[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative method for myocardial blood flow (MBF)
measurement using contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images with bolus tracking and helical scanning.
Materials and Methods: Nine canine models of left anterior descending artery stenosis were prepared and underwent MDCT perfusion imaging during adenosine infusion to study a wide range of flow parameters. Neutron-activated microspheres were injected to document MBF during adenosine infusion. Six animals underwent dynamic MDCT perfusion imaging, and K1 and k2 (which represent the first-order transfer constants from left ventricular blood to myocardium and from myocardium to the vascular system, respectively) were measured using a two-compartment model. The results were compared against microsphere MBF measurements, and the extraction fraction (E) of contrast agent and the mean value of K1/k2 were calculated. Six animals then underwent helical CT perfusion imaging, and neutron-activated microspheres were injected to document MBF during adenosine infusion. For each animal, based on E, K1/k2, time-registered helical CT myocardial data, and arterial input function data, tables of myocardial CT values versus MBF were simulated for various MBF values to create look-up tables from the myocardial CT value to MBF. The CT-derived MBF values were compared against the microsphere MBF measurements.
Results: A strong linear correlation was observed between the MDCT-derived MBF and the microsphere MBF (y =
1.065x – 0.616, R2 = 0.838).
Conclusions: Regional MBF can be measured accurately using a combination of bolus tracking and time-registered helical CT data from contrast-enhanced MDCT scanning during adenosine stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a rare case in an 86-year-old woman with symptoms of exercise intolerance, fatigability, worsening lower extremity edema, and normal ejection fraction on echocardiographic examination who presented with a presumptive diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Hemodynamic studies revealed that she had normal left-sided filling pressures, mildly elevated pulmonary pressures with normal pulmonary vasculature resistance, and evidence of right ventricular dysfunction. Significant shunting was also detected with a step-up blood oxygen saturation from superior vena cava to right atrium and a calculated pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio of 3.9. Contrast-enhanced multidetector cardiac computed tomography confirmed the presence of a patent foramen ovale, a sinus venosus atrial septal defect, and 3 anomalous pulmonary venous communications to the right atrium and superior vena cava. We hereby present one of the oldest diagnosed cases of sinus venosus defect with anomalous pulmonary venous return as a rare cause of recent-onset dyspnea, volume overload, and functional intolerance in an 86-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis of HFpEF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have properties beyond reverse cholesterol transport. We hypothesized that their protection extends to inflammation-related disease. The predictive value of HDL particle subclasses and inflammatory markers was studied for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization, and for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods and results:
A multiethnic, multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 6475 men and women (aged 45 to 84 years) free of known CVD at baseline with median follow-up of 10.1 years. Fasting venous samples were analyzed for baseline lipid profile and lipoprotein particles. We focused on the HDL family of variables (small-, medium-, and large-diameter HDL particles and HDL cholesterol). Analyses identified the sum of small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles as important. Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were inversely associated with diagnostic code-based noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization (n=1054) independent of covariates: relative risk per SD 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.91, P<0.0001). Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were also associated with adjudicated fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events (n=423): relative risk per SD 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98, P=0.02).
Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles are an independent predictor for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization and for coronary heart disease events in subjects initially free of overt CVD. These findings support the hypothesis that smaller HDL particles of diameter <9.4 nm have anti-inflammatory properties in the general population.
Journal of the American Heart Association 09/2015; 4(9). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.115.002295 · 4.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-contrast myocardial T1 (T1myo,c) values have been shown to be sensitive to myocardial fibrosis. Recent studies have shown differences in results obtained from T1myo,c and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) with respect to percentage fibrosis. By exploring the relationship between blood plasma volume and T1myo,c, the underlying basis for the divergence can be explained. Furthermore, dose administration based on body mass index (BMI), age and gender can mitigate the divergence in results. Inter-subject comparison of T1myo,c required adjustment for dose (in mmol/kg), time and glomerular filtration rate. Further adjustment for effective dose based on lean muscle mass reflected by blood/plasma volume was performed. A test case of 605 subjects from the MESA study who had undergone pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping was studied. T1myo,c values were compared between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), between smoking and non-smoking subjects, and subjects with and without impaired glucose tolerance, before and after dose adjustment based on plasma volume. Comparison with ECV (which is dose independent), pre-contrast myocardial T1 and blood normalized myocardial T1 values was also performed to validate the correction. There were significant differences in T1myo,c (post plasma volume correction) and ECV between current and former smokers (p value 0.017 and 0.01, respectively) but not T1myo,c prior to correction (p = 0.12). Prior to dose adjustment for plasma volume, p value was <0.001 for T1myo,c between MetS and non-MetS groups and was 0.13 between subjects with and without glucose intolerance; after adjustment for PV, p value was 0.63 and 0.99. Corresponding ECV p values were 0.44 and 0.99, respectively. Overall, ECV results showed the best agreement with PV corrected T1myo,c (mean absolute difference in p values = 0.073) and pre-contrast myocardial T1 in comparison with other measures (T1myo,c prior to correction, blood/plasma T1 value normalized myocardium). Weight-based contrast dosing administered in mmol/kg results in a bias in T1 values which can lead to erroneous conclusions. After adjustment for lean muscle mass based on plasma volume, results from T1myo,c were in line with ECV derived results. Furthermore, the use of a modified equivalent dose adjusted for BMI, age, sex and hematocrit can be adopted for quantitative imaging.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10554-015-0754-3 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
To assess the test-retest, intra- and inter-reader reliability of thoracic aorta measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods and results:
Twenty-five participants underwent aortic MRI twice over 13 ± 7 days. All aortic variables from baseline and repeat MR were analysed using a semi-automated method by the ARTFUN software. To assess the inter-study reproducibility of aortic variables, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for individual aortic measurements. Intra- and inter-observer variability was also assessed using the baseline MR data. Mean ascending aortic strain had moderate inter-study reproducibility (11.53 ± 6.44 vs. 10.55 ± 6.64, P = 0.443, ICC = 0.53, P < 0.01). Mean descending aortic strain and arch pulse wave velocity (PWV) had good inter-study reproducibility (descending aortic strain: 8.65 ± 5.30 vs. 8.35 ± 5.26, P = 0.706, ICC = 0.74, P < 0.001; PWV: 9.92 ± 4.18 vs. 9.94 ± 4.55, P = 0.968, ICC = 0.77, P < 0.001, respectively). All aortic variables had excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility (intra-: ICC range, 0.87-0.99, inter-: ICC range, 0.56-0.99, respectively).
Inter-study reproducibility of all aortic variables was acceptable. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of all aortic variables was excellent. MRI can provide a repeatable method of measuring aortic structural and functional parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Obesity is associated with changes in both right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular morphology, but the biological basis of this finding is not well established. We examined whether adipokine levels were associated with RV morphology and function in a population-based multiethnic sample free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: We examined relationships of leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and adiponectin with RV morphology and function (from cardiac MRI) in participants (n = 1,267) free of clinical cardiovascular disease from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)-RV study. Multivariable regressions (linear, quantile [25th and 75th] and generalized additive models [GAM]) were used to examine the independent association of each adipokine with RV mass, RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), RV end-systolic volume (RVESV), RV stroke volume (RVSV) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF). Results: Higher leptin levels were associated with significantly lower levels of RV mass, RVEDV, RVESV and stroke volume, but not RVEF, after adjustment for age, gender, race, height and weight. These associations were somewhat attenuated but still significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors and covariates, and were completely attenuated when correcting for the respective LV measures. There were no significant interactions of age, gender, or race/ethnicity on the relationship between the four adipokines and RV structure or function. Conclusions: Leptin levels are associated with favorable RV morphology in a multi-ethnic population free of cardiovascular disease, however these associations may be explained by a yet to be understood bi-ventricular process as this association was no longer present after adjustment for LV values. These findings complement the associations previously shown between adipokines and LV structure and function in both healthy and diseased patients. The mechanisms linking adipokines to healthy cardiovascular function require further investigation.
PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0136818. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0136818 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Previous animal studies have demonstrated differences in perfusion and perfusion reserve between the subendocardium and subepicardium. 320-row computed tomography (CT) with sub-millimetre spatial resolution allows for the assessment of transmural differences in myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in humans. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MPR in all myocardial layers is determined by age, gender, and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with ischaemic symptoms or equivalent but without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods and results:
A total of 149 patients enrolled in the CORE320 study with symptoms or signs of myocardial ischaemia and absence of significant CAD by invasive coronary angiography were scanned with static rest and stress CT perfusion. Myocardial attenuation densities were assessed at rest and during adenosine stress, segmented into 3 myocardial layers and 13 segments. MPR was higher in the subepicardium compared with the subendocardium (124% interquartile range [45, 235] vs. 68% [22,102], P < 0.001). Moreover, MPR in the septum was lower than in the inferolateral and anterolateral segments of the myocardium (55% [19, 104] vs. 89% [37, 168] and 124% [54, 270], P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, high body mass index was significantly associated with reduced MPR in all myocardial layers when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.02).
In symptomatic patients without significant coronary artery stenosis, distinct differences in endocardial-epicardial distribution of perfusion reserve may be demonstrated with static CT perfusion. Low MPR in all myocardial layers was observed specifically in obese patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher left ventricular mass (LV) strongly predicts cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Although several parameters of preload and afterload have been associated with higher LV mass, whether these parameters independently predict LV mass, remains unclear.
This study examined a cohort of 391 adults with incident hemodialysis enrolled in the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease (PACE) study. The main exposures were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV), volume status estimated by pulmonary pressures using echocardiogram and intradialytic weight gain. The primary outcome was baseline left ventricular mass index (LVMI).
Each systolic, diastolic blood, and pulse pressure measurement was significantly associated with LVMI by linear regression regardless of dialysis unit BP or non-dialysis day BP measurements. Adjusting for cardiovascular confounders, every 10 mmHg increase in systolic or diastolic BP was significantly associated with higher LVMI (SBP β = 7.26, 95 % CI: 4.30, 10.23; DBP β = 10.05, 95 % CI: 5.06, 15.04), and increased pulse pressure was also associated with higher LVMI (β = 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.29, 1.13). Intradialytic weight gain was also associated with higher LVMI but attenuated effects after adjustment (β = 3.25, 95 % CI: 0.67, 5.83). PWV and pulmonary pressures were not associated with LVMI after multivariable adjustment (β = 0.19, 95 % CI: -1.14, 1.79; and β = 0.10, 95 % CI: -0.51, 0.70, respectively). Simultaneously adjusting for all main exposures demonstrated that higher BP was independently associated with higher LVMI (SBP β = 5.64, 95 % CI: 2.78, 8.49; DBP β = 7.29, 95 % CI: 2.26, 12.31, for every 10 mmHg increase in BP).
Among a younger and incident hemodialysis population, higher systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure, regardless of timing with dialysis, is most associated with higher LV mass. Future studies should consider the use of various BP measures in examining the impact of BP on LVM and cardiovascular disease. Findings from such studies could suggest that high BP should be more aggressively treated to promote LVH regression in incident hemodialysis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), which substantially increases with arterial stiffness and aging, is a major predictor of cardiovascular mortality. It is commonly estimated using applanation tonometry at carotid and femoral arterial sites (cfPWV). More recently, several cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies have focused on the measurement of aortic arch PWV (archPWV). Although the excellent anatomical coverage of CMR offers reliable segmental measurement of arterial length, accurate transit time (TT) determination remains a challenge. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Fourier-based methods were more robust to low temporal resolution than time-based approaches.
We developed a wavelet-based method, which enables temporal localization of signal frequencies, to estimate TT from ascending and descending aortic CMR flow curves. This method (archPWVWU) combines the robustness of Fourier-based methods to low temporal resolution with the possibility to restrict the analysis to the reflectionless systolic upslope. We compared this method with Fourier-based (archPWVF) and time domain upslope (archPWVTU) methods in relation to linear correlations with age, cfPWV and effects of decreasing temporal resolution by factors of 2, 3 and 4. We studied 71 healthy subjects (45 ± 15 years, 29 females) who underwent CMR velocity acquisitions and cfPWV measurements.
Comparison with age resulted in the highest correlation for the wavelet-based method (archPWVWU:r = 0.84,p < 0.001; archPWVTU:r = 0.74,p < 0.001; archPWVF:r = 0.63,p < 0.001). Associations with cfPWV resulted in the highest correlations for upslope techniques whether based on wavelet (archPWVWU:r = 0.58,p < 0.001) or time (archPWVTU:r = 0.58,p < 0.001) approach. Furthermore, while decreasing temporal resolution by 4-fold induced only a minor decrease in correlation of both archPWVWU (r decreased from 0.84 to 0.80) and archPWVF (r decreased from 0.63 to 0.51) with age, it induced a major decrease for the archPWVTU age relationship (r decreased from 0.74 to 0.38).
By CMR, measurement of aortic arch flow TT using systolic upslopes resulted in a better correlation with age and cfPWV, as compared to the Fourier-based approach applied on the entire cardiac cycle. Furthermore, methods based on harmonic decomposition were less affected by low temporal resolution. Since the proposed wavelet approach combines these two advantages, it might help to overcome current technical limitations related to CMR temporal resolution and evaluation of patients with highly stiff arteries.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 07/2015; 17(1):65. DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0164-7 · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left atrium (LA) strain, volume and function are important markers of cardiovascular disease and myocardial impairment. We aimed to assess the accuracy of LA biplane volume and function measured by Multimodality Tissue Tracking (MTT). Also we assessed the inter-study reproducibility for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived LA volume and function parameters.
Thirty subjects (mean age: 71.3 ± 8.7, 87 % male) including twenty subjects with cardiovascular events and ten healthy subjects, with CMR were evaluated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). LA volumes were computed by the modified biplane method from 2- and 4-chamber projections and the Simpson's method from short-axis slices using both methods - manual and semi-automated delineation using MTT. LA total, active and passive ejection fractions were calculated. Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the measurements. In a second sample of 25 subjects (age: 65.7 ± 7.1, 72 % males) inter study, intra and inter reader reliability analysis was performed. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated.
Left atrial MTT structural and functional parameters were not different from manual delineation, yet image analysis was only half as time consuming on average with MTT. Maximal volume MTT was not different between the Simpson's and Biplane methods, functional parameters, however were different. MTT allowed us to measure multiple LA parameters with good-excellent (ICC; 0.88- 0.98, p < 0.001) intra-and inter reader reproducibility and fair-good (ICC; 0.44-0.82, p < 0.05-0.001) inter study reproducibility.
MTT derived LA biplane volume and function is accurate and reproducible and is suited for use in longitudinal studies.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 07/2015; 17(1):52. DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0152-y · 4.56 Impact Factor