[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue lacking lymph drainage, hence its inability of spontaneous repair following injury. Thus, it offers an interesting model for scientific research. A number of methods have been suggested to enhance cartilage repair, but none has yet produced significant success. The possible application of the aforementioned methods has brought about the necessity to evaluate their results. The objective of this study was to analyze results of a study of the effects of the use of TGF-beta gene transduced bone marrow clot on articular cartilage defects using ICRS visual histological assessment scale.
The research was conducted on 28 skeletally mature sheep that were randomly assigned to four groups and surgically inflicted femoral chondral defects. The articular surfaces were then treated with TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot (TGF group), GFP transduced bone marrow clot (GFP group), untransduced bone marrow clot (BM group) or left untreated (NC group). The analysis was performed by visual examination of cartilage samples and results were obtained using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The results were subsequently subjected to statistical assessment using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.
Kruskal-Wallis test yielded statistically significant difference with respect to cell distribution. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference between TGF and NC groups (P = 0.002), as well as between BM and NC groups (P = 0.002 with Bonferroni correction).
Twenty-six of the twenty-eight samples were subjected to histologic and subsequent statistical analysis; two were discarded due to faulty histology technique. Our results indicated a level of certainty as to the positive effect of TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot in restoration of articular cartilage defects. However, additional research is necessary in the field. One of the significant drawbacks on histologic assessment of cartilage samples were the errors in histologic preparation, for which some samples had to be discarded and significantly impaired the analytical quality of the others. Defects of structures surrounding the articular cartilage, e.g., subchondral bone or connective tissue, might also impair the quality of histologic analysis. Additional analyses, i.e. polarizing microscopy should be performed to determine the degree of integration of the newly formed tissue with the surrounding cartilage. The semiquantitative ICRS scale, although of great practical value, has limitations as to the objectivity of the assessment, taking into account the analytical ability of the evaluator, as well as the accuracy of semiquantitative analysis in comparison to the methods of quantitative analysis.
Overall results of histologic analysis indicated that the application of TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot could have measurable clinical effects on articular cartilage repair. The ICRS visual histological assessment scale is a valuable analytical method for cartilage repair evaluation. In this respect, further analyses of the method value would be of great importance.
Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 01/2011; 65(3):227-35.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although osteochondritis dissecans of the knee has been known for a long time, we still do not fully understand why it develops. This prompted us to present and describe an example of osteochondritis dissecans identified in the Osteological Collection of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The case of osteochondritis dissecans described in this report was recovered from the Gluvine kuće cemetery in the Dalmatian hinterland, approximately 28 km north-east of Split. A total of 77 graves were excavated and the individual exhibiting osteochondritis dissecans was recovered from grave number 16 that belongs to the younger phase of the cemetery that lasted during the second half of the 9th century A.D. Osteochondritis dissecans was noted in a subadult individual. The pathological changes consistent with osteochondritis dissecans are present on both medial femoral condyles. The lesion on the right femoral condyle is an oval crater-like defect with well defined margins and a porous floor of rough trabecular bone. The lesion on the left femoral condyle is basically, with two small provisions, identical to the one on the right side. The first is that it is slightly smaller, while the second is that unlike its antimere, it has a well preserved bone fragment that fits perfectly into the ostechondritic pit. Radiographic analyses of the femoral condyles support a diagnosis of osteochondritis dissecans and show a well-demarcated radiolucent defect in the articular surfaces of both joints surrounded by a thin sclerotic repair zone. According to the classification systems this degree of change corresponds to stage 3 or grade 3 osteochondritis dissecans--a detached but non-displaced fragment. Returning, for a second, to the opinion that prompted us to present this case, it is clear that during the last 1100 years there have been no significant morphological or radiological changes in the characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the exact localization of the histopathological process (bone, bone-tendon junction or tendon), and to determine whether the underlying pathologic process is predominantly of inflammatory or degenerative nature, then to evaluate the outcome of the surgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy.
A prospective cohort study was performed in order to analyze the outcome of surgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy, as well as to document histopathological changes in bone, bone-tendon junction, and in the patellar ligament in 34 professional athletes treated with patellar apicotomy. All the patients included in the study were classified as stage 3 according to Blazina and showed no improvement after at least 6 months of conservative treatment. The postoperative follow-up was from 1 to 8 years with a mean value of 4.7 years.
The postoperative results were analyzed using a semiquantitative scoring system where the functional outcome was classified as very good if the athlete returned to his sporting activity without any negative side effects, good if the athlete resumed his sporting activities with modest painful sensations present only at the maximum level of physical exertion, and poor if any reduction of athletic activity was present. In twenty patients a histopathological examination of resected bone and tendon tissue was performed. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined under a light microscope using polarization. Special stains used were Alcian blue, to detect any increase in ground substance, and Prussian blue which enhances conspicuity of hyaline degeneration and enables detection of hemosiderin. Immunohistochemistry was performed in order to analyze presence of blood vessels, leukocytes and histiocytes.
Very good results were achieved in 20 of operated knees, good results were achieved in 12 of knees and poor results were achieved in 2 of operated knees. Pathological changes in the bone were found in 35% of analyzed specimens, abnormality at the bone-tendon junction were found in 75% of the specimens, and changes in the patellar tendon were found in all extracted specimens. The histopatholological nature of the lesions found within the tendon tissue in all of the analyzed specimens belongs to the group of degenerative changes.
Currently a consenus has been established that the expression tendinitis is "out", and the term tendinopathy should be used instead. No inflammatory cells and no increase in prostaglandins can be detected in the tendons. Histopathological studies of the tissue fibrils affected by tendinosis characteristically demonstrate hypercellularity, hypervascularity, lack of inflammatory infiltrates, and disorganization and loosening of collagen fibers.
The clinical results and histopathological examination in our series justified our operative method. In the chronic stage these lesions are irreversible and constitute permanent intratendinous lesions. It thus seems logical to excise these lesions from their origin at the apex of the patella and entry into the adjacent tendon. It is also recommended on the basis of our and other authors' research that the term patellar tendinopathy should be used instead of tendonitis/tendinitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to present long-term results of sagittal osteotomy of the patella after Morscher. The study included 70 patients treated for patellar dysplasia with a postoperative follow-up from nine to 20 years. There were 59 females and 11 males with an average age of 21 years at the time of operation. Results were evaluated for the entire group of 70 patients and then presented separately for the 30 patients in whom sagittal osteotomy of the patella was performed as a single procedure and 40 patients in whom, in addition to sagittal osteotomy of the patella, medialisation and ventralisation or distalisation of the tibial tuberosity were also performed. The mean value of the Wiberg patellar angle was 112 degrees preoperatively and 140 degrees postoperatively. In the whole group of patients excellent results were obtained in 24 (35%), good results in 30 (42%), fair results in 13 (19%) and poor results in three (4%) patients. In 30 patients with sagittal osteotomy as a single operation excellent results were obtained in 13 (43%), good results in 14 (47%) and fair results in three (10%) patients, while in the 40 patients with sagittal osteotomy and additional surgical procedures, 11 (27%) were excellent, 16 (40%) good, ten (25%) fair and three (8%) had poor results. Sagittal osteotomy of the patella after Morscher is an enrichment of the spectrum of the secondary-causal and preventive procedures for the treatment of patello-femoral disorders.
International Orthopaedics 12/2009; 34(2):297-303. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this case report is to present an unusual double synovial cyst that arose from the proximal tibiofibular joint compressing the peroneal nerve in the peroneal tunnel and was unrecognized at the beginning. According to the review of literature back to 1891, only 62 cases of cysts originating from the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) have been described. We report a case of a 32 year old male patient who was admitted to the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery because of a classic peroneal tunnel syndrome of the left leg. On the lateral side of the proximal third of his left leg a tumefaction of 12 x 2.5 cm was visible. The sonography showed a characteristic image of the para-articular synovial cyst of the left knee. A surgical extirpation of the synovial cyst and decompression of the peroneal nerve in the peroneal tunnel were performed. PHD confirmed a classic synovial cyst. Postoperatively, the symptoms of the peroneal nerve compression disappeared. Three years after the first surgical intervention the patient was readmitted to the Department because of quite similar problems, only the neurological symptoms were less intensive than during the first admittance. This time the performed MR imaging showed a double synovial cyst originating from the proximal tibiofibular joint. The surgical treatment consisted of a total extirpation of both cysts including the narrow stalks of communication with the PTFJ. The joint was opened and a synovectomy was done using an electrocauter and a sharp curette. Regular check-ups were done every 6 months and twice during the control period of 4 years, as was the MR imaging control. MRI findings 4 years after the second surgical intervention were normal. Clinical findings after 7 years were normal and we are sure that the recidivation of the synovial cyst excluded. The MRI diagnostics was crucial for an adequate surgical treatment and the relief of the peroneal tunnel syndrome symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders.
Croatian Medical Journal 01/2008; 48(6):767-78. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) have past a long journey in human orthopaedic surgery during the last 15 years. From the first reports of the use of rhBMPs in hostile environments such as critically-sized bone defects, avascular femoral head necrosis, unstable thoracolumbar vertebral fractures, instability between the atlas and axis due to rheumatoid arthritis; over the use for nonunions of long bones and the scaphoid, reconstructive and revision surgeries of the hip, acute fractures, allograft nonunions, congenital pseudarthrosis, and various approaches of lumbar and cervical spine fusions, rhBMPs overgrow to a safe and reliable device in the treatment of open tibial shaft fractures, nonunions of long bone fractures, anterior lumbar interbody fusion and revision posterolateral lumbar fusions. Systematic review of the published literature of rhBMPs is presented.
Collegium antropologicum 10/2007; 31(3):923-32. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of injuries is a significant factor in the structure of mortality and causes of hospitalization of elderly people. Epidemiologically, consequences of injury, i.e. their complications, from reduced mobility, sores, contractures, infections, all over to mortality from hypostatic pneumonia, are strongly emphasized in the elderly. In 2005, more than 17.0% of Croatian population were older than 65 years of age, and 27.0% of the population were over 60. Osteoporotic bone fractures are frequent among the elderly; 5,489 hip fracture cases were registered in Croatia during 2005, and 382 of them died from fracture complications. In total, 97.38% of the dead patients were over 65 years of age. Besides hip fractures, other typical osteoporotic fractures are fractures of vertebral bodies, distal part of the radius, humerus, pelvic bones, etc. Regardless of conservative or surgical treatment for osteoporotic fracture, it is essential to stress out that after the care of fractured bone has been provided, appropriate diagnostic examinations and pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis should also be done. Orthopedic and traumatic surgeons all over the world have to understand that conservative or surgical treatment of osteoporotic fracture of any localization is just one link in this complex chain of managing the disease - osteoporotic treatment.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 03/2007; 58(1):41-7. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to review the remarkable progress in the field of musculoskeletal system gene therapy. Since the introduction of this concept 15 years much of the preclinical and clinical data have emerged. The original target, rheumatoid arthritis, has been subjected to clinical phase II efficacy protocol, and osteoarthritis gene therapy efficacy is being thoroughly investigated in various animal models. The most promising area of research in this field however, is the tissue repair, because it doesn't require prolonged period of gene expression, local delivery is reasonably simple and it avoids substantial risk associated with systemic delivery, and levels of gene expression don't need to be so finely regulated. Gene transfer is successfully being used to aid the repair and regeneration of bone, cartilage, ligament tendon, meniscus and intervertebral disc. Other potential applications of gene therapy in musculoskeletal system include osteoporosis, aseptic loosening, genetic diseases and tumors. Highly encouraging data gained from these studies have confirmed that gene therapy is a promising therapeutic solution to treat various musculoskeletal system disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of exercise on female's bone metabolism has received much attention in recent years. We report on unusual case of a female runner with low body mass and amenorrhea, who suffered 4 stress fractures. Three of the stress fractures occurred during her sports career, and the fourth occurred 7 years after the cessation of sports activities. It seems that exercise-induced amenorrhea together with food restriction in the young age may cause long-term consequences on bone metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe two cases of severely angulated tibial non-unions after proximal tibia stress fractures associated with ipsilateral osteoarthritis treated with modular knee endoprosthesis with a long tibial stem to stabilize non-union fragments. During the procedure, no additional osteosynthesis or bone grafting was added. Both non-unions healed after 6 months with no post-operative complications. The authors suggest implantation of modular knee endoprosthesis, as a single procedure, in treatment of proximal tibia non-union after a stress fracture as a result of severe varus/valgus deformity. It provides a solution for osteoarthritis treatment, axis correction and non-union osteosynthesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of median nerve entrapment at the elbow between the supracondylar process and an anomalous insertion of Struthers' ligament is presented. The diagnosis of anomalous insertion of the ligament was made by MRI and confirmed at operation. Struthers' ligament originated as usual from the supracondylar process but did not reach the medial epicondyle of the humerus, inserting instead in the brachial fascia above the epicondyle. The incomplete Struthers' ligament functioned, however, as a complete ligament. It produced symptoms identical to supracondylar process syndrome. Excision of the supracondylar process of the humerus and Struthers' ligament relieved symptoms in this athlete.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of the acetabular roof in patients with hip dysplasia shows disappointing mid-term results due to insufficient incorporation and collapse of the bone graft. We have developed a new reconstructive method using a pedicled iliac graft. We simulated surgical reconstruction of the acetabular roof in ten cadaver specimens. The purpose was to evaluate whether the deep circumflex artery was long enough to allow transfer of the graft without requiring micro-vascular anastomosis. In all cadavers, the length of the pedicle was sufficient to reach any desired position of the acetabular roof. The use of such a pedicled structural graft may provide good primary stability and allow local bony remodelling and incorporation under load.
International Orthopaedics 02/2002; 26(6):344-8. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Related either to athletic activities and recreation or to various professional activities, overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system are common in the life of modern humans. Various studies indicate that approximately 30% to 50% of all sports injuries are caused by overuse. Therefore, it is not surprising that overuse injuries are frequently discussed. The mode of this discussion is usually limited to the analysis of different individual painful syndromes, specific localization of the painful syndrome in the musculoskeletal system, or the specific tissues affected by overuse injuries (tendinitis, bursitis, stress fractures, etc.). The purpose of this article is to systematically present today's knowledge of overuse injuries which affect the musculoskeletal system as a whole. Regardless of the localisation and the affected tissue, all clinical entities are presented in the same manner: the name and the definition of the syndrome, aetiopathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnostic, non operative, and surgical treatment, and the possibility of prevention. Beside presenting the newest discoveries reported in medical literature, this article also brings a wealth of individual cases and experiences encompassing histopathological examination, x-ray analysis, and the results of both conservative and surgical procedures.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 01/2002; 52(4):383-92. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress fractures are common overuse injuries, ranging between 1.1% and 3.7% of all athletic injuries. Causes are many and usually involve repetitive submaximal stress. There is a wide research evidence showing that training errors cause stress fractures in as many as 22% to 75% of cases. Intrinsic factors such as hormonal imbalance may also contribute to the onset of stress fractures, especially in women. During medical examination, it is essential always to bear in mind the possibility of stress fracture. Clinical diagnosis is therefore the basic procedure, followed by other diagnostic methods in the following order: radiology, scintigraphy, and MRI. Most stress fractures are uncomplicated and can be managed through rest and restriction from precipitating activities for 4-6 weeks. A subset of stress fractures can present a high risk for progression to complete fracture, delayed union, or nonunion. Specific sites for this type of stress fracture are the femoral neck, the anterior cortex of the tibia, the tarsal navicular, the fifth metatarsal (Jones fracture), and the great toe sesamoids. Therefore, high-risk stress fractures require aggressive treatment, and in some cases even surgical intervention is appropriate.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 01/2002; 52(4):471-82. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anterior knee pain is not a disease, but a syndrome with numerous causes. This paper describes its appearance in the patellofemoral joint in sportsmen and in untrained people. Chondromalacia patellae is a condition of the cartilage, not a disease, that is, it is never diagnosed alone. Relative muscular insufficiency, especially of the knee extensors, may occur in children and adolescents, as they grow rapidly. The consequence is a unbalance of active stabilizers and the disturbance of the slippery trail of patella, particularly in the presence of dysplasia of patellofemoral joint. The impingement syndrome pain occurs in sportsmen and people overloading the patellofemoral joint. Other causes of anterior knee pain should be excluded in clinical examination and slippery trail of patella, its position, and signs of instability should be determined. This paper gives an overview of patellar chondromalacia, lateral pressure syndrome, patellar subluxation, patellar acute and recurrent luxation, and idiopathic anterior knee pain. The treatment is basically conservative. Stretching exercises and the strengthening of certain groups of femoral muscles serves to regain the balance, thus normalising the slippery trail and taking off the burden from the patellofemoral joint. If conservative treatment fails, surgery is the alternative.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 01/2002; 52(4):441-9. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overuse injuries are frequent in the knee joint. The reason for this is that the knee joint is engaged in all sports activities. Furthermore, the joint area has numerous attachment points for muscles and tendons and numerous bursae. Another reason is that the specific joint between the patella and femur (patellofemoral joint) constitutes a part of the knee joint. Speaking in general terms, all overuse injuries in the knee joint can be divided in four groups according to the aspect: anterior aspect--patellofemoral pain syndrome, patellar tendinitis (jumper's knee), Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding Larson Johanson disease, stress fracture of the patella, fat pad syndrome; medial aspect--plica syndrome, semimembranosus tendinitis, pes anserinus tendinitis (bursitis), breaststroker's knee, medial retinaculitis; lateral aspect--Iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee), Popliteal Tendinitis, Bicipital tendinitis; posterior aspect--fabellitis, medial gastrocnemius strain. There are numerous possible reasons for pain caused by overuse injuries around the knee joint, but two are the most frequent: patellar tendinitis (jumper's knee) and Iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee). This paper gives a brief overview of overuse injuries of the knee joint including their definition, anatomy, aetiology, clinical symptoms and signs, and non-operative and surgical treatment.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 01/2002; 52(4):429-39. · 0.67 Impact Factor