S Novelli

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy

Are you S Novelli?

Claim your profile

Publications (12)12.93 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first endpoint of this study was to find new markers that document the progression of hepatic steatosis through quantitative histomorphometric analysis in the absence of hemodynamic changes. The second endpoint was to start building a mathematical database to help to achieve a score in the future. For this study we enrolled 130 random patients, including 10 with normal histology despite suspected disease, 70 positive for steatosis, 20 affected by nonalcoholic steato hepatitis, and 30 with hepatitis virus C or B-related cirrhosis. One hundred thirty images were analyzed for a total of 1,320 sinusoids. Each image was processed with a custom program written with the use of the Vision toolbox of the Labview platform, following a semiautomated procedure. The mean sinusoidal areas (SAs) and percentage fractions of parenchymal area occupied by sinusoids (SA/PA) were subdivided into 3 groups. Finally, we analyzed the form of sinusoids, approximating them to an ellipse, to be able to define the relationship between the 2 axes with the aim of proposing a parameter, "local hydraulic resistance" (LHR), that was proportional to the resistance to blood flow within the bounds of the histologic specimen. Among the images, we observed a difference in the size of SAs among the 3 groups of patients, namely, normal, steatotic of different stages, and cirrhotic patients. In fact, there was evidence of a reducted SA when steatosis was <30%, with an average value of 0.0032 mm(2), patients with steatosis of 30%-50% showed an average SA of 0.0024 mm(2), and there was a further reduction among subjects with steatosis grades >50% (mean 0.0017 mm(2)). The LHR value showed that the morphometric parameter SA/PA could be quantitatively interpreted also as a functional impairment relative to the increased resistance opposing blood flow in pathologic conditions.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2012; 44(7):1837-42. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infection represents one of the primary barriers to successful organ transplantation. Our principal end point was to use a new assay, Entotoxin Activity Assay (EAA), which was developed to rapidly detect endotoxin activity (EA) for an early diagnosis of this complication. We also sought to prove the validity and safety of endotoxin removal using polymyxin-B-based hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP). The criterion for inclusion in the study was suspected infection when a patient experienced at least 2 of the 4 criteria of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. EAA was performed on 71 patients: 29 liver transplantations and 42 kidney transplantations. Twenty-eight patients (39.5%) with EA >0.60 underwent PMX-DHP treatment to remove endotoxins. Each treatment was performed for 2 hours with a blood flow of 100 mL/min. All of the patients were treated with PMX-DHP until achieving an EA <0.4. Stabilization of hemodynamic and inflammatory frameworks was observed after the PMX-DHP. At 30 days follow-up, all of the patients were alive with good graft function and low levels of EA. We think it might be useful to determine EA routinely in transplant patients and look forward to large multicenter clinical trials to accurately assess the benefits of the EAA plus DHP-PMX to treat transplant patients with sepsis.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2012; 44(7):1966-72. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Initial poor graft function (IPGF) is a major factor influencing the clinical outcome after liver transplantation (LT), but there is no reliable method to assess and predict graft dysfunction. To help clinicians determine prognosis in the early postoperative period, individual parameters and complex scoring systems have been suggested, but most of them are inaccurate because of the multifactorial nature of transplantation courses. Therefore, the aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate predictive criteria for retransplantation. Forty-two patients were enrolled in this study: 18 who experienced primary non-function (PNF) and 24 with delayed graft function (DGF). All of the patients were treated with the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS). They were into 3 subgroups: patients who survived without LT (n = 20; 47.7%); patients who underwent LT (n = 16; 37%), and patients who died before transplantation (n = 6; 14%). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with the intent to find the risk factors for LT or death after MARS treatment (second analysis). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed on significant variables in the logistic regression model with the intent to individually predict variables for LT or death. After a stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis enrolling all of the previously reported features only 2 variables, tumor necrosis factor (TFN)-α and Glasgow coma score (GCS) score, were statistically significant. TNF-α was an unique independent risk factor for retransplantation or death after MARS treatment (odds ratio [OR] 1.235; P = .013). Conversely, GCS score was protective against retransplantation or death (OR 0.150; P = .003). Starting from these assumptions, a predictive model was created using these 2 variables. On ROC analysis, the combined score showed an area under the curve greater than that of the 2 variables considered separately. Validating these results with a larger number of patients, we considered these 2 factors as subjective parameters to determine outcomes and the difference between PNF and DGF.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2012; 44(7):1820-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was a 30-day follow-up of the use of early detection of endotoxin by the endotoxin activity assay (EAA) for patients with acute liver failure superimposed on chronic liver disease (AoCLF) and treated with polymyxin-B hemoperfusion-based (PMX-DHP) treatment and albumin dialysis in the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). From February 2008 to July 2010, we evaluated 10 AoCLF patients experiencing systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in association with suspected infection and an EAA-positive test (>0.60). These patients awaiting liver transplantation (OLT) showed similar Model End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores (range, 19-25) and encephalopathy grade ≤ 2. Five patients received therapy to remove endotoxins with PMX-DHP with MARS treatment for liver failure (group A); the other 5 patients received MARS treatment only (group B). Two PMX-DHP treatments were performed in 4 group A patients (average EA=0.66 [range, 0.61-0.70]) and 3 treatments for 1 patient (EA=0.92). All 5 subjects underwent an average of 4 MARS treatments (range, 3-5). At the end of therapy, the median EA level was 0.42 (range, 0.37-0.48). As reported in the literature, we achieved a significant improvement in liver and kidney functions using MARS. Measurements of lactate, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly improved among patients treated with the extracorporeal therapies. At 30 days of observation, all 5 patients treated with MARS plus PMX-DHP are alive. In group B, a mean of 7.5 MRAS treatments were performed. We observed an improvement in hemodynamic and liver functions with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and lactates in 4 patients. One patient showed no improvement in clinical status with the development of sepsis and subsequent multiorgan failure after 24 days. The possibility of an early diagnosis using the EAA in AoCLF patients could prevent the progression of the sepsis cascade. The use of PMX-DHP and MARS in these patients, could lead to resolution of clinical status in a short time.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2011; 43(4):1085-90. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of study was to highlight parameters that in association with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) provide predictive criteria for long-term survival after treatment with the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS). Two homogenous groups were studied: one treated with standard medical therapy (SMT) and the other, with MARS. Twenty acute-on-chronic liver failure patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation and affected by alcoholic cirrhosis with similar MELD scores (20-29) were evaluated for 7 days from inclusion and for 6-month survival. Ten patients (seven males and three females) were treated with MARS. Their mean age was 48.5 years (range = 35-61). The number of MARS applications was six for 6 consecutive days, and the length of the applications was 8 hours. Ten other patients (seven males and three females) were treated with SMT, including prophylaxis against bacterial infections and judicious use of diuretics. The precipitating factors were also treated appropriately. The mean age of the patients was 51 years (range = 37-64). All the variables that were significant upon univariate analysis were enrolled in a receiver operating characteristic analysis, with the intention to detect predictive parameters for patient death at 6 months. We considered a significant area under curve (AUC) value to be greater than 0.5. Among 11 patients who died within 6 months there were in the MARS group and eight in the SMT group: the 3- and 6-month patient survival rates were 90% and 70% versus 30% and 20% in the two groups, respectively. Nine measures resulted in an AUC > 0.5: DeltaMELD; interleukin (IL)-8; IL-6; tumor necrosis factor- alpha, MELD score; creatinine, bilirubin international normalized ratio (INR) and cardiac index. DeltaMELD and postoperative IL-8 concentrations showed better results (AUC = 0.899), followed by postoperative creatinine (AUC = 0.879), postoperative cardiac index (AUC = 0.833), and postoperative INR (AUC = 0.818). Postoperative creatinine showed the best sensitivity (100%), while IL-8, the best specificity (88.9%). A combination of biochemical and clinical variables probably represent the best way to predict the survival of patients, allowing physicians to select the best therapies for each patient.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2010; 42(4):1182-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement of prognostic parameters after treatment with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH). The parameters conducive to a positive prognosis include: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score >/=11, intracranial pressure (ICP) <15 mm Hg or an improvement of the systolic peak flow of 25-32 cm/s via Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery, lactate level <3 mmol/L, tumor necrosis factor-alpha <20 pg/mL, interleukin (IL)-6 <30 pg/mL, and a change in hemodynamic instability from hyperkinetic to normal kinetic conditions, and so define the timing (and indeed the necessity) of a liver transplant (LTx). From 1999 to 2008 we treated 45 patients with FH with MARS in the intensive care unit of our institution. We analyzed all the parameters that were statistically significant using univariate analysis and considered the patients to be candidates for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients survived: 21 were bridged to liver transplant (the BLT group) and 15 continued the extracorporeal method until native liver recovery (the NLR group) with a positive resolution of the clinical condition. Nine patients died before transplantation due to multi-organ failure. We stratified the entire population into three different groups according to six risk factors (the percentage reduction of lactate, IL-6 and ICP, systemic vascular resistance index values, GCS <9, and the number of MARS treatments): group A (0-2 risk factors), group B (3-4 risk factors), and group C (5-6 risk factors). Analyzing the prevalence of these parameters, we noted that group A perfectly corresponded to the NLR group, group B corresponded to the BLT group, and group C was composed of patients from the non-survival group; thus, we were able to select the patients who could undergo a LTx using the predictive criteria. For patients with an improvement of neurological status, cytokines, lactate, and hemodynamic parameters, LTx was no longer necessary and their treatment continued with MARS and standard medical therapy.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 10/2009; 13(5):404-12. · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a systemic inflammatory reaction, which is characterized by a predominantly proinflammatory cytokine profile, causing the transition from stable cirrhosis to ACLF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in several cytokines associated with inflammatory liver disease and liver regeneration among 15 ACLF patients treated with the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) compared with 15 patients treated with standard medical therapy (SMT). The subjects showed various disease etiologies but similar values for Model End-stage Liver Disease scores. In the MARS group, 15 (10 male and 5 female) patients were treated with MARS (Gambro). The number of MARS applications was nine; the length of applications was 8 hours. In the SMT group; 15 (10 male and 5 female) patients were treated with SMT. The patients were monitored for 30 days from inclusion with a survival follow-up at 3 months. Statistical results were calculated with SPSS14.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill). A P < .07 was considered significant. In the MARS group, we observed significant changes in the levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in association with improved hepatocyte growth factor. Patient survival at 3 months was 60%. The SMT group showed only a significant change in TNF-alpha (P = .03). Patient survival at 3 months was 30%. The MARS liver support device corrected pathophysiologies of ALF and may be used to enhance spontaneous recovery or as a bridge to transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2009; 41(4):1243-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) has been significantly improved by emergency orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Since 2004, the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) has been proposed as a bridging procedure. The aim of our study was to assess its efficacy in children with PALF. Since 1999 we performed treatment of 39 fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) cases with MARS. Since September 2004 we treated 6 pediatric patients with FHF who were of mean age 10.6 years (range, 3-15 years) including 4 females and 2 males. In 3 cases the cause of FHF was unknown; in 2 cases, it was induced by paracetamol overdose; and in 1, by acute hepatitis B virus. Inclusion criteria were: bilirubin >15 mg/dL; creatinine >or=2 mg/dL; encephalopathy grade >II; and International normalized ratio (INR) >2.5. Other estimated parameters were: AST and ALT serum levels, lactate, and urine volume. Neurological status was monitored using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Continuous MARS treatment was performed in all patients with a kit change every 8 hours. Intensive care unit (ICU) treatment was applied to optimize regeneration and to prevent cardiovascular complications. We observed a significant improvement among levels of bilirubin (P< .009), ammonia (P< .005), creatinine (P< .02), GCS (P< .002), and predictive criteria and as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD). Three children underwent OLT: 1 died after 5 days due to primary nonfunction and 2 children are alive after a median follow-up of 14 months. In 2 children the MARS treatment led to resolution of clinical status without liver transplantation. One child died before OLT due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. We concluded that application of the MARS liver support device in combination with experienced ICU management contributed to improve the clinical status in children with PALF awaiting liver transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2008; 40(6):1921-4. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86:627-628. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) show an aggravated hyperdynamic circulation. We evaluated potential changes in systemic hemodynamics and improved kidney function induced by the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in a group of patients with primary nonfunction (PNF). In the intensive care unit we treated 18 patients with PNF (6 females and 12 males) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) of overall mean age 47.8 years (range, 28-60 years). Continuous MARS treatment was performed on all patients with a kit change every 8 hours during a mean of 10 days (range, 1-20 days). Double-lumen catheter type veno-venous access was used for the blood supply. The blood flow rate was 150 to 250 mL/min, depending on the hemodynamic situation of the patient. Blood passed through an albumin nonpermeable, high flux dialysis membrane. During MARS treatment we monitored the hemodynamic condition, using a series of parameters: heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) before (baseline value) as well as after 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T2), and the end of treatment (T3). There was a progressive decrease in positive inotropic support (dobutamine, norepinephrine) and significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters, such as MAP (P< .01), PVRI/SVRI/V(mean) (P< .002), and KARI (P< .01). The improved kidney functions were shown by significant improvements in serum creatinine (P< .03), urea (P< .02), and urine volume (P< .005). Eleven patients were alive: 6 with OLT and 5 without OLT. Seven patients died: 4 after OLT and 3 before OLT due to multiorgan failure. The MARS device significantly improved the hemodynamic parameters and kidney function that also determine patient survival in ALF (61.1%) with PNF while awaiting retransplantation presumably by removal of certain vasoactive substances.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2008; 40(6):1854-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Acute hepatitis C virus infection leading to fulminant hepatitis is very rare whereas Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The repertoire of substances that accumulate in the blood in fulminant hepatic failure cause neurological abnormalities, ag-gravate injury to the liver and other organs, suppress the ability of residual hepatocytes to perform organ-specific functions (sick cell syndrome), and inhibit the hepatic regenerative response especially in fulminant hepatitis Virus C which has subacute clinical evolution and takes time to manifest. Liver support technology is evolving as different techniques become available that assist the remaining functional cell mass by pro-viding specific liver functions. Case Presentation: We report a case of Fulminant C virus Hepatitis, suc-cessfully treated with albumin dialysis Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS). At time of admittance the patient presented: Model End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-36; Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) -C(13); Sequential Organ Failure Assestment (SOFA) -12, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)-11. The patient un-derwent six sessions of MARS in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in association with standard medical therapy (SMT). The patient survived and was discharged from the hospital in good condition after 40 days without liver transplantation (LT).