by measuring microvessel density using Von Willebrand factor staining and by examining the expression of the endothelial cell markers CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in the livers. Pathologic remodeling of liver sinusoidal capillarization, as assessed by electron-microscopic analysis of Disse's space and by evaluation of the levels of basement membrane protein expression, was also attenuated by curcumin administration. The intrahepatic gene or protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, VEGFR-1, placental growth factor, and cyclooxygenase-2 decreased with treatment with curcumin in fibrotic rats. In conclusion, curcumin ameliorates hepatic angiogenesis and sinusoidal capillarization in CCl4-induced rat liver fibrosis through suppressing multiple pro-angiogenic factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies showed that cell surface β 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β1,4GT1) negatively regulated cell survival through inhibition and modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SMMC-7721 cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that β 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β1,4GT1) interacted with EGFR in vitro by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that β1,4GT1 bound to EGFR in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation and determined the co-localization of β1,4GT1 and EGFR on the cell surface via confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis. Finally, using (125)I-EGF binding experiments and Western blot analysis, we found that overexpression of β1,4GT1 inhibited (125)I-EGF binding to EGFR, and consequently reduced the levels of EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. In contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of β1,4GT1 increased the levels of EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. These data suggest that cell surface β1,4GT1 interacts with EGFR and inhibits EGFR activation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a highly sensitive competitive-type assay for multiplexing electrochemical detection of clenbuterol in pig urine using a 16-sensor array. In this design, the clenbuterol was first conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and then the conjugates were immobilized on the electrode surface to compete with the free clenbuterol in the sample for specific antibody. Under the optimal conditions, the reproducibility of the clenbuterol electrochemical immunosensor was evaluated to be 3.4 % (coefficient of variation, CV) and the limit of detection was estimated to be 1.3 pg/mL. The very low detection limit was probably derived from the higher efficiency of the competitive immunoreaction caused by appropriate quantities of the clenbuterol immobilized on the 16-sensor array and the suitable amount of anti-clenbuterol antibody in the assay system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms of TGF-β1 mediated immunosuppression in tumor stroma. METHODS: The expression of TGF-β1 was investigated in Huh7, Hep 3B, SGC-7901, Eca-109 and Hepa1-6 cell lines using immunofluorescence. Knocked-down TGF-β1 of the Hepa1-6 cell line was established through lentivirus-based RNA interference. The interference efficiency of the TGF-β1 gene was tested by real-time PCR and ELISA; the expression of Foxp3, IFN-γ and CD83 in CD4(+), CD8(+) or dendritic cells was examined via flow cytometry; and the tumorigenic ability of the cancer cells was investigated in the animal experiments. RESULTS: The diverse digestive cancer cells were found to secrete TGF-β1, mRNA of which was knocked down by 78 % thanks to lentivirus-based interference in Hepa1-6 cells. Flow cytometry showed that CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells significantly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma patients when compared with those in the healthy controls. The supernatant from Hepa1-6 cells and recombinant TGF-β1 significantly induced the expression of Foxp3 gene in vitro, while that from sh TGF-β1 Hepa1-6 cells restored it. Hepa1-6 cells inhibited IFN-γ and CD83 expression in CD8(+) or dendritic cells by secreting TGF-β1. The animal experiments indicated that the knockdown TGF-β1 gene impaired the tumorigenic ability of Hepa1-6 cells. CONCLUSION: TGF-β1, expressed in cancer cells, might be a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDAIM: To investigate the roles of biomedical factors, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, genotypes, and specific viral mutation patterns on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients below 40 years of age in Qidong, China.
We conducted a case-control study within a cohort of 2387 male HBV carriers who were recruited from August, 1996. The HBV DNA sequence was determined in 49 HCC and 90 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients below 40 years of age. Mutation exchanges during follow-up in 32 cases were compared with 65 controls with paired serum samples. In addition, a consecutive series of samples from 14 HCC cases were employed to compare the sequences before and after the occurrence of HCC.
After adjustment for age, history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, HBeAg positive, HBV DNA levels ≥4.00 log10 copies/mL, pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations were associated with risk of young age HCC. Moreover, the presence of an increasing number of HCC-related mutations (pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations) was associated with an increased risk of young age HCC. Paired samples analysis indicated that the increased HCC risk for at-risk sequence mutations were attributable to the persistence of these mutations, but not a single time point mutation. The longitudinal observation demonstrated a gradual combination of pre-S deletion, T1762/A1764 double mutations, and T1766 and/or A1768 mutations during the development of HCC.
High HBV DNA levels and pre-S deletion were independent risk factors of young age HCC. Combination of pre-S deletion and core promoter mutations increased the risk and persistence of at-risk sequence mutations is critical for HCC development.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59583. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is to explore the different expressions of serum N-glycoproteins and glycosylation sites between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and healthy controls.
We combined high abundant proteins depletion and hydrophilic affinity method to enrich the glycoproteins. Through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we extensively surveyed different expressions of glycosylation sites and glycoproteins between the two groups.
This approach identified 152 glycosylation sites and 54 glycoproteins expressed differently between HCC patients and healthy controls. With the absolute values of Pearson coefficients of at least 0.8, eight proteins were identified significantly up or down regulated in HCC serum. Those proteins are supposed to be involved in several biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions of hepatocarcinogenesis. Several of them had been reported abnormally regulated in several kinds of malignant tumors, and may be promising biomarkers of HCC.
Our work provides a systematic and quantitative method of glycoproteomics and demonstrates some key changes in clinical HCC serum. These proteomic signatures may help to unveil the underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and may be useful for the exploration of candidate biomarkers.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77161. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (UCH37) plays a crucial role in numerous biological processes and is also involved in oncogenesis. In this study, clinicopathologic data showed that UCH37 was over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cancerous tissues and was a significant predictor for time to recurrence (TTR). In vitro, we discovered that UCH37 could promote cell migration and invasion. Subsequently, we utilized Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) to identify differentially expressed proteins in UCH37 over-expressing cells compared with the control cells, and found that PRP19, an essential RNA splicing factor, was up-regulated. The relationship between UCH37, PRP19 and the capability of cell migration and invasion was further confirmed. Collectively, this study demonstrated that UCH37 could promote cell migration and invasion in HCC cell lines through interacting and deubiquitinating PRP19, and suggested that UCH37 could be a novel predictor for HCC recurrence after curative resection.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effect of nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy in patients with decompensated cirrhosis remains unclear. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nucleos(t)ide analogues on decompensated cirrhotic patients. METHODS: An online search within PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Central of Register of Controlled Trials and China Biology Medicine disc from 1998-01-01 to 2011-09-05 was conducted. A meta-analysis was performed. Relative risks of mortality rate, Child-Pugh-Turcotte score and hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion of the decompensated patients were studied. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 511 patients were included. Data showed that lamivudine and telbivudine significantly decreased the mortality rate (relative risk 0.36, 95 % confidence interval 0.25-0.54), improved the Child-Pugh-Turcotte scores (mean difference -3.23, 95 % confidence interval -3.98 to -2.48) and promoted HBeAg seroconversion (relative risk 7.48, 95 % confidence interval 2.31-24.20). CONCLUSION: For patients with decompensated cirrhosis, lamivudine and telbivudine significantly decrease the mortality rate and disease severity. Also, they promote their HBeAg seroconversion.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 09/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 37 (UCH37), a member of the DUBs, was found to play an important role in oncogenesis through promoting some Proto-oncogenes' expression and stem cell-like characteristics in the cell in previous research. The aim of this study was to assess the value of UCH37 in predicting tumor recurrence after curative resection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.
We analyzed UCH37 protein expression in 111 clinicopathologically characterized ESCC cases, from those who underwent curative resection between 2007 and 2008, by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests.
We found that UCH37 expression was higher in the cancer tissue than in non-tumorous control tissue at protein level and was overexpressed in tumor tissues of recurrent patients. There was a significant difference of UCH37 expression in patients categorized according to TNM stage (p = 0.038) and lymph nodes metastasis condition (p = 0.009). Univariate analyses revealed that UCH37 was a significant predictor for overall survival and disease-free survival, and multivariate analyses showed that UCH37 was an independent prognostic marker for ESCC recurrence. A prognostic significance of UCH37 was also found in the subgroup of lymph nodes metastasis condition classification. About 90 % of the recurrent patients recurred within 2 years, of which 84.4 % were predicted by UCH37.
UCH37 is associated with outcome and recurrence of ESCC and can be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of ESCC patients after curative resection.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2012; 57(9):2310-7. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new type of drug delivery system (DDS) involved chitosan (CHI) modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for controllable loading/release of anti-cancer doxorubicin (DOX) was constructed. CHI was non-covalently wrapped around SWNTs, imparting water-solubility and biocompatibility to the nanotubes. Folic acid (FA) was also bounded to the outer CHI layer to realize selective killing of tumor cells. The targeting DDS could effectively kill the HCC SMMC-7721 cell lines and depress the growth of liver cancer in nude mice, showing superior pharmaceutical efficiency to free DOX. The results of the blood routine and serum biochemical parameters, combined with the histological examinations of vital organs, demonstrating that the targeting DDS had negligible in vivo toxicity. Thus, this DDS is promising for high treatment efficacy and low side effects for future cancer therapy.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 01/2012; 365(1):143-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide, may induce liver injury, especially isoniazid. This antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI) ranges from a mild to severe form, and the associated mortality cases are not rare. In the past decade, many investigations have focused the association between drug-metabolising enzyme (DME) gene polymorphisms and risk for ATLI; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results.
PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web of science and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between polymorphisms from 4 DME genes (NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) and susceptibility to ATLI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested.
38 studies involving 2,225 patients and 4,906 controls were included. Overall, significantly increased ATLI risk was associated with slow NAT2 genotype and GSTM1 null genotype when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. Significantly increased risk was also found for CYP2E1*1A in East Asians when stratified by ethnicity. However, no significant results were observed for GSTT1.
Our results demonstrated that slow NAT2 genotype, CYP2E1*1A and GSTM1 null have a modest effect on genetic susceptibility to ATLI.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47769. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KCNQ1 (potassium voltage-gated channel KQT-like sub-family, member 1) encodes a pore-forming subunit of a voltage-gated K(+) channel (KvLQT1) that plays a key role for the repolarization of the cardiac action potential as well as water and salt transport in epithelial tissues. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified KCNQ1 as a type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility gene in populations of Asian descent. After that, a number of studies reported that the rs2237892 and rs2237895 polymorphism in KCNQ1 has been implicated in T2D risk. However, studies on the association between these polymorphism and T2D remain conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis.
Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Potential sources of heterogeneity were also assessed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression.
A total of 25 articles involving 70,577 T2D cases and 99,068 controls were included. Overall, the summary odds ratio of C allele for T2D was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26-1.38; P<10-5) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.20-1.29; P<10-5) for KCNQ1 rs2237892 and rs2237895 polymorphisms, respectively. Significant results were also observed using co-dominant, dominant and recessive genetic models. After stratifying by ethnicity, sample size, and diagnostic criteria, significant associations were also obtained.
This meta-analysis suggests that the rs2237892 and rs2237895 polymorphisms in KCNQ1 are associated with elevated type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48578. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as promising cancer biomarkers due to their stable presence in serum. As an alternative to PCR-based homogenous assays, surface-based electrochemical biosensors offer great opportunities for low-cost, point-of-care tests (POCTs) of disease-associated miRNAs. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of miRNA sensors is often limited by mass transport and crowding effects at the water-electrode interface. To address such challenges, we herein report a DNA nanostructure-based interfacial engineering approach to enhance binding recognition at the gold electrode surface and drastically improve the detection sensitivity. By employing this novel strategy, we can directly detect as few as attomolar (<1, 000 copies) miRNAs with high single-base discrimination ability. Given that this ultrasensitive electrochemical miRNA sensor (EMRS) is highly reproducible and essentially free of prior target labeling and PCR amplification, we also demonstrate its application by analyzing miRNA expression levels in clinical samples from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.