João A C Lima

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (465)3246.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report a rare case in an 86-year-old woman with symptoms of exercise intolerance, fatigability, worsening lower extremity edema, and normal ejection fraction on echocardiographic examination who presented with a presumptive diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Hemodynamic studies revealed that she had normal left-sided filling pressures, mildly elevated pulmonary pressures with normal pulmonary vasculature resistance, and evidence of right ventricular dysfunction. Significant shunting was also detected with a step-up blood oxygen saturation from superior vena cava to right atrium and a calculated pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio of 3.9. Contrast-enhanced multidetector cardiac computed tomography confirmed the presence of a patent foramen ovale, a sinus venosus atrial septal defect, and 3 anomalous pulmonary venous communications to the right atrium and superior vena cava. We hereby present one of the oldest diagnosed cases of sinus venosus defect with anomalous pulmonary venous return as a rare cause of recent-onset dyspnea, volume overload, and functional intolerance in an 86-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis of HFpEF.
    09/2015; 5(3):587-9. DOI:10.1086/682429
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    ABSTRACT: Background: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have properties beyond reverse cholesterol transport. We hypothesized that their protection extends to inflammation-related disease. The predictive value of HDL particle subclasses and inflammatory markers was studied for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization, and for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results: A multiethnic, multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 6475 men and women (aged 45 to 84 years) free of known CVD at baseline with median follow-up of 10.1 years. Fasting venous samples were analyzed for baseline lipid profile and lipoprotein particles. We focused on the HDL family of variables (small-, medium-, and large-diameter HDL particles and HDL cholesterol). Analyses identified the sum of small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles as important. Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were inversely associated with diagnostic code-based noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization (n=1054) independent of covariates: relative risk per SD 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.91, P<0.0001). Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were also associated with adjudicated fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events (n=423): relative risk per SD 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98, P=0.02). Conclusions: Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles are an independent predictor for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation-related death and hospitalization and for coronary heart disease events in subjects initially free of overt CVD. These findings support the hypothesis that smaller HDL particles of diameter <9.4 nm have anti-inflammatory properties in the general population.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 09/2015; 4(9). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.115.002295 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-contrast myocardial T1 (T1myo,c) values have been shown to be sensitive to myocardial fibrosis. Recent studies have shown differences in results obtained from T1myo,c and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) with respect to percentage fibrosis. By exploring the relationship between blood plasma volume and T1myo,c, the underlying basis for the divergence can be explained. Furthermore, dose administration based on body mass index (BMI), age and gender can mitigate the divergence in results. Inter-subject comparison of T1myo,c required adjustment for dose (in mmol/kg), time and glomerular filtration rate. Further adjustment for effective dose based on lean muscle mass reflected by blood/plasma volume was performed. A test case of 605 subjects from the MESA study who had undergone pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping was studied. T1myo,c values were compared between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), between smoking and non-smoking subjects, and subjects with and without impaired glucose tolerance, before and after dose adjustment based on plasma volume. Comparison with ECV (which is dose independent), pre-contrast myocardial T1 and blood normalized myocardial T1 values was also performed to validate the correction. There were significant differences in T1myo,c (post plasma volume correction) and ECV between current and former smokers (p value 0.017 and 0.01, respectively) but not T1myo,c prior to correction (p = 0.12). Prior to dose adjustment for plasma volume, p value was <0.001 for T1myo,c between MetS and non-MetS groups and was 0.13 between subjects with and without glucose intolerance; after adjustment for PV, p value was 0.63 and 0.99. Corresponding ECV p values were 0.44 and 0.99, respectively. Overall, ECV results showed the best agreement with PV corrected T1myo,c (mean absolute difference in p values = 0.073) and pre-contrast myocardial T1 in comparison with other measures (T1myo,c prior to correction, blood/plasma T1 value normalized myocardium). Weight-based contrast dosing administered in mmol/kg results in a bias in T1 values which can lead to erroneous conclusions. After adjustment for lean muscle mass based on plasma volume, results from T1myo,c were in line with ECV derived results. Furthermore, the use of a modified equivalent dose adjusted for BMI, age, sex and hematocrit can be adopted for quantitative imaging.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10554-015-0754-3 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To assess the test-retest, intra- and inter-reader reliability of thoracic aorta measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and results: Twenty-five participants underwent aortic MRI twice over 13 ± 7 days. All aortic variables from baseline and repeat MR were analysed using a semi-automated method by the ARTFUN software. To assess the inter-study reproducibility of aortic variables, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for individual aortic measurements. Intra- and inter-observer variability was also assessed using the baseline MR data. Mean ascending aortic strain had moderate inter-study reproducibility (11.53 ± 6.44 vs. 10.55 ± 6.64, P = 0.443, ICC = 0.53, P < 0.01). Mean descending aortic strain and arch pulse wave velocity (PWV) had good inter-study reproducibility (descending aortic strain: 8.65 ± 5.30 vs. 8.35 ± 5.26, P = 0.706, ICC = 0.74, P < 0.001; PWV: 9.92 ± 4.18 vs. 9.94 ± 4.55, P = 0.968, ICC = 0.77, P < 0.001, respectively). All aortic variables had excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility (intra-: ICC range, 0.87-0.99, inter-: ICC range, 0.56-0.99, respectively). Conclusion: Inter-study reproducibility of all aortic variables was acceptable. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of all aortic variables was excellent. MRI can provide a repeatable method of measuring aortic structural and functional parameters.
    European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev215 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Obesity is associated with changes in both right (RV) and left (LV) ventricular morphology, but the biological basis of this finding is not well established. We examined whether adipokine levels were associated with RV morphology and function in a population-based multiethnic sample free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: We examined relationships of leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and adiponectin with RV morphology and function (from cardiac MRI) in participants (n = 1,267) free of clinical cardiovascular disease from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)-RV study. Multivariable regressions (linear, quantile [25th and 75th] and generalized additive models [GAM]) were used to examine the independent association of each adipokine with RV mass, RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), RV end-systolic volume (RVESV), RV stroke volume (RVSV) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF). Results: Higher leptin levels were associated with significantly lower levels of RV mass, RVEDV, RVESV and stroke volume, but not RVEF, after adjustment for age, gender, race, height and weight. These associations were somewhat attenuated but still significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors and covariates, and were completely attenuated when correcting for the respective LV measures. There were no significant interactions of age, gender, or race/ethnicity on the relationship between the four adipokines and RV structure or function. Conclusions: Leptin levels are associated with favorable RV morphology in a multi-ethnic population free of cardiovascular disease, however these associations may be explained by a yet to be understood bi-ventricular process as this association was no longer present after adjustment for LV values. These findings complement the associations previously shown between adipokines and LV structure and function in both healthy and diseased patients. The mechanisms linking adipokines to healthy cardiovascular function require further investigation.
    PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0136818. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0136818 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Previous animal studies have demonstrated differences in perfusion and perfusion reserve between the subendocardium and subepicardium. 320-row computed tomography (CT) with sub-millimetre spatial resolution allows for the assessment of transmural differences in myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in humans. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MPR in all myocardial layers is determined by age, gender, and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with ischaemic symptoms or equivalent but without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: A total of 149 patients enrolled in the CORE320 study with symptoms or signs of myocardial ischaemia and absence of significant CAD by invasive coronary angiography were scanned with static rest and stress CT perfusion. Myocardial attenuation densities were assessed at rest and during adenosine stress, segmented into 3 myocardial layers and 13 segments. MPR was higher in the subepicardium compared with the subendocardium (124% interquartile range [45, 235] vs. 68% [22,102], P < 0.001). Moreover, MPR in the septum was lower than in the inferolateral and anterolateral segments of the myocardium (55% [19, 104] vs. 89% [37, 168] and 124% [54, 270], P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, high body mass index was significantly associated with reduced MPR in all myocardial layers when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.02). Conclusion: In symptomatic patients without significant coronary artery stenosis, distinct differences in endocardial-epicardial distribution of perfusion reserve may be demonstrated with static CT perfusion. Low MPR in all myocardial layers was observed specifically in obese patients.
    European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev206 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the association between cardiovascular health (CVH) in young adulthood and left ventricular (LV) structure and function later in life. Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, which recruited black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline, were included; echocardiography was performed at year 25. CVH at year 0 was defined on the basis of blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, body mass index, smoking status, diet, and physical activity. Two, 1, or 0 points were assigned to each component for ideal, intermediate, and poor levels of each component. Participants were stratified into CVH groups on the basis of point score: ≤8 (poor), 9 to 11 (intermediate), and 12 to 14 (ideal). The distribution of CVH at year 0 was as follows: poor, n = 264 (9%); intermediate, n = 1,315 (47%); and ideal, n = 1,224 (44%). Individuals with ideal and intermediate CVH at year 0 had significantly lower LV end-diastolic volume and lower LV mass index at year 25. In participants with ideal and intermediate CVH, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for diastolic dysfunction at year 25 was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.37-0.73) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), respectively, compared with participants with poor CVH. Participants with ideal and intermediate CVH had significantly lower odds for LV hypertrophy; the LV mass index was 5.3 to 8.7 g/m(2.7) lower (P < .001 for both) than in participants with poor CVH. Greater levels of CVH in young adulthood are associated with lower LV mass and lower risk for diastolic dysfunction 25 years later. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2015.07.026 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association of egg consumption with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the association between egg consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypercholesterolemia, who underwent a health screening examination including cardiac computed tomography for CAC scoring and completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea (March 2011-April 2013). The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score > 0) was 11.2%. In multivariable-adjusted models, CAC score ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing participants eating ≥ 7 eggs/wk to those eating < 1 egg/wk was 1.80 (1.14-2.83; P for trend = 0.003). The multivariable CAC score ratio (95% CI) associated with an increase in consumption of 1 egg/day was 1.54 (1.11-2.14). The positive association seemed to be more pronounced among participants with low vegetable intake (P for interaction = 0.02) and those with high BMI (P for interaction = 0.05). The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for dietary cholesterol. Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification in asymptomatic Korean adults, which may be mediated by dietary cholesterol. The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 08/2015; 241(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.036 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Similarly, the relative prevalence ratios for CAC > 100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend < 0.001). For CAC > 100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Atherosclerosis 08/2015; 241(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.031 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher left ventricular mass (LV) strongly predicts cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Although several parameters of preload and afterload have been associated with higher LV mass, whether these parameters independently predict LV mass, remains unclear. This study examined a cohort of 391 adults with incident hemodialysis enrolled in the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease (PACE) study. The main exposures were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV), volume status estimated by pulmonary pressures using echocardiogram and intradialytic weight gain. The primary outcome was baseline left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Each systolic, diastolic blood, and pulse pressure measurement was significantly associated with LVMI by linear regression regardless of dialysis unit BP or non-dialysis day BP measurements. Adjusting for cardiovascular confounders, every 10 mmHg increase in systolic or diastolic BP was significantly associated with higher LVMI (SBP β = 7.26, 95 % CI: 4.30, 10.23; DBP β = 10.05, 95 % CI: 5.06, 15.04), and increased pulse pressure was also associated with higher LVMI (β = 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.29, 1.13). Intradialytic weight gain was also associated with higher LVMI but attenuated effects after adjustment (β = 3.25, 95 % CI: 0.67, 5.83). PWV and pulmonary pressures were not associated with LVMI after multivariable adjustment (β = 0.19, 95 % CI: -1.14, 1.79; and β = 0.10, 95 % CI: -0.51, 0.70, respectively). Simultaneously adjusting for all main exposures demonstrated that higher BP was independently associated with higher LVMI (SBP β = 5.64, 95 % CI: 2.78, 8.49; DBP β = 7.29, 95 % CI: 2.26, 12.31, for every 10 mmHg increase in BP). Among a younger and incident hemodialysis population, higher systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure, regardless of timing with dialysis, is most associated with higher LV mass. Future studies should consider the use of various BP measures in examining the impact of BP on LVM and cardiovascular disease. Findings from such studies could suggest that high BP should be more aggressively treated to promote LVH regression in incident hemodialysis patients.
    BMC Nephrology 08/2015; 16(1):131. DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0131-4 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), which substantially increases with arterial stiffness and aging, is a major predictor of cardiovascular mortality. It is commonly estimated using applanation tonometry at carotid and femoral arterial sites (cfPWV). More recently, several cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies have focused on the measurement of aortic arch PWV (archPWV). Although the excellent anatomical coverage of CMR offers reliable segmental measurement of arterial length, accurate transit time (TT) determination remains a challenge. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Fourier-based methods were more robust to low temporal resolution than time-based approaches. We developed a wavelet-based method, which enables temporal localization of signal frequencies, to estimate TT from ascending and descending aortic CMR flow curves. This method (archPWVWU) combines the robustness of Fourier-based methods to low temporal resolution with the possibility to restrict the analysis to the reflectionless systolic upslope. We compared this method with Fourier-based (archPWVF) and time domain upslope (archPWVTU) methods in relation to linear correlations with age, cfPWV and effects of decreasing temporal resolution by factors of 2, 3 and 4. We studied 71 healthy subjects (45 ± 15 years, 29 females) who underwent CMR velocity acquisitions and cfPWV measurements. Comparison with age resulted in the highest correlation for the wavelet-based method (archPWVWU:r = 0.84,p < 0.001; archPWVTU:r = 0.74,p < 0.001; archPWVF:r = 0.63,p < 0.001). Associations with cfPWV resulted in the highest correlations for upslope techniques whether based on wavelet (archPWVWU:r = 0.58,p < 0.001) or time (archPWVTU:r = 0.58,p < 0.001) approach. Furthermore, while decreasing temporal resolution by 4-fold induced only a minor decrease in correlation of both archPWVWU (r decreased from 0.84 to 0.80) and archPWVF (r decreased from 0.63 to 0.51) with age, it induced a major decrease for the archPWVTU age relationship (r decreased from 0.74 to 0.38). By CMR, measurement of aortic arch flow TT using systolic upslopes resulted in a better correlation with age and cfPWV, as compared to the Fourier-based approach applied on the entire cardiac cycle. Furthermore, methods based on harmonic decomposition were less affected by low temporal resolution. Since the proposed wavelet approach combines these two advantages, it might help to overcome current technical limitations related to CMR temporal resolution and evaluation of patients with highly stiff arteries.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 07/2015; 17(1):65. DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0164-7 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To balance competing cardiovascular benefits and metabolic risks of statins, markers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility are needed. We sought to define a competing risk/benefit of statin therapy on T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events using liver attenuation and coronary artery calcification (CAC). 3153 individuals from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) without CVD, T2D/impaired fasting glucose, or baseline statin therapy had CT imaging for CAC and hepatic attenuation (hepatic steatosis). Cox models and rates of CVD and T2D were calculated to assess the role of liver attenuation in T2D and the relative risks/benefits of statins on CVD and T2D. 216 T2D cases were diagnosed at median 9.1 years follow-up. High liver fat and statin therapy were associated with diabetes (HR 2.06 [95%CI 1.52-2.79, P < 0.0001] and 2.01 [95%CI 1.46-2.77, P < 0.0001], respectively), after multivariable adjustment. With low liver fat and CAC = 0, the number needed to treat (NNT) for statin to prevent one CVD event (NNT 218) was higher than the number needed to harm (NNH) with an incident case of T2D (NNH 68). Conversely, those with CAC >100 and low liver fat were more likely to benefit from statins for CVD reduction (NNT 29) relative to T2D risk (NNH 67). Among those with CAC >100 and fatty liver, incremental reduction in CVD with statins (NNT 40) was less than incremental risk increase for T2D (NNH 24). Liver fat is associated with incident T2D and stratifies competing metabolic/CVD risks with statin therapy. Hepatic fat may inform T2D surveillance and lipid therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 07/2015; 242(1):211-217. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.07.018 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Veit Sandfort · Joao A C Lima · David A Bluemke
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    ABSTRACT: The process of coronary artery disease progression is infrequently visualized. Intravascular ultrasound has been used to gain important insights but is invasive and therefore limited to high-risk patients. For low-to-moderate risk patients, noninvasive methods may be useful to quantitatively monitor plaque progression or regression and to understand and personalize atherosclerosis therapy. This review discusses the potential for coronary computed tomography angiography to evaluate the extent and subtypes of coronary plaque. Computed tomographic technology is evolving and image quality of the method approaches the level required for plaque progression monitoring. Methods to quantify plaque on computed tomography angiography are reviewed as well as a discussion of their use in clinical trials. Limitations of coronary computed tomography angiography compared with competing modalities include limited evaluation of plaque subcomponents and incomplete knowledge of the value of the method especially in patients with low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 07/2015; 8(7). DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003316 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left atrium (LA) strain, volume and function are important markers of cardiovascular disease and myocardial impairment. We aimed to assess the accuracy of LA biplane volume and function measured by Multimodality Tissue Tracking (MTT). Also we assessed the inter-study reproducibility for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived LA volume and function parameters. Thirty subjects (mean age: 71.3 ± 8.7, 87 % male) including twenty subjects with cardiovascular events and ten healthy subjects, with CMR were evaluated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). LA volumes were computed by the modified biplane method from 2- and 4-chamber projections and the Simpson's method from short-axis slices using both methods - manual and semi-automated delineation using MTT. LA total, active and passive ejection fractions were calculated. Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the measurements. In a second sample of 25 subjects (age: 65.7 ± 7.1, 72 % males) inter study, intra and inter reader reliability analysis was performed. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated. Left atrial MTT structural and functional parameters were not different from manual delineation, yet image analysis was only half as time consuming on average with MTT. Maximal volume MTT was not different between the Simpson's and Biplane methods, functional parameters, however were different. MTT allowed us to measure multiple LA parameters with good-excellent (ICC; 0.88- 0.98, p < 0.001) intra-and inter reader reproducibility and fair-good (ICC; 0.44-0.82, p < 0.05-0.001) inter study reproducibility. MTT derived LA biplane volume and function is accurate and reproducible and is suited for use in longitudinal studies.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 07/2015; 17(1):52. DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0152-y · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cumulative blood pressure (BP) exposure may adversely influence myocardial function, predisposing individuals to heart failure later in life. This study sought to investigate how cumulative exposure to higher BP influences left ventricular (LV) function during young to middle adulthood. The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study prospectively enrolled 5,115 healthy African Americans and whites in 1985 and 1986 (baseline). At the year 25 examination, LV function was measured by 2-dimensional echocardiography; cardiac deformation was assessed in detail by speckle-tracking echocardiography. We used cumulative exposure of BP through baseline and up to the year 25 examination (millimeters of mercury × year) to represent long-term exposure to BP levels. Linear regression and logistic regression were used to quantify the association of BP measured repeatedly through early adulthood (18 to 30 years of age) up to middle age (43 to 55 years). Among 2,479 participants, cumulative BP measures were not related to LV ejection fraction; however, high cumulative exposure to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were associated with lower longitudinal strain rate (both p < 0.001). For diastolic function, higher cumulative exposures to SBP and DBP were associated with low early diastolic longitudinal peak strain rate. Of note, higher DBP (per SD increment) had a stronger association with diastolic dysfunction compared with SBP. Higher cumulative exposure to BP over 25 years from young adulthood to middle age is associated with incipient LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in middle age. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2015; 65(25):2679-87. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.04.042 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased QRS score and wide spatial QRS-T angle are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Our main objective was to assess whether a QRS score ≥5 and/or QRS-T angle ≥105° enable screening of patients for myocardial scar features. Seventy-seven patients age ≤70 years with QRS score ≥5 AND/OR spatial QRS-T angle ≥105° as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >35% were enrolled in the study. All participants underwent complete clinical examination, signal averaged ECG (SAECG), 30-minute ambulatory electrocardiogram recording for T-wave alternans (TWA), and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). Relationship between QRS score, QRS-T angle with scar presence and pattern, as well as gray zone, core, and total scar size by LGE-CMR were assessed. Myocardial scar was present in 41 (53%) patients, of whom 19 (46%) exhibited a typical ischemic pattern. QRS score but not QRS-T angle was related to total scar size and gray zone size (R(2) = 0.12, P = 0.002; R(2) = 0.17; P ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Patients with QRS scores ≥6 had significantly greater myocardial scar and gray zone size, increased QRS duration and QRS-T angle, a higher prevalence of late potentials presence, increased LV end-diastolic volume and decreased LVEF. There was a significant independent and positive association between TWA value and total scar (P = 0.001) and gray zone size (P = 0.01). Patients with preserved LVEF and myocardial scar by CMR also have electrocardiographic features that could be involved in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/anec.12279 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To quantitatively determine the population variation and relationship of left ventricular (LV) trabeculation to LV function, structure, and clinical variables. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant multicenter study was approved by institutional review boards of participating centers. All participants provided written informed consent. Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data were evaluated to quantify LV trabeculation as a fractal dimension (FD). Entire cohort participants free of cardiac disease, hypertrophy, hypertension, and diabetes were stratified by body mass index (BMI) into three reference groups (BMI <25 kg/m(2); BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2); and BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) to explore maximal apical FD (FDMaxApical). Multivariable linear regression models determined the relationship between FD and other parameters. Results Included were 2547 participants (mean age, 68.7 years ± 9.1 [standard deviation]; 1211 men). FDMaxApical are in arbitrary units. FDMaxApical reference ranges for BMI 30 kg/m(2) or greater (n = 163), 25 kg/m(2) or greater to less than 30 kg/m(2) (n = 206), and less than 25 kg/m(2) (n = 235) were 1.203 ± 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.194, 1.212), 1.194 ± 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.186, 1.202), and 1.169 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.162, 1.176), respectively. In the entire cohort, adjusted for anthropometrics, trabeculation was higher in African American participants (standardized β [sβ] = 0.09; P ≤ .001) and Hispanic participants (sβ = 0.05; P = .013) compared with white participants and was also higher in African American participants compared with Chinese American participants (sβ = 0.08; P = .01), and this persisted after adjustment for hypertension and LV size. Hypertension (sβ = 0.07; P < .001), LV mass (sβ = 0.22; P < .001), and wall thickness (sβ = 0.27; P < .001) were positively associated with FDMaxApical even after adjustment. In the group with BMIs less than 25 kg/m(2), Chinese American participants had less trabeculation than white participants (sβ = -0.15; P = .032). Conclusion Fractal analysis of cardiac MR imaging data measures endocardial complexity, which helps to differentiate normal from abnormal trabecular patterns in healthy versus diseased hearts. Trabeculation is influenced by race and/or ethnicity and, more importantly, by cardiac loading conditions and comorbidities. Clinicians who interpret cine MR imaging data should expect slightly less endocardial complexity in Chinese American patients and more in African American patients, Hispanic patients, hypertensive patients, and those with hypertrophy. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015142948 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess the relationship between total, calcified, and noncalcified coronary plaque burdens throughout the entire coronary vasculature at coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic individuals with low-to-moderate risk. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Two hundred two subjects were recruited to an ongoing prospective study designed to evaluate the effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on atherosclerosis. Eligible subjects were asymptomatic individuals older than 55 years who were eligible for statin therapy. Coronary CT angiography was performed by using a 320-detector row scanner. Coronary wall thickness and plaque were evaluated in all epicardial coronary arteries greater than 2 mm in diameter. Images were analyzed by using dedicated software involving an adaptive lumen attenuation algorithm. Total plaque index (calcified plus noncalcified plaque) was defined as plaque volume divided by vessel length. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between risk factors and plaque indexes. Results The mean age of the subjects was 65.5 years ± 6.9 (standard deviation) (36% women), and the median coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was 73 (interquartile range, 1-434). The total coronary plaque index was higher in men than in women (42.06 mm(2) ± 9.22 vs 34.33 mm(2) ± 8.35; P < .001). In multivariable analysis controlling for all risk factors, total plaque index remained higher in men than in women (by 5.01 mm(2); P = .03) and in those with higher simvastatin doses (by 0.44 mm(2)/10 mg simvastatin dose equivalent; P = .02). Noncalcified plaque index was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (β = 0.80 mm(2)/10 mm Hg; P = .03), diabetes (β = 4.47 mm(2); P = .03), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (β = 0.04 mm(2)/mg/dL; P = .02); the association with LDL cholesterol level remained significant (P = .02) after additional adjustment for the CAC score. Conclusion LDL cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were associated with noncalcified plaque burden at coronary CT angiography in asymptomatic individuals with low-to-moderate risk. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 06/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015142551 · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Kihei Yoneyama · João A C Lima
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 06/2015; 8(6). DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003523 · 5.32 Impact Factor

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17k Citations
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  • 1998–2015
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Cardiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1993–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Radiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Biostatistics
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2007
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2004
    • Ethianum Klinik Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2002
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Radiology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1999
    • Northwestern University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Division of Cardiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States