[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A blinded, randomized, controlled, multi-centric field study was conducted on French dairy farms (n = 9) to evaluate the long term efficacy of metaphylactic, single oral treatments with either 1 mg/kg body weight (BW) of diclazuril (Vecoxan®), or 15 mg/kg BW of toltrazuril (Baycox®) against natural infections with Eimeria zuernii and/or Eimeria bovis, compared to untreated control animals. A total of 199 calves from nine commercial farms aged between 21 and 55 days old at the start of study were included and randomly allocated to one of three groups. Calves on all farms were observed for a period of 78 days post treatment, using both parasitological (oocyst excretion), and clinical parameters (faecal score and body weight). The assessment of efficacy was based on both control of oocyst excretion, and on the average daily weight gains throughout the study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to analyze the systemic IgG responses against third-instar salivary gland (L3SG) antigens by ELISA in Oestrus ovis experimentally infected kids (EIK) and in naturally exposed adult goats (NEG). Firstly, kids (n=4 per group) were assigned to receive intranasally 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 first-instars in experimental infections. Blood samples were taken from EIK at Days 0, 14, 42 and 67 post-infection. At necropsy (Day 67), larval number and developmental instars were recorded. In an epidemiological study, blood serum samples were collected from 448 grazing NEG (n=20 flocks) in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results showed that larval establishment rate was similar in EIK groups. Systemic IgG response reached the threshold after Day 42, but humoral response was not statistically different among EIK groups receiving experimental infections. In NEG, all surveyed flocks (100%) showed specific systemic IgG antibodies to L3SG antigens and the overall goat oestrosis prevalence was 59.2%. In conclusion, larval L3SG antigens were effective in detection of specific systemic IgG antibodies against O. ovis infected kids and goats by ELISA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a small nematode living in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing lacrimation, epiphora, conjunctivitis, keratitis and even corneal ulcers. The first autochthonous cases of thelaziosis affecting four dogs and one cat living in South Western France (Dordogne area) are reported and described. Nematodes recovered from the animals were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda and a partial region of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) was amplified by PCR from nematode specimens (from two dogs and the cat). In each case, this was shown to have an identical sequence to the haplotype 1 (h1) of T. callipaeda. So far, the arthropod acting as intermediate host of T. callipaeda eyeworms has not been identified in France although it might be Phortica variegata (Steganinae, Drosophilidae) as recently described in Italy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells and eosinophils are known to participate in the processes of allergic inflammation and gastrointestinal parasitic diseases. Sodium cromoglycate (SCG), a non steroid anti-allergic drug is used in the prophylaxis and treatment of asthma and GIT allergic disorders in human. This experimental study has used SCG to reduce the population and degranulation of mast cells and the subsequent mobilisation of eosinophils during Haemonchus contortus infection, in an attempt to rendering the relatively nematode resistant Black Belly breed of sheep more prone to the infection. Animals were divided in to three groups of 5 sheep (groups SH, H and C: SCG treated and infected, non-treated and infected and negative control respectively). Blood and bone marrow eosinophil counts, faecal egg count (FEC), tissue eosinophil, mast cell and globule leukocyte counts as well as measurement of other parasitological parameters were performed. Oral administration of SCG for 5 consecutive weeks successfully reduced the level of blood and bone marrow eosinophil number but not tissue eosinophil level. Furthermore, a significant reduction in mast cells, and a moderate reduction in globule leucocyte numbers were observed in the abomasal mucosa. Mean values for FEC and worm counts were higher in group SH. However, there was no significant difference between SCG-treated and non-treated group, which suggests the reduction in the inflammatory response alone, may not be sufficient enough to influence H. contortus development in sheep. As the dose and mode of administration of this drug is not fully established for sheep, further studies might be required to make SCG a useful tool for experimental studies during gastrointestinal parasitism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oestrosis is a nasal myiasis of sheep and goats caused by larvae of the fly Oestrus ovis and can lead to severe clinical signs, which together with the disturbance caused by the adult fly may result into serious economic losses. Infection rates and larval burdens are always higher in sheep than in goats after either natural or artificial infestation. The aim of this study was to compare the host preference of the adult fly O. ovis between sheep and goats in mixed flocks, where they are kept together under the same husbandry conditions and hence, are very similarly exposed to the fly preference. Blood sera samples were collected from a total of 397 sheep and 335 goats, from 43 mixed flocks located at different regions of Greece. Antibodies specific to O. ovis IgG were measured by ELISA. A flock was considered positive when at least one individual was positive, i.e. showed a seropositivity of >or=20% in relation to positive control sera. A total of 193 (48.6%) sheep and 58 (17.9%) goats were found to be seropositive against O. ovis. Thirty-eight (88.4%) out of 43 flocks had at least one seropositive animal. The mean seroconversion against O. ovis in animals from the different flocks was 38.6% and 13.6% for sheep and goats, respectively, whereas the variance of infection within each flock was 0-100%. The mean seropositivity between sheep that were found to be positive or negative was 60.6% and 5.4%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values between goats were 35.2% and 5.2%, respectively. No significant difference in the seroconversion values was noted between flocks from the different areas (P=0.817), whereas a very significant difference was observed between animal species (P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference when seroconversion comparisons were made within samples of the same animals species, sheep or goats from different flocks of all the regions included in the study (P=0.695). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that O. ovis has a widespread distribution in Greece, and the seroprevalence is significantly higher in sheep than goats (P=0.001).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if an earlier infection with Oestrus ovis would down regulate an infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis when the larvae of O. ovis were expelled from the nasal cavities of sheep by a specific treatment. Three groups of five lambs were used: group 1 was artificially infected with O. ovis larvae and later with T. colubriformis, group 2 received O. ovis larvae and later was treated with ivermectin 14 days before being infected with T. colubriformis. Group 3 was infected with T. colubriformis only. The criteria examined were: the effects on nematode egg excretion, worm fecundity, nematode burdens and the kinetics of blood eosinophils. Significant decreases of nematode egg excretion, worm fecundity, nematode burdens were observed in group 1 compared to group 3. However, no changes were observed in either group 2 or 3. In group 2 it was noted that antiparasitic treatment induced a rapid decrease in blood eosinophils to a range close to the non-infected control group and this was associated with the removal of the down regulation effects of nematode burdens. This experiment showed that there is no cross immunity between O. ovis and T. colubriformis and that eosinophils may act against any parasite without specific priming.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of tannins on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. In contrast, the impact of tannins on T. colubriformis or T. circumcincta third-stage larvae (L3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on H. contortus L3. The consequences of consumption of sainfoin hay were also examined. Twenty-one naïve kids were divided into three experimental groups. Group Q received quebracho extract and group S received sainfoin hay from days D3 to D5. Group C remained as an infected control group. All kids received 1500 L3 H. contortus on D0, D1 and D2. On D18, post-infection, the kids were slaughtered and the worm populations compared in the different groups. Compared to the control values, the worm counts decreased, respectively, by 33% and 38% in groups Q and S but the differences were not significant. No differences were found in pathophysiological measurements between the three groups. The results confirm differences in tannin effect according to nematode species but not parasitic stage.
The Veterinary Journal 10/2005; 170(2):260-3. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.05.001 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed parasitic infection of animals is a common phenomenon in nature. The existence of one species often positively or negatively influences the survival of the other. Our experimental study was started with the objectives to demonstrate the interaction of Haemonchus contortus and Oestrus ovis in relation to cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep. Twenty-two sheep of Tarasconnais breed (France) were divided into four groups (O, OH, H and C) of five or six animals. Group O and OH received 5 weekly consecutive inoculations with O. ovis L1 larvae (total = 82 L1) in the first phase of the experiment between days 0 and 28. On the second phase, groups OH and H received 5000 L3 of H. contortus on day 48 while group C served as our control throughout the experimental period. Parasitological, haematological, serological and histopathological examinations were made according to standard procedures and all animals were slaughtered at day 95. There was no significant variation in the number and degree of development of O. ovis larvae between the two infected groups. Furthermore, in tissues examined in the upper respiratory tract (nasal septum, turbinate, ethmoide and sinus), group O and OH has responded similarly on the basis of cellular inflammatory responses (blood and tissue eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes (GL)) and serum antibody responses against the nasal bots. This may indicate that the presence of H. contortus in the abomasa of group OH had no marked influence over the development of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract. On the other hand, we have observed a significantly lower H. contortus female worm length, fecal egg count (FEC) and in utero egg count in animals harbouring the nasal bot (OH) than in the mono-infected group (H). This was significantly associated with higher blood eosinophilia, higher packed cell volume (PCV) and increased number of tissue eosinophils and globule leucocytes. We conclude that, the establishment of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract has initiated higher inflammatory cellular activity in group OH there by influencing the development and fecundity of H. contortus in the abomasum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. In sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. In goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few. The objectives of the current study were to examine under natural conditions the effects of consumption of sainfoin hay by goats on the parasite populations and on host resilience. Eighteen adult cull goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were used in the study. At the start of the assay, the goats were allocated into two groups, balanced according to weight and the levels of egg excretion. The two groups grazed separate pastures for 3 months with similar stocking rates. Goats from group S received each month indoors, for 7 days, sainfoin hay and control goats (group C) received hay of ryegrass. The diets in both groups were made isoenergetic and isoproteic and the refusals measured. Individual parasitological and pathophysiological measurements were performed fortnightly in order to compare host resistance and resilience. At the end of the study, five goats per group were necropsied. The distribution of sainfoin was associated with: (1) a higher consumption of hay; (2) significant, lower levels of nematode egg excretion which was associated with a decrease in worm fertility but no change in worm population; however, the number of intestinal worms was reduced by 50% in group S; (3) a better host resilience. In particular, after 2 months of grazing, two control goats died and half of the remaining animals needed to be treated whereas this was not the case in group S. These differences were related to significant changes in pepsinogen and phosphate values (PCV) but not in pepsinogen and phosphate concentrations. These results demonstrate that a repeated distribution of sainfoin hay to grazing goats might be beneficial in regard of pasture contamination and host resilience. They suggest that administration of sainfoin hay might represent a valuable alternative and adjunct to reduce nematode infections in dairy goat flock.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve lambs were divided into two groups: Group C control, non-infected, and Group O infected once a week for 5 weeks with OEstrus ovis L1 through the same nostril. The first objective of this experiment was to check whether larvae moving through a given nostril remain in the same side nasal cavity or might to spread in both nasal cavities. It has been observed that larvae invade and spread through the entire nasal cavities. The only possible passage way between both sides is via the choanae and velum palatinum. The second objective was to follow the kinetics of blood eosinophilia. A primary peak in eosinophil numbers was noted 4 days following infection, with a higher peak following the second infection. After that, no major changes were seen. Nevertheless, the numbers of eosinophils were always higher than in control animals until the end of the follow-up. The third objective of the study was an enumeration of reactive cells (mast cells, globule leucocytes, and eosinophils) in the mucosae of the upper and lower respiratory tract after necropsy of the animals of the two groups. As observed in previous experiments, there was a large accumulation of these cells in mucosae of the upper respiratory tract. It was also worth noting a significant accumulation of eosinophils in the tissues of the trachea, bronchae and lungs even though OE. ovis was not present there. This "distant" eosinophilic reaction may have important consequences on patho-physiology of other parasites living in these locations: eosinophils have the potential to kill them even though these cells are not activated by their specific antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of myiasis in livestock has been an example of the success of modern chemical approaches for parasite control, yet in some cases remains extremely intractable, requiring the development of novel strategies. In addition, the growing and urgent need to develop integrated strategies that enhance the sustainability of livestock production systems drives the search for new techniques [see Int. J. Parasitol. 29 (1999) 7].The following summary represents a synthesis of a symposium presented at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, New Orleans,USA, 10–14 August 2003. The coverage began with a review of the need for more subtle economic analysis of the impact of myiasis based on the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for control of bovine hypodermosis in North America. This was followed by a review of the status of chemical control with particular emphasis on the macrocyclic lactones. The outcome of the use of these compounds in a regulated control program for eradication of bovine hypodermosis in EU was surveyed. Similarly, the success of the screwworm eradication program, using the sterile insect technique has shown how effective this approach can be given the appropriate target. Several aspects of the development of newer approaches were surveyed in discussion of newer chemical control products, development of vaccines, use of host genetics, use of predictive simulation modelling and trapping for monitoring and control and the development of new diagnostic approaches for occult infestations. Finally, use of the latest molecular tools for identification of larvae causing myiasis and their use for the identification of species coming from different and distant geographical areas to colonize regions where they have been eradicated was reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concurrent infections of sheep with Oestrus ovis and trichostrongyles of the digestive tract are common in the field. Previous results have shown that a previous infection with O. ovis adversely affects worm populations of either Trichostrongylus colubriformis or Haemonchus contortus. However, no information was available to determine the influence of the succession of infections on the expression of interactions between these parasites located in remote anatomical sites. In order to investigate the role of these modulating factors, an experimental study was conducted on four groups of naïve sheep, examining the consequences of a delayed infection with O. ovis on a pre-existing population of T. colubriformis. group T was infected four times with 4000 T. colubriformis larvae on days 0, 14, 28 and 42 of experiment; group O received multiple infections with O. ovis first instar larvae on days 42, 49, 56, 70 and 77; sheep from group TO received both infections and animals from group C remained as uninfected controls. Faecal egg counts and eosinophilia were measured weekly throughout the study. At necropsy (day 91), the mucosal cellular responses in the nasal cavities (septum, turbinates, ethmoid and sinus) and in the digestive tract (stomach and small intestine) from all animals were analysed from histological sections. Infection of the digestive tract with nematodes did not modify the biology of Oestrus populations, as measured by the number and weight of larvae. In contrast, infections with O. ovis after T. colubriformis infection was related to significant reductions (P < 0.01) in nematode egg excretion and worm burdens. These changes were associated with significant modifications in populations of mast cells, globule leucocytes and eosinophils in the respiratory and digestive tracts. These results indicate that an antagonistic interaction exists between the populations of O. ovis in the nasal cavities and T. colubriformis in the small intestine but that the order of succession of infections with the two parasites is not a major modulating factor for expression of interactions. They also confirm that parasitic infection in one particular anatomical site induces "at distance" inflammatory reactions of the whole mucosal system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sheep bot fly, Oestrus ovis, is a very common myiasis of nasal and sinus cavities of sheep and goats causing severe welfare and production implications. As the viability of O. ovis adult flies strictly depends on larval abilities to assimilate and to stock nutrients from the host, it was necessary to investigate proteolytic activities in larval excretory/secretory products (ESP). ESP of O. ovis larvae degrade mucosal and plasmatic components such as mucin, albumin or immunoglobulin G. A preliminary biochemical characterization, using substrate gel analysis and inhibitor sensitivity, demonstrated the presence of at least six major serine proteases (molecular weights from 20 to 100 kDa), mainly trypsin-like, secreted in the digestive tube of larvae. Their involvement in larval trophic activity and evasion from the host immune response is further discussed as O. ovis excretory/secretory serine proteases could represent potential vaccinal targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the use of tanniferous plants or condensed tannins as an alternative to anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes has been largely documented in sheep, studies remain scarce in goats. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the possible impact of condensed tannins in goats infected with adult Haemonchus contortus. Two groups of cull goats were experimentally infected with 10.000 L3 of H. contortus. After 4 weeks, quebracho extracts, representing 5% of the diet DM, were administered for 8 days to one of the two groups. Goats of the second group remained as controls. One week after the end of quebracho administration, the goats were euthanised. Individual egg excretion and pathophysiological parameters were measured weekly during the study. At the end of the study, worm counts were assessed and histological samples from the abomasa were taken to count the numbers of mucosal mast cells, globule leukocytes and eosinophils. The administration of tannins was associated with a significant decrease in egg excretion, which persisted until the end of experiment. This reduction was not associated with any difference in worm number but with a significant decrease in female fecundity. No significant changes in the mucosal density of the three inflammatory cell types were detected between the two groups. These results indicate that the major consequence of tannin consumption in goats is a reduction in worm fecundity and egg output, which does not seem related to significant changes in the local mucosal response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection by Oestrus ovis is common in Lacaune dairy ewes of Roquefort cheese area (Aveyron, France). It is believed by local breeders that there is a close relationship between nasal myiasis and the incidence of enzootic nasal tumour. In order to check these anecdotal reports, a serological survey was done on 658 breeding ewes before turn-out and 897 breeding and primiparous (hoggets) ewes at the end of the grazing season. By the time of sampling, it was clear whether the sheep were infected at the end of the winter or had been re-infected over summer. In April and September, 40.7 and 26.3%, respectively, were free of O. ovis infection, indicating that the autumn treatment was not completely effective and that O. ovis adult flies were circulating during the summer in many flocks. There were no differences in the incidence of adenocarcinoma between the groups indicating that there is no relationship between O. ovis infection and the presence of the cancer. Differences in milk production between the three groups were not statistically significant (Anova test P>0.05). In flocks where 1-5% of the ewes were infected or in non-infected flocks, ewes produced 3.6 and 8.56%, respectively, more milk than ewes from flocks where more than 5% of animals were infected. For primiparous ewes, the differences were of 8.5 and 12.24%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The targeted application of anthelmintic treatments represents one of the current available solutions to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance within worm populations. Within an experimental flock of dairy goats, control of gastrointestinal parasitism by such selective treatments, targeting the most receptive animals within a flock, was previously found to be effective and to have no detrimental consequences on milk production. The objectives of the current study were to verify the validity of this method in farm conditions. Eleven dairy goat farms from three main areas of production in France were surveyed for 2 years. In six farms, the survey was prolonged for a third year. During year 1, systematic treatments were applied during the grazing season whereas in year 2 and or year 3, treatments were given exclusively to the goats in first lactation and to the multiparous ones with the highest potential of milk production. The level of nematode infection was measured four times per year through individual coproscopical examinations and the mean annual production of milk was recorded. No significant changes in egg excretion nor in milk production were noticed in any farm during years 2 or 3 after switching from the systematic to the selective mode of treatments. These results confirmed that targeted application of anthelmintics might represent a way to combine the control of trichostrongyles and the prevention of anthelmintic resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concurrent infections of sheep with Oestrus ovis and trichostrongyles of the digestive tract are common in the field. In order to examine the possible occurrence of interactions between these two parasites and the consequences on parasite biology and the associated pathophysiological changes, an experimental study was conducted on four groups of naïve sheep. Group O was infected repeatedly with O. ovis larvae from D0 to D42 of experiment; group T received a single infection of Trichostrongylus colubriformis on D49; sheep from group OT received both infections, and animals from group C remained uninfected as controls. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured regularly. At necropsy (D94), the mucosal cellular responses in the nasal cavities and digestive tract from all animals were analysed from histological sections. Infection of the digestive tract with nematodes did not modify the biology of Oestrus populations. In contrast, the presence of O. ovis was related to significant reductions in nematode egg excretion, worm fecundity and worm burdens. These changes were associated with significant modifications in tissular populations of mast cells, globule leucocytes and eosinophils in the respiratory and digestive tracts. These results indicate that parasitic infection in one particular anatomical site induces "at distance" inflammatory reactions of the whole mucosal system. The relationships between the cellular response and the changes in worm biology are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genetic analysis using RAPD markers was performed on 12 natural populations of Oestrus ovis (Linné, 1761). Three-hundred and six O. ovis larvae (first, second and third instars) were randomly recovered in nasal cavities of sheep and goats naturally infected in Algeria, Ethiopia, France, Mauritania, Rumania and Tunisia and were analysed by 56 RAPD fragments. The results showed a high diversity within all samples. A significant genetic divergence was showed by discriminant analyses among the 12 populations sampled (p<0.0001). Moreover, discriminant analyses showed significant differentiation (p<0.0001) between O. ovis larva populations of sheep and goats and also among samples collected in the same region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in order to examine the possible influence of feeding behaviour on differences in the diversity and the intensity of nematode infections of the gastrointestinal tract between two breeds of goats placed in the same rangeland environment. Within the same flock bred on rangeland conditions, 10 Saanen dairy goats and 14 Angora goats were surveyed for 5 months (from May to September) and parasitological and behavioural parameters were measured. The level of nematode infection was estimated by monthly measurements of faecal egg counts whereas the feeding behaviour was assessed every fortnight. During the whole survey, nematode egg excretion was repeatedly higher in the Angora goats compared to the Saanen ones and significant differences were observed in May and September. This difference in egg excretion was related to major difference in feeding behaviour between the two breeds. In contrast with the Saanen does, Angora goats did not show any browsing and resting activities at any date of observation. Hence, Angora goats can be considered mainly as grazers whereas Saanen goats exhibit feeding activities close to browsers. The relative influence of feeding behaviour and host immune response on the susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential of Oestrus ovis larvae excretory-secretory products (ESP), crude extract, salivary gland contents (SGc) and digestive tube contents (DTc) proteins from O. ovis larvae as antigens in serological assay were analyzed and compared. This study demonstrated that excretory-secretory proteins were produced mainly by digestive tube and salivary gland. The main antigenic component of ESP was a 28kDa protein complex (pc28) synthesized by the salivary gland ring. After purification, its diagnostic value was estimated by an ELISA using sheep sera sampled in summer (n=30) and winter (n=69) in order to investigate the relative importance of wintering hypobiotic first instar larvae on animal responsiveness. ELISA test based on pc28 antigen was compared to a reference ELISA test based on second instar larvae crude extract. After comparison it appeared that the pc28 test was much more specific (87%) and more sensitive (90%) in summer. Anti-pc28 antibody titers were significantly higher in summer than in winter demonstrating the impact of summer developing larvae on the humoral systemic immune response. This data was correlated to the maturation of larvae in summer as the number of larvae at necropsy was significantly higher in winter, when the larval population is only represented by first instar larvae, than in summer. No correlation was observed between the mean antibody titers and the number of larvae.