Joaquim Marçalo

University of Lisbon, Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

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Publications (92)289.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The gas-phase complexes AnO2(CH3CO2)2(-) are actinyl(V) cores, An(V)O2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), coordinated by two acetate anion ligands. Whereas the addition of O2 to U(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) exothermically produces the superoxide complex U(VI)O2(O2)(CH3CO2)2(-), this oxidation does not occur for Np(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) or Pu(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) because of the higher reduction potentials for Np(V) and Pu(V). It is demonstrated that NO2 is a more effective electron-withdrawing oxidant than O2, with the result that all three An(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) exothermically react with NO2 to form nitrite complexes, An(VI)O2(CH3CO2)2(NO2)(-). The assignment of the NO2(-) anion ligand in these complexes, resulting in oxidation from An(V) to An(VI), is substantiated by the replacement of the acetate ligands in AnO2(CH3CO2)2(NO2)(-) and AnO2(CH3CO2)3(-) by nitrites, to produce the tris(nitrite) complexes AnO2(NO2)3(-). The key chemistry of oxidation of An(V) to An(VI) by the addition of neutral NO2 is established by the substitution of acetate by nitrite. The replacement of acetate ligands by NO2(-) is attributed to a metathesis reaction with nitrous acid to produce acetic acid and nitrite.
    Inorganic Chemistry 08/2015; DOI:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01385 · 4.79 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 03/2015; 119(15). DOI:10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01445 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lanthanide and actinide tetranitrate ions, MIII(NO3)4-, were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to collision induced dissociation in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers. The nature of the MO(NO3)3- products that result from NO2 elimination was evaluated by measuring the relative hydrolysis rates under thermalized conditions. Based on the experimental results it is inferred that the hydrolysis rates relate to the intrinsic stability of the MIV oxidation states, which correlate with both the solution IV/III reduction potentials and the fourth ionization energies. Density functional theory computations of the energetics of hydrolysis and atoms-in-molecules bonding analysis of the structures of representative oxide and hydroxide nitrates substantiate the interpretations. The results allow differentiation between those MO(NO3)3- that comprise an O2- ligand with oxidation to MIV and those that comprise a radical O- ligand with retention of the MIII oxidation state. In the particular cases of MO(NO3)3- for M = Pr, Nd and Tb it is proposed that the oxidation states are intermediate between M(III) and M(IV).
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 03/2015; 17(15). DOI:10.1039/C5CP00515A · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic properties of layered dysprosium hydroxides, both diluted in the diamagnetic yttrium analogous matrix (LYH:0.04Dy), and intercalated with 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate anions (LDyH-2,6-NDC), were studied and compared with the recently reported undiluted compound (LDyH = Dy8(OH)20Cl4·6H2O). The Y diluted compound reveals a single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior of single Dy ions, with two distinct slow relaxation processes of the magnetization at low temperatures associated with the two main types of Dy sites, 8- and 9-fold coordinated. Only one relaxation process is observed in both undiluted LDyH and intercalated compounds as a consequence of dominant ferromagnetic Dy-Dy interactions, both intra- and interlayer. Semiempirical calculations using a radial effect charge (REC) model for the crystal field splitting of the Dy levels are used to explain data in terms of contributions from the different Dy sites. The dominant ferromagnetic interactions are explained in terms of orientations of easy magnetization axes obtained by REC calculations together with the sign of the superexchange expected from the Dy-O-Dy angles.
    Inorganic Chemistry 02/2015; 54(4). DOI:10.1021/ic502839c · 4.79 Impact Factor
  • J. M. Carretas · J. Cui · A. Cruz · I. C. Santos · J. Marçalo
    Journal of Structural Chemistry 01/2015; 56(1):181-185. DOI:10.1134/S0022476615010254 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [U(Tp(Me2))2(bipy˙)], a uranium(iii) complex with a radical bipyridine ligand which has magnetic properties with contributions from both the ligand and the metal, presents slow relaxation of the magnetisation at low temperatures, already under zero static magnetic field, and energy barriers slightly above the non-radical analogues.
    Chemical Communications 07/2014; DOI:10.1039/c4cc04486j · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complementary experimental and computational methods for evaluating relative charge densities of metal cations in gas-phase clusters are presented. Collision induced dissociation (CID) and/or density functional theory computations were performed on anion clusters of composition MM'A(m+n+1)(-), where the two metal ions have formal charge states M(m+) and M'(n+), and A is an anion, NO3(-), Cl(-) or F(-) in this work. Results for alkaline earth and lanthanide metal ions reveal that cluster CID generally preferentially produces MA(m+1)(-) and neutral M'An if the surface charge density of M is greater than that of M': the metal ion with the higher charge density takes the extra anion. Computed dissociation energies corroborate that dissociation occurs via the lowest energy process. CID of clusters in which one of the two metal ions is uranyl, UO2(2+), show that the effective charge density of uranyl is greater than that of alkaline earths and comparable to that of the late trivalent lanthanides; this is in accord with previous solution results for uranyl, from which an effective charge of 3.2+ was derived.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 02/2014; 118(11). DOI:10.1021/jp500946y · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three new crystalline metal-organic frameworks have been prepared from the reaction of uranyl nitrate with nitrilotris(methylphosphonic acid) [H6nmp, N(CH2PO3H2)3], 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)diphosphonic acid [H4pmd, C6H4(PO3H2)2], and (benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(methylene))triphosphonic acid [H6bmt, C6H3(PO3H2)3]. Compound [(UO2)2F(H3nmp)(H2O)]·4H2O (I) crystallizes in space group C2/c, showing two crystallographically independent uranyl centres with pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries. While one metal centre is composed of a {(UO2)O3(μ-F)}2 dimer, the other comprises an isolated {(UO2)O5} polyhedron. Compound [(UO2)(H2pmd)] (II) crystallizes in space group P21/c, showing a centrosymmetric uranyl centre with an octahedral {(UO2)O4} coordination geometry. Compound [(UO2)3(H3bmt)2(H2O)2]·14H2O (III) crystallizes in space group P\bar 1, showing two crystallographically independent uranyl centres. One uranyl centre is a {(UO2)O5} pentagonal bipyramid similar to that in (I), while the other is a {(UO2)O4} centrosymmetric octahedron similar to that in (II). Compounds (I) and (III) contain solvent-accessible volumes accounting for ca 23.6 and 26.9% of their unit-cell volume, respectively. In (I) the cavity has a columnar shape and is occupied by disordered water molecules, while in (III) the cavity is a two-dimensional layer with more ordered water molecules. All compounds have been studied in the solid state using FT-IR spectroscopy. Topological studies show that compounds (I) and (III) are trinodal, with 3,6,6- and 4,4,6-connected networks, respectively. Compound (II) is instead a 4-connected uninodal network of the type cds.
    02/2014; 70(Pt 1):28-36. DOI:10.1107/S2052520613034781
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    ABSTRACT: A challenge in actinide chemistry is activation of the strong bonds in the actinyl ions, AnO2(+) and AnO2(2+), where An = U, Np, or Pu. Actinyl activation in oxo-exchange with water in solution is well established, but the exchange mechanisms are unknown. Gas-phase actinyl oxo-exchange is a means to probe these processes in detail for simple systems, which are amenable to computational modeling. Gas-phase exchange reactions of UO2(+), NpO2(+), PuO2(+), and UO2(2+) with water and methanol were studied by experiment and density functional theory (DFT); reported for the first time are experimental results for UO2(2+) and for methanol exchange, as well as exchange rate constants. Key findings are faster exchange of UO2(2+) versus UO2(+) and faster exchange with methanol versus water; faster exchange of UO2(+) versus PuO2(+) was quantified. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) are in accord with the observed kinetics, validating the utility of DFT to model these exchange processes. The seemingly enigmatic result of faster exchange for uranyl, which has the strongest oxo-bonds, may reflect reduced covalency in uranyl as compared with plutonyl.
    Inorganic Chemistry 01/2014; 53(4). DOI:10.1021/ic402824k · 4.79 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 12/2013; 44(52):no-no. DOI:10.1002/chin.201352006
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic uranium cations, U(+) and U(2+), reacted with the facile sulfur-atom donor OCS to produce several monopositive and dipositive uranium sulfide species containing up to four sulfur atoms. Sequential abstraction of two sulfur atoms by U(2+) resulted in US2(2+); density functional theory computations indicate that the ground-state structure for this species is side-on η(2)-S2 triangular US2(2+), with the linear thiouranyl isomer, {S═U(VI)═S}(2+), some 171 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy. The result that the linear thiouranyl structure is a local minimum at a moderate energy suggests that it should be feasible to stabilize this moiety in molecular compounds.
    Inorganic Chemistry 11/2013; 52(24). DOI:10.1021/ic4020493 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invited for the cover of this issue is the group of Manuel Almeida at the University of Lisbon. The cover image illustrates the unit cell of a layered dysprosium hydroxide material that is the first example of a layered lanthanide compound showing single-molecule-magnet behavior.
    European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 10/2013; 2013(29):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1002/ejic.201390129 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laser ionization of AnC4 alloys (An = Th, U) yielded gas-phase molecular thorium and uranium carbide cluster cations of composition AnmCn(+), with m = 1, n = 2-14, and m = 2, n = 3-18, as detected by Fourier transform ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectrometry. In the case of thorium, ThmCn(+) cluster ions with m = 3-13 and n = 5-30 were also produced, with an intriguing high intensity of Th13Cn(+) cations. The AnC13(+) ions also exhibited an unexpectedly high abundance, in contrast to the gradual decrease in the intensity of other AnCn(+) ions with increasing values of n. High abundances of AnC2(+) and AnC4(+) ions are consistent with enhanced stability due to strong metal-C2 bonds. Among the most abundant bimetallic ions was Th2C3(+) for thorium; in contrast, U2C4(+) was the most intense bimetallic for uranium, with essentially no U2C3(+) appearing. Density functional theory computations were performed to illuminate this distinction between thorium and uranium. The computational results revealed structural and energetic disparities for the An2C3(+) and An2C4(+) cluster ions, which elucidate the observed differing abundances of the bimetallic carbide ions. Particularly noteworthy is that the Th atoms are essentially equivalent in Th2C3(+), whereas there is a large asymmetry between the U atoms in U2C3(+).
    Inorganic Chemistry 09/2013; 52(19). DOI:10.1021/ic401058b · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic properties of the layered lanthanide hydroxide Dy 8 (OH) 20 Cl 4 ·6H 2 O were studied. Below 5 K, slow magnetic relaxation was observed even in the absence of an external field, with a blocking temperature of 3 K and an energy barrier of 36.1 K, a behavior characteristic of single-molecule magnets.
    European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 09/2013; 2013(29):5046–5205. DOI:10.1002/ejic.201300793 · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Material Research Innovations 06/2013; 17(4):289-292. DOI:10.1179/1433075X12Y.0000000062 · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The iodouranium(iii) complex with two hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate ligands is shown to adopt three closely related forms in the solid state. In addition to the previously reported structure for [U(Tp(Me2))2I], in which one of the pyrazolyl rings coordinates side-on to the U atom, another structure incorporating solvent molecules presents undistorted pyrazol rings, and a third one is the ionic compound [U(Tp(Me2))2]I. The implications of this structural diversity for the recently reported single ion magnet behaviour in this complex are discussed, namely on the basis of quantum chemistry calculations. The main effect of the bonding of the iodine atom to uranium is the increase of the size of the first coordination sphere and lowering of the symmetry of the molecule, resulting in a smaller crystal field splitting.
    Dalton Transactions 05/2013; 42(24). DOI:10.1039/c3dt50753j · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new bis(phenol)dimethyltetraazamacrocycle, 1,8-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)-4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (H2{(tBu2PhO)2Me2Cyclam}) (1), is described. Deprotonation of 1 with sodium or potassium hydrides afforded Na2{(tBu2PhO)2Me2Cyclam} (2) and K2{(tBu2PhO)Me2Cyclam} (3), respectively. Reactions of 2 or 3 with yttrium or lanthanide trichlorides led to the formation of neutral rare earth metal complexes of general formula [{(tBu2PhO)2Me2Cyclam}LnCl] (Ln = Y (4), La (5), Sm (6), Yb (7)) in moderate to high yields. The molecular structures of 4–7 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and reveal that the ligand's denticity depends on the size of the metal ions. The smaller Y3+ and Yb3+ lead to distorted octahedral geometries where the dianionic ligand acts as pentadentate, while the larger ions, La3+ and Sm3+, form capped trigonal prismatic complexes with the cyclam derivative acting as a hexadentate chelator.
    Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 04/2013; 728:57. DOI:10.1016/j.jorganchem.2012.12.026 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The homoleptic compounds [U(salan-R2)2] (R = Me (1), tBu (2)) were prepared in high yield by salt-metathesis reactions between UI4(L)2 (L = Et2O, PhCN) and 2 equiv of [K2(salan-R2)] in THF. In contrast, the reaction of the tetradentate ligands salan-R2 with UI3(THF)4 leads to disproportionation of the metal and to mixtures of U(IV) [U(salan-R2)2] and [U(salan-R2)I2] complexes, depending on the ligand to M ratio. The reaction of K2salan-Me2 ligand with U(IV) iodide and chloride salts always leads to mixtures of the homoleptic bis-ligand complex [U(salan-Me2)2] and heteroleptic complexes [U(salan-Me2)X2] in different organic solvents. The structure of the heteroleptic complex [U(salan-Me2)I2(CH3CN)] (4) was determined by X-ray studies. Heteroleptic U(IV) and Th(IV) chloride complexes were obtained in good yield using the bulky salan-tBu2 ligand. The new complexes [U(salan-tBu2)Cl2(bipy)] (5) and [Th(salan-tBu2)Cl2(bipy)] (8) were crystallographically characterized. The salan-tBu2 halide complexes of U(IV) and Th(IV) revealed good precursors for the synthesis of stable dialkyl complexes. The six-coordinated alkyl complexes [Th(salan-tBu2)(CH2SiMe3)2] (9) and [U(salan-tBu2)(CH2SiMe3)2] (10) were prepared by addition of LiCH2SiMe3 to the chloride precursor in toluene, and their solution and solid-state structures (for 9) were determined by NMR and X-ray studies. These complexes are stable for days at room temperature. Preliminary reactivity studies show that CO2 inserts into the An–C bond to afford a mixture of carboxylate products. In the presence of traces of LiCl, crystals of the dimeric insertion product [Th2Cl(salan-tBu2)2(μ-η1:η1-O2CCH2SiMe3)2(μ-η1:η2-O2CCH2SiMe3)] (11) were isolated. The structure shows that CO2 insertion occurs in both alkyl groups and that the resulting carboxylate is easily displaced by a chloride anion.
    Organometallics 12/2012; 32(5):1409. DOI:10.1021/om3010806 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was used to characterize the gas-phase reactivity of Hf dipositive ions, Hf2+ and HfO2+, towards several oxidants: thermodynamically facile O-atom donor N2O, ineffective donor CO, and intermediate donors O2, CO2, NO, and CH2O. The Hf2+ ion exhibited electron transfer with N2O, O2, NO and CH2O, reflecting the high ionization energy of Hf+. The HfO2+ ion was produced by O-atom transfer to Hf2+ from N2O, O2 and CO2, and the HfO22+ ion by O-atom transfer to HfO2+ from N2O; these reactions were fairly efficient. Density functional theory revealed the structure of HfO22+ as a peroxide. The HfO22+ ion reacted by electron transfer with N2O, CO2, and CO to give HfO2+. Estimates were made for the second ionization energies of Hf (14.5 ± 0.5 eV), HfO (14.3 ± 0.5 eV), and HfO2 (16.2 ± 0.5 eV ), and also for the bond dissociation energies, D[Hf2+-O] = 686 ± 69 kJ mol-1 and D[OHf2+-O] = 186 ± 98 kJ mol-1. The computed bond dissociation energies, 751 and 270 kJ mol-1, respectively, are within these experimental ranges. Additionally, it was found that HfO22+ oxidized CO to CO2 and is thus a catalyst in the oxidation of CO by N2O; and that Hf2+ activates methane to produce a carbene, HfCH22+.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 11/2012; 116(51). DOI:10.1021/jp3088385 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of uranyl(V) oxo bonds in the gas phase is demonstrated by reaction of U(16)O(2)(+) with H(2)(18)O to produce U(16)O(18)O(+) and U(18)O(2)(+). In contrast, neptunyl(V) and plutonyl(V) are comparatively inert toward exchange. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) reveal a lower yl oxo exchange transition state for uranyl(V)/water as compared with neptunyl(V)/water and plutonyl(V)/water. A correspondence between oxo exchange rates in gas phase and acid solutions is apparent; the contrasting oxo exchange rates of UO(2)(+) and PuO(2)(+) are considered in the context of covalent bonding in actinyls. Hydroxo exchange of U(16)O(2)((16)OH)(+) with H(2)(18)O to give U(16)O(2)((18)OH)(+) proceeded much faster than oxo exchange, in accord with a lower computed transition state for OH exchange. The PEP for the addition of H(2)O to UO(2)(+) suggests that both UO(2)(+)·(H(2)O) and UO(OH)(2)(+) should be considered as potential products.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2012; 134(37):15488-96. DOI:10.1021/ja305800q · 11.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
289.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • University of Lisbon
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2012–2013
    • Technical University of Lisbon
      • Centro de Química Estrutural (CQE)
      Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    • Instituto Técnico y Cultural
      Santa Clara de Portugal, Michoacán, Mexico
  • 2001
    • The Immune Tolerance Network
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1994
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Chemistry
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom