Joaquim Marçalo

Instituto Técnico y Cultural, Santa Clara de Portugal, Michoacán, Mexico

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Publications (82)170.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: [U(Tp(Me2))2(bipy˙)], a uranium(iii) complex with a radical bipyridine ligand which has magnetic properties with contributions from both the ligand and the metal, presents slow relaxation of the magnetisation at low temperatures, already under zero static magnetic field, and energy barriers slightly above the non-radical analogues.
    Chemical Communications 07/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complementary experimental and computational methods for evaluating relative charge densities of metal cations in gas-phase clusters are presented. Collision induced dissociation (CID) and/or density functional theory computations were performed on anion clusters of composition MM'A(m+n+1)(-), where the two metal ions have formal charge states M(m+) and M'(n+), and A is an anion, NO3(-), Cl(-) or F(-) in this work. Results for alkaline earth and lanthanide metal ions reveal that cluster CID generally preferentially produces MA(m+1)(-) and neutral M'An if the surface charge density of M is greater than that of M': the metal ion with the higher charge density takes the extra anion. Computed dissociation energies corroborate that dissociation occurs via the lowest energy process. CID of clusters in which one of the two metal ions is uranyl, UO2(2+), show that the effective charge density of uranyl is greater than that of alkaline earths and comparable to that of the late trivalent lanthanides; this is in accord with previous solution results for uranyl, from which an effective charge of 3.2+ was derived.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 02/2014; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three new crystalline metal-organic frameworks have been prepared from the reaction of uranyl nitrate with nitrilotris(methylphosphonic acid) [H6nmp, N(CH2PO3H2)3], 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)diphosphonic acid [H4pmd, C6H4(PO3H2)2], and (benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(methylene))triphosphonic acid [H6bmt, C6H3(PO3H2)3]. Compound [(UO2)2F(H3nmp)(H2O)]·4H2O (I) crystallizes in space group C2/c, showing two crystallographically independent uranyl centres with pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries. While one metal centre is composed of a {(UO2)O3(μ-F)}2 dimer, the other comprises an isolated {(UO2)O5} polyhedron. Compound [(UO2)(H2pmd)] (II) crystallizes in space group P21/c, showing a centrosymmetric uranyl centre with an octahedral {(UO2)O4} coordination geometry. Compound [(UO2)3(H3bmt)2(H2O)2]·14H2O (III) crystallizes in space group P\bar 1, showing two crystallographically independent uranyl centres. One uranyl centre is a {(UO2)O5} pentagonal bipyramid similar to that in (I), while the other is a {(UO2)O4} centrosymmetric octahedron similar to that in (II). Compounds (I) and (III) contain solvent-accessible volumes accounting for ca 23.6 and 26.9% of their unit-cell volume, respectively. In (I) the cavity has a columnar shape and is occupied by disordered water molecules, while in (III) the cavity is a two-dimensional layer with more ordered water molecules. All compounds have been studied in the solid state using FT-IR spectroscopy. Topological studies show that compounds (I) and (III) are trinodal, with 3,6,6- and 4,4,6-connected networks, respectively. Compound (II) is instead a 4-connected uninodal network of the type cds.
    Acta crystallographica Section B, Structural science, crystal engineering and materials. 02/2014; 70(Pt 1):28-36.
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    ABSTRACT: A challenge in actinide chemistry is activation of the strong bonds in the actinyl ions, AnO2(+) and AnO2(2+), where An = U, Np, or Pu. Actinyl activation in oxo-exchange with water in solution is well established, but the exchange mechanisms are unknown. Gas-phase actinyl oxo-exchange is a means to probe these processes in detail for simple systems, which are amenable to computational modeling. Gas-phase exchange reactions of UO2(+), NpO2(+), PuO2(+), and UO2(2+) with water and methanol were studied by experiment and density functional theory (DFT); reported for the first time are experimental results for UO2(2+) and for methanol exchange, as well as exchange rate constants. Key findings are faster exchange of UO2(2+) versus UO2(+) and faster exchange with methanol versus water; faster exchange of UO2(+) versus PuO2(+) was quantified. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) are in accord with the observed kinetics, validating the utility of DFT to model these exchange processes. The seemingly enigmatic result of faster exchange for uranyl, which has the strongest oxo-bonds, may reflect reduced covalency in uranyl as compared with plutonyl.
    Inorganic Chemistry 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic uranium cations, U(+) and U(2+), reacted with the facile sulfur-atom donor OCS to produce several monopositive and dipositive uranium sulfide species containing up to four sulfur atoms. Sequential abstraction of two sulfur atoms by U(2+) resulted in US2(2+); density functional theory computations indicate that the ground-state structure for this species is side-on η(2)-S2 triangular US2(2+), with the linear thiouranyl isomer, {S═U(VI)═S}(2+), some 171 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy. The result that the linear thiouranyl structure is a local minimum at a moderate energy suggests that it should be feasible to stabilize this moiety in molecular compounds.
    Inorganic Chemistry 11/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laser ionization of AnC4 alloys (An = Th, U) yielded gas-phase molecular thorium and uranium carbide cluster cations of composition AnmCn(+), with m = 1, n = 2-14, and m = 2, n = 3-18, as detected by Fourier transform ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectrometry. In the case of thorium, ThmCn(+) cluster ions with m = 3-13 and n = 5-30 were also produced, with an intriguing high intensity of Th13Cn(+) cations. The AnC13(+) ions also exhibited an unexpectedly high abundance, in contrast to the gradual decrease in the intensity of other AnCn(+) ions with increasing values of n. High abundances of AnC2(+) and AnC4(+) ions are consistent with enhanced stability due to strong metal-C2 bonds. Among the most abundant bimetallic ions was Th2C3(+) for thorium; in contrast, U2C4(+) was the most intense bimetallic for uranium, with essentially no U2C3(+) appearing. Density functional theory computations were performed to illuminate this distinction between thorium and uranium. The computational results revealed structural and energetic disparities for the An2C3(+) and An2C4(+) cluster ions, which elucidate the observed differing abundances of the bimetallic carbide ions. Particularly noteworthy is that the Th atoms are essentially equivalent in Th2C3(+), whereas there is a large asymmetry between the U atoms in U2C3(+).
    Inorganic Chemistry 09/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic properties of the layered lanthanide hydroxide Dy 8 (OH) 20 Cl 4 ·6H 2 O were studied. Below 5 K, slow magnetic relaxation was observed even in the absence of an external field, with a blocking temperature of 3 K and an energy barrier of 36.1 K, a behavior characteristic of single-molecule magnets.
    European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 09/2013; 2013(29):5046–5205. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The iodouranium(iii) complex with two hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate ligands is shown to adopt three closely related forms in the solid state. In addition to the previously reported structure for [U(Tp(Me2))2I], in which one of the pyrazolyl rings coordinates side-on to the U atom, another structure incorporating solvent molecules presents undistorted pyrazol rings, and a third one is the ionic compound [U(Tp(Me2))2]I. The implications of this structural diversity for the recently reported single ion magnet behaviour in this complex are discussed, namely on the basis of quantum chemistry calculations. The main effect of the bonding of the iodine atom to uranium is the increase of the size of the first coordination sphere and lowering of the symmetry of the molecule, resulting in a smaller crystal field splitting.
    Dalton Transactions 05/2013; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new bis(phenol)dimethyltetraazamacrocycle, 1,8-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)-4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (H2{(tBu2PhO)2Me2Cyclam}) (1), is described. Deprotonation of 1 with sodium or potassium hydrides afforded Na2{(tBu2PhO)2Me2Cyclam} (2) and K2{(tBu2PhO)Me2Cyclam} (3), respectively. Reactions of 2 or 3 with yttrium or lanthanide trichlorides led to the formation of neutral rare earth metal complexes of general formula [{(tBu2PhO)2Me2Cyclam}LnCl] (Ln = Y (4), La (5), Sm (6), Yb (7)) in moderate to high yields. The molecular structures of 4–7 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and reveal that the ligand's denticity depends on the size of the metal ions. The smaller Y3+ and Yb3+ lead to distorted octahedral geometries where the dianionic ligand acts as pentadentate, while the larger ions, La3+ and Sm3+, form capped trigonal prismatic complexes with the cyclam derivative acting as a hexadentate chelator.
    Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 04/2013; 728:57. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The homoleptic compounds [U(salan-R2)2] (R = Me (1), tBu (2)) were prepared in high yield by salt-metathesis reactions between UI4(L)2 (L = Et2O, PhCN) and 2 equiv of [K2(salan-R2)] in THF. In contrast, the reaction of the tetradentate ligands salan-R2 with UI3(THF)4 leads to disproportionation of the metal and to mixtures of U(IV) [U(salan-R2)2] and [U(salan-R2)I2] complexes, depending on the ligand to M ratio. The reaction of K2salan-Me2 ligand with U(IV) iodide and chloride salts always leads to mixtures of the homoleptic bis-ligand complex [U(salan-Me2)2] and heteroleptic complexes [U(salan-Me2)X2] in different organic solvents. The structure of the heteroleptic complex [U(salan-Me2)I2(CH3CN)] (4) was determined by X-ray studies. Heteroleptic U(IV) and Th(IV) chloride complexes were obtained in good yield using the bulky salan-tBu2 ligand. The new complexes [U(salan-tBu2)Cl2(bipy)] (5) and [Th(salan-tBu2)Cl2(bipy)] (8) were crystallographically characterized. The salan-tBu2 halide complexes of U(IV) and Th(IV) revealed good precursors for the synthesis of stable dialkyl complexes. The six-coordinated alkyl complexes [Th(salan-tBu2)(CH2SiMe3)2] (9) and [U(salan-tBu2)(CH2SiMe3)2] (10) were prepared by addition of LiCH2SiMe3 to the chloride precursor in toluene, and their solution and solid-state structures (for 9) were determined by NMR and X-ray studies. These complexes are stable for days at room temperature. Preliminary reactivity studies show that CO2 inserts into the An–C bond to afford a mixture of carboxylate products. In the presence of traces of LiCl, crystals of the dimeric insertion product [Th2Cl(salan-tBu2)2(μ-η1:η1-O2CCH2SiMe3)2(μ-η1:η2-O2CCH2SiMe3)] (11) were isolated. The structure shows that CO2 insertion occurs in both alkyl groups and that the resulting carboxylate is easily displaced by a chloride anion.
    Organometallics 12/2012; 32(5):1409. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was used to characterize the gas-phase reactivity of Hf dipositive ions, Hf2+ and HfO2+, towards several oxidants: thermodynamically facile O-atom donor N2O, ineffective donor CO, and intermediate donors O2, CO2, NO, and CH2O. The Hf2+ ion exhibited electron transfer with N2O, O2, NO and CH2O, reflecting the high ionization energy of Hf+. The HfO2+ ion was produced by O-atom transfer to Hf2+ from N2O, O2 and CO2, and the HfO22+ ion by O-atom transfer to HfO2+ from N2O; these reactions were fairly efficient. Density functional theory revealed the structure of HfO22+ as a peroxide. The HfO22+ ion reacted by electron transfer with N2O, CO2, and CO to give HfO2+. Estimates were made for the second ionization energies of Hf (14.5 ± 0.5 eV), HfO (14.3 ± 0.5 eV), and HfO2 (16.2 ± 0.5 eV ), and also for the bond dissociation energies, D[Hf2+-O] = 686 ± 69 kJ mol-1 and D[OHf2+-O] = 186 ± 98 kJ mol-1. The computed bond dissociation energies, 751 and 270 kJ mol-1, respectively, are within these experimental ranges. Additionally, it was found that HfO22+ oxidized CO to CO2 and is thus a catalyst in the oxidation of CO by N2O; and that Hf2+ activates methane to produce a carbene, HfCH22+.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 11/2012; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of uranyl(V) oxo bonds in the gas phase is demonstrated by reaction of U(16)O(2)(+) with H(2)(18)O to produce U(16)O(18)O(+) and U(18)O(2)(+). In contrast, neptunyl(V) and plutonyl(V) are comparatively inert toward exchange. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) reveal a lower yl oxo exchange transition state for uranyl(V)/water as compared with neptunyl(V)/water and plutonyl(V)/water. A correspondence between oxo exchange rates in gas phase and acid solutions is apparent; the contrasting oxo exchange rates of UO(2)(+) and PuO(2)(+) are considered in the context of covalent bonding in actinyls. Hydroxo exchange of U(16)O(2)((16)OH)(+) with H(2)(18)O to give U(16)O(2)((18)OH)(+) proceeded much faster than oxo exchange, in accord with a lower computed transition state for OH exchange. The PEP for the addition of H(2)O to UO(2)(+) suggests that both UO(2)(+)·(H(2)O) and UO(OH)(2)(+) should be considered as potential products.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2012; 134(37):15488-96. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [U(Tp(Me2))(2)I] exhibits at low temperatures single molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour comparable to its bipyridine derivative and related single ion U(iii) complexes recently reported as SMMs. The trend of variation of the energy barrier for the magnetic relaxation in these compounds is well reproduced by quantum chemistry calculations.
    Dalton Transactions 08/2012; 41(44):13568-71. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The following monopositive actinyl ions were produced by electrospray ionization of aqueous solutions of An(VI)O(2)(ClO(4))(2) (An = U, Np, Pu): U(V)O(2)(+), Np(V)O(2)(+), Pu(V)O(2)(+), U(VI)O(2)(OH)(+), and Pu(VI)O(2)(OH)(+); abundances of the actinyl ions reflect the relative stabilities of the An(VI) and An(V) oxidation states. Gas-phase reactions with water in an ion trap revealed that water addition terminates at AnO(2)(+)·(H(2)O)(4) (An = U, Np, Pu) and AnO(2)(OH)(+)·(H(2)O)(3) (An = U, Pu), each with four equatorial ligands. These terminal hydrates evidently correspond to the maximum inner-sphere water coordination in the gas phase, as substantiated by density functional theory (DFT) computations of the hydrate structures and energetics. Measured hydration rates for the AnO(2)(OH)(+) were substantially faster than for the AnO(2)(+), reflecting additional vibrational degrees of freedom in the hydroxide ions for stabilization of hot adducts. Dioxygen addition resulted in UO(2)(+)(O(2))(H(2)O)(n) (n = 2, 3), whereas O(2) addition was not observed for NpO(2)(+) or PuO(2)(+) hydrates. DFT suggests that two-electron three-centered bonds form between UO(2)(+) and O(2), but not between NpO(2)(+) and O(2). As formation of the UO(2)(+)-O(2) bonds formally corresponds to the oxidation of U(V) to U(VI), the absence of this bonding with NpO(2)(+) can be considered a manifestation of the lower relative stability of Np(VI).
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2012; 51(12):6603-14. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactions of UI3(THF)4, UCl4 and ThCl4 with 1 equiv. of tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane (Tpm∗) in THF led to the formation of the complexes [U(Tpm∗)I3(THF)] (1), [U(Tpm∗)Cl4] (2) and [Th(Tpm∗)Cl4] (3) in good yields. The NMR spectra indicated symmetrical structures in solution, with equivalent pyrazolyl groups of the Tpm∗ ligand. The X-ray crystal structures of the three complexes were determined and in all cases the metallic centre is seven-coordinated, presenting distorted capped octahedral coordination geometry with near C3v symmetry. In 1, the tridentate pyrazolylmethane ligand and the three iodine atoms define the two staggered triangular faces of the octahedron, respectively, and the latter is capped by the THF oxygen. In 2 and 3, the coordination geometry is similar, with three chlorine atoms defining a triangular face capped by the fourth chlorine.
    Inorganica Chimica Acta 04/2012; 385:53. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gas-phase reactions of Ta(2+) and TaO(2+) with oxidants, including thermodynamically facile O-atom donor N(2)O and ineffective donor CO, as well as intermediate donors C(2)H(4)O (ethylene oxide), H(2)O, O(2), CO(2), NO, and CH(2)O, were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. All oxidants reacted with Ta(2+) by electron transfer yielding Ta(+), in accord with the high second ionization energy of Ta (ca. 16 eV). TaO(2+) was also produced with N(2)O, H(2)O, O(2), and CO(2), oxidants with ionization energies above 12 eV; CO reacted only by electron transfer. The following charge separation products were also observed: TaN(+) and TaO(+) with N(2)O; and TaO(+) with O(2), CO(2), and CH(2)O. TaOH(2+), formed with H(2)O, reacted with a second H(2)O by proton transfer. TaO(2+) abstracted an electron from N(2)O, H(2)O, O(2), CO(2), and CO. Oxidation of TaO(2+) by N(2)O was also observed to produce TaO(2)(2+); on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) results, this species is a dioxide, {O-Ta-O}(2+). TaO(2)(2+) reacted by electron transfer with N(2)O, CO(2), and CO to give TaO(2)(+). Additionally, it was found that TaO(2)(2+) oxidizes CO to CO(2) and that it acts as a catalyst in the oxidation of CO by N(2)O. TaO(2)(2+) also activates H(2) to form TaO(2)H(2+). On the basis of the rates of electron transfer from N(2)O, CO(2), and CO to Ta(2+), TaO(2+), and TaO(2)(2+), the following estimates were made for the second ionization energies of Ta, TaO, and TaO(2): IE[Ta(+)] = 15.8 ± 0.3 eV, IE[TaO(+)] = 16.0 ± 0.5 eV, and IE[TaO(2)(+)] = 16.9 ± 0.4 eV. These IEs, together with recently reported bond dissociation energies, D[Ta(+)-O] and D[OTa(+)-O], result in the following bond energies: D[Ta(2+)-O] = 657 ± 58 kJ mol(-1) and D[OTa(2+)-O] = 500 ± 63 kJ mol(-1), the first of which is in good agreement with the value obtained by DFT.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2012; 116(14):3534-40. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laser ablated Rh/C alloys produced rhodium and carbon atoms, which react spontaneously to form the RhC molecule in solid argon and neon. Identification of RhC in the matrix IR spectra is supported by carbon-13 substitution and B3LYP density functional frequency calculations. The neon frequency is only 1.6 cm−1 lower than the gas phase fundamental, and the argon matrix red-shift of 15.8 cm−1 is typical for metal species. Geometry optimizations of Ar–RhC complexes gave very long Ar–RhC distances. We suggest weak Van der Waals interactions between RhC and matrix atoms. Although Rh2C and RhC2 species are predicted to be stable, no trace can be found for them in our IR spectra.
    Chemical Physics Letters 03/2012; 528:7–10. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laser ablated Rh/C alloys produced rhodium and carbon atoms, which react spontaneously to form the RhC molecule in solid argon and neon. Identification of RhC in the matrix IR spectra is supported by carbon-13 substitution and B3LYP density functional frequency calculations. The neon frequency is only 1.6 cm (1) lower than the gas phase fundamental, and the argon matrix red-shift of 15.8 cm (1) is typical for metal species. Geometry optimizations of Ar-RhC complexes gave very long Ar-RhC distances. We suggest weak Van der Waals interactions between RhC and matrix atoms. Although Rh2C and RhC2 species are predicted to be stable, no trace can be found for them in our IR spectra. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Chemical Physics Letters 01/2012; 528:7-10. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The addition of 2,2'-bipyridine to [U(Tp(Me2))(2)I] (1) results in the displacement of the iodide and the formation of the cationic uranium(III) complex [U(Tp(Me2))(2)(bipy)]I (2). This compound was isolated as a dark-green solid in good yield and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, and its molecular structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Studies of its magnetic properties revealed a frequency dependence of magnetization with a blocking temperature of 4.5 K and, at lower temperatures, a slow relaxation of magnetization with an energy barrier of 18.2 cm(-1), characteristic of single-molecule-magnet behavior.
    Inorganic Chemistry 09/2011; 50(20):9915-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Joaquim Marçalo, Marta Santos, John K Gibson
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    ABSTRACT: Small alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) were used to probe the gas-phase reactivity of doubly charged actinide cations, An(2+) (An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm), by means of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Different combinations of doubly and singly charged ions were observed as reaction products, comprising species formed via metal-ion induced eliminations of small molecules, simple adducts and ions resulting from electron, hydride or methide transfer channels. Th(2+), Pa(2+), U(2+) and Np(2+) preferentially yielded doubly charged products of hydrocarbon activation, while Pu(2+), Am(2+) and Cm(2+) reacted mainly through transfer channels. Cm(2+) was also capable of forming doubly charged products with some of the hydrocarbons whereas Pu(2+) and Am(2+) were not, these latter two ions conversely being the only for which adduct formation was observed. The product distributions and the reaction efficiencies are discussed in relation to the electronic configurations of the metal ions, the energetics of the reactions and similar studies previously performed with doubly charged lanthanide and transition metal cations. The conditions for hydrocarbon activation to occur as related to the accessibility of electronic configurations with one or two 5f and/or 6d unpaired electrons are examined and the possible chemical activity of the 5f electrons in these early actinide ions, particularly Pa(2+), is considered.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 08/2011; 13(41):18322-9. · 3.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

170 Citations
170.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Instituto Técnico y Cultural
      Santa Clara de Portugal, Michoacán, Mexico
    • Technical University of Lisbon
      • Centre for Structural Chemistry (CQE)
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2008–2012
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Chemical Sciences Division
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Università della Calabria
      Rende, Calabria, Italy
  • 2005–2006
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • Chemical Sciences Division
      Oak Ridge, FL, United States
  • 1986–1989
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Chemistry
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom