[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deletions of the gene encoding mediator subcomplex 12 (MED12) in human smooth muscle tumors rank among the most frequent genomic alterations in human tumors at all. In a minority of these cases, small deletions are found. In an attempt to delineate key features of the deletions aimed at a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of uterine smooth muscle tumors we have analyzed 70 MED12 deletions including 46 cases from the literature and 24 own unpublished cases. RESULTS: The average length of the deletions was 18.7 bp ranging between 2 bp and 43 bp. While in general multitudes of 3 clearly dominated leaving the transcript in frame, deletions of 21, 24, 30, and 33 nucleotides were clearly underrepresented. Within the DNA segment affected deletion breakpoints were not randomly distributed. Most breakpoints clustered within the center of the segment where two peaks of breakpoint clusters could be distinguished. Interestingly, one of these clusters coincides with the loop of a putative folded non-B DNA structure whereas a much lower number of breaks noted in the 5' and 3' stem of the structure forming an intramolecular B-helix. The second cluster mainly consisting of 3' breaks was located in a region downstream adjacent to the stem. CONCLUSION: The present study describes for the first time main characteristics of MED12 deletions occurring in smooth muscle tumors. Interestingly, the non-random distribution of breakpoints within the deletion hotspot region may point to a role of non-canonical DNA structures for the occurrence of these mutations and the molecular pathogenesis of uterine smooth muscle tumors, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Amyloidosis is a life-threatening protein misfolding disease and affects cardiac tissue, leading to heart failure, myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia. Amyloid deposits result in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of innate defense components, i.e., Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and the complement system, in different types of cardiac amyloidosis. METHODS: Expression of DMBT1 and of the complement proteins C1q, C3d and C4d in cardiac specimens of patients with different types of amyloidosis were determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with amyloid deposits stained by Congo red dye. RESULTS: Strong DMBT1 staining adjacent to amyloid deposits was detected in different amyloidosis types, depending on the extent of the deposits. DMBT1 is localized in the endomysium and perimysium, in the endocardium, in the myocytes and in endothelial cells of affected transmural vessels. C1q, C3d and C4d were detected in the amyloid deposits but also in the endomysium and perimysium, in some myocytes, in endothelial cells, in the endocardium, and around the amyloid deposits. CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulated DMBT1 and complement activation in cardiac amyloidosis may be part of the activated pathways induced by protein aggregation and the consecutive inflammatory reaction.
Cardiovascular pathology: the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology 12/2012; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs of the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC) are known to be abundantly expressed in the placenta. Their genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 19 and seem to be part of a large imprinted region. Although the data available so far suggest important functions in the placenta, no data are available on their general expression patterns in cultures of placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PDMSC). Surprisingly, qRT-PCR on tissue cultures from first-trimester and term placenta mesenchymal stromal cells showed an abundant expression of the cluster members miR-517a-3p, miR-519a-3p, and miR-520c-3p. Accordingly, analyses of methylation patterns suggested that these cells had escaped methylation and epigenetic silencing, respectively, of the paternal allele. This was confirmed by the results of treatment of chorionic villous stromal cells by the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our results offer clear evidence that, in contrast to what is suggested in previous papers, members of C19MC are highly expressed in PDMSC indicating that their placenta-specific functions are not restricted to the trophoblast.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2012; 422(3):411-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of high mobility group protein AT-hook2 (HMGA2) indicates a worse prognosis in many epithelial malignancies, such as colon cancer. The present study addresses methodological aspects, as well as the genetic background, of the HMGA2 expression in colon cancer.
Samples of 38 colon carcinomas were studied for the expression of HMGA2 by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). In selected cases, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed.
The overexpression of HMGA2, compared to adjacent mucosa, is not consistent among colon carcinomas: Only a minority of carcinomas strongly overexpressed HMGA2, but in no more than 50% of the tumors did the expression exceed the average value in mucosa samples. qRT-PCR clearly reveals a continuum between cases with high and low expression.
For HMGA2-based risk assessment, continuous rather than discontinuous models seem to be most appropriate. However, in daily practice, IHC seems to be a suitable method to stratify for high-risk patients.
Anticancer research 05/2012; 32(5):1589-93. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eine 60-jährige Patientin präsentierte sich 4Monate nach einer Herztransplantation mit Fieber und einem neu aufgetretenen
Lungenrundherd. Die mikrobiologische Aufarbeitung einer bronchoalveolären Lavage und eines Lungenteilresektats ergab die Diagnose
einer pulmonalen Nokardiose. Weiterhin konnte eine Beteiligung des zentralen Nervensystems festgestellt werden. Eine antibiogrammgerechte
Therapie über rund 1Jahr führte zu einer vollständigen Eradikation der pulmonalen und zerebralen Nokardiose. Bei pulmonalen
Raumforderungen immunsupprimierter Patienten ist früh nach einer Organtransplantation vor allem an opportunistische Infektionen
zu denken. In der Spätphase können Tumoren ursächlich sein.
We report on a woman presenting with fever and novel round lesion in the lung four months after heart transplantation. Microbiologic
assessment of bronchial lavage and operative specimen revealed pulmonary nocardiosis. Furthermore, cerebral involvement has
been observed. Antibiotic treatment according to the microbiological sensitivity test for eleven months resulted in complete
remission of pulmonary and cerebral nocardiosis. Immunosuppressive treatment increases the risk for opportunistic infections
early after transplantation as well as malignancies during the late course.
Der Internist 04/2012; 51(2):207-212. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent chromosomal alterations are found in roughly 20% of all uterine fibroids but in the majority cytogenetic changes are lacking. Recently, mutations of the gene mediator subcomplex 12 (MED12) have been detected in a majority of fibroids but no information is available whether or not they co-occur with cytogenetic subtypes as, e.g., rearrangements of the genes encoding high mobility group AT-hook (HMGA) proteins. In a total of 80 cytogenetically characterized fibroids from 50 patients, we were not only able to confirm the frequent occurrence of MED12 mutations but also to stratify two mutually exclusive pathways of leiomyomagenesis with either rearrangements of HMGA2 reflected by clonal chromosome abnormalities affecting 12q14~15 or by mutations affecting exon 2 of MED12. On average the latter mutations were associated with a significantly smaller tumor size. However, G>A transitions of nucleotides c.130 or c.131 correlate with a significantly larger size of the fibroids compared to other MED12 mutations thus explaining the high prevalence of the former mutations among clinically detectable fibroids. Interestingly, fibroids with MED12 mutations expressed significantly higher levels of the gene encoding wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4 (WNT4). Based on these findings and data from the literature, we hypothesize that estrogen and the mutated MED12 cooperate in activating the Wnt pathway which in turn activates β-catenin known to cause leiomyoma-like lesions in a mouse model. The occurrence of a "fibroid-type mutation" in a rare histologic subtype of endometrial polyps suggests that this mechanism is not confined to uterine leiomyomas.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2012; 131(7):1528-36. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous cessation of growth is a frequent finding in uterine fibroids. Increasing evidence suggests an important role of cellular senescence in this growth control. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms of growth control that can be expected not only to shed light on the biology of the tumors but also to identify novel therapeutic targets.
We have analyzed uterine leiomyomas and matching normal tissue for the expression of p14Arf and used explants to see if reducing the MDM2 activity using the small-molecule inhibitor nutlin-3 can induce p53 and activate genes involved in senescence and/or apoptosis. For these studies quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blots, and immunohistochemistry were used. Statistical analyses were performed using the student's t test.
An in depth analysis of 52 fibroids along with matching myometrium from 31 patients revealed in almost all cases a higher expression of p14Arf in the tumors than in the matching normal tissue. In tissue explants, treatment with the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3 induced apoptosis as well as senescence as revealed by a dose-dependent increase of the expression of BAX as well as of p21, respectively. Simultaneously, the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 drastically decreased. Western-blot analysis identified an increase of the p53 level as the most likely reason for the increased activity of its downstream markers BAX and p21. Because as a rule fibroids express much higher levels of p14Arf, a major negative regulator of MDM2, than matching myometrium it was then analyzed if fibroids are more sensitive against nutlin-3 treatment than matching myometrium. We were able to show that in most fibroids analyzed a higher sensibility than that of matching myometrium was noted with a corresponding increase of the p53 immunopositivity of the fibroid samples compared to those from myometrium.
The results show that uterine fibroids represent a cell population of advanced cellular age compared to matching myometrium. Moreover, the data point to members of the p53-network as to potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of uterine fibroids.
BMC Women s Health 01/2012; 12:2. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BMP4 has been linked to early steps of adipocyte lineage differentiation but only little is known about its corresponding downstream pathways. Herein, we have investigated whether or not the expression of high mobility group protein HMGA2, another protein linked to proliferation and differentiation within the process of adipogenesis, may be influenced by BMP4 signaling in adipose tissue derived stem cells. Compared to FGF1, a strong inducer of HMGA2 in immortalized pre-adipocytes, BMP4 was found moderately to induce the HMGA2 mRNA expression in serum starved adipose tissue derived stem cells and myometrial cells. In contrast, no such activity was noted in canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. As to adipocyte lineage differentiation the functions of BMP4 and HMGA2 mechanistically overlap. Thus, we propose that in adipose tissue BMP4 acts in part by activating HMGA2 making this architectural transcription factor one of the major downstream players in that system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular expression of heparanase, a degrading enzyme of the extracellular matrix, is associated with poorer prognosis in several cancers. The present analysis, has studied the role of heparanase in tumour growth and clinical outcome in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
We analysed the cellular expression of the active form of heparanase in 71 human HNSCCs, using immunohistochemistry. The results were compared with clinicopathological data and, in 65 cases with immunoreactivity for the proliferation marker, MIB1. Cellular heparanase expression was detected in 41 of 71 (57.74%) cases; in particular, UICC IV-stage tumours showed high heparanase levels. Heparanase was localized mainly in the cytoplasm and, to a lesser extent, at the cell membrane. High levels of heparanase were significantly correlated with an almost four-fold decrease in MIB1 labelling (P = 0.006). Comparison with clinical outcome by multivariate analysis revealed that patients with high-level heparanase expression had prolonged overall survival (P = 0.029).
Although heparanase was mainly found in late-stage HNSCCs, cellular heparanase expression in HNSCCs was associated with prolonged overall survival. We propose that the proliferation-reducing effect of high heparanase levels might outweigh the tumour-promoting effects of heparanase, especially in advanced tumours.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the influence of genes involved in stem cell self-renewal and senescence on the growth of leiomyoma cells in vitro and to explore possible therapeutic implications of a targeted disruption of the p53-murine double minute 2 (MDM2) interaction.
Gene expression studies (qRT-PCR) of fibroid tissue and cells; β-galactosidase stain and qRT-PCR after antagonizing MDM2.
In fibroid cells, expression of HMGA2 decreased with passaging while that of p14(Arf) increased. Expression of these markers significantly positively, and negatively, respectively, influenced proliferation. Administration of nutlin-3, an MDM2 antagonist, induced cellular senescence and increased the expression of BAX. This, along with a significant correlation between p14(Arf) and BAX expression in native fibroids, suggests that p14(Arf) triggers senescence as well as apoptosis.
p14(Arf) and HMGA2 seem to play a pivotal role in controlling the growth of fibroid cells. Antagonizing MDM2 induces senescence, as well as apoptosis, and may offer a chance to treat fibroids.
Anticancer research 03/2011; 31(3):753-61. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder associated with an increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma. Recent studies have demonstrated aberrant CpG island methylation (CIM) in chronic inflammation, aging and cancer. We hypothesized that CIM may link CD to small bowel carcinogenesis. We determined microsatellite instability (MSI), CIM, and expression of MLH1 and MGMT in 3 CD-associated small bowel carcinomas and corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa. The results were compared to those of small bowel mucosa from CD patients without carcinoma and 20 small bowel carcinomas from a non-CD origin. A high level CIM/MSI phenotype was found in all of the 3 CD-associated carcinomas and was associated with loss of MLH1 expression due to hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter. This phenotype was noted in only 2 of the 20 investigated non-CD-associated carcinomas. Low-level CIM was already detectable in 9 of the 12 non-neoplastic mucosa samples of CD patients and in non-CD-associated carcinomas of elderly patients. In conclusion, our data reveal that the high-level CIM/MSI pathway is typical of CD-associated small bowel carcinomas and indicate that aberrant CpG island methylation links CD and carcinogenesis. The data further suggest that CD should be considered in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma, particularly when the tumors display MSI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human fibroids genes encoding the high-mobility proteins containing the 'AT-hook' DNA-binding motif (HMGA) are frequently affected by non-random chromosomal rearrangements. Thus, the different proteins and their derivatives resulting from these genomic rearrangements can be assumed to be involved in the genesis of these tumors by activation of largely identical downstream pathways. Constructs encoding HMGA proteins and their relevant derivatives were overexpressed in human myometrial cells, and RNA isolated from these cells was hybridized to filter arrays. Four genes were either up- or down-regulated at least 2-fold after overexpression of either of the HMGA genes and their derivatives. FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor 2) was one of these genes, and we were then able to show by microarray analyses that tumors with rearrangements of the HMGA2 locus (n = 8) expressed significantly higher levels of FGF2 than those with an apparently normal karyotype (n = 47). Accordingly, by quantitative real-time PCR uterine leiomyomas with rearrangements of the HMGA2 locus were found to express significantly higher levels of FGF2 than those with an apparently normal karyotype with a linear relationship between the expression of FGF2 and the level of HMGA2 overexpression as well as the tumor size. The results of western blot analyses confirmed these findings. Moreover, stimulation of myometrial tissue by FGF1, a strong inducer of HMGA2, leads to an increase of HMGA2 as well as FGF2 expression. In conclusion, the results contribute to the understanding of the association between the overexpression of HMGA proteins, the regulation of FGF2 expression and the size of fibroids.
Molecular Human Reproduction 10/2010; 17(2):135-42. · 4.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anorectal melanomas (AMs) are very rare and highly malignant tumors that are often diagnosed in advanced stages. After the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and AM on the molecular level based on the presence of BRAF mutations, further modes of differentiation opened up, such as the recently discovered immunohistologically relevant protein deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1). Over the past several years, increasingly specific therapies have been developed on the basis of new therapy principles. Tyrosin kinase receptors such as Her2 and EGFR have been awarded a large role in this context. The goal of this study was to examine AMs for a possible expression or overexpression of these markers. Expression analyses of Her2 and EGFR were performed immunohistologically on 25 primary AMs. An overexpression of Her2 (score: 3+) was found in one AM from a 68-year-old female patient among these samples. In contrast, EGFR expression was not found in any of the AMs. The results presented here show that isolated cases of AM may benefit from an additive Her2-directed therapy, as the overexpression of Her2 was found in one of our AM patients.
Melanoma research 10/2010; 20(5):431-4. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro growth of cells from uterine fibroids is characterized by an early onset of senescence. Often, an even lower growth potential than that of matching myometrial cells is noted. Also, the tremendous differences in the expression of the high mobility group protein HMGA2 seen when comparing fibroids of different genetic subtypes are surprisingly not reflected by significant differences in their growth potential in vitro. We aimed to evaluate possible changes of the HMGA2 expression level between the native tissue and cell cultures, so we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies that revealed a marked decrease of the HMGA2 mRNA in culture in those cases with overexpression of HMGA2. In the two cases initially showing the highest expression, it decreased by approximately 97%. Associated with the decrease of HMGA2 was a clearly increased expression of the senescence-associated p19(Arf). Together, these findings explain the similar behavior of cell cultures from fibroids of different genetic subgroups and may also offer an explanation for the early onset of in vitro senescence in these cell cultures.
Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 10/2010; 202(1):53-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogenetically, uterine leiomyomas (ULs) can be interpreted as the result of a monoclonal abnormal proliferation of myometrial cells. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a frequent phenomenon in premalignant lesions that leads to a growth arrest mainly by the activation of two potent growth-inhibitory pathways as represented by p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf). The relevance of OIS for the development of UL has not been addressed, but HMGA2, encoded by a major target gene of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in UL, has been implicated in the repression of the Ink4a/Arf (CDKN2A) locus. This prompted us to examine if HMGA2 contributes to the growth of leiomyomas by repressing this locus. Contrary to the expectations, we were able to show that generally ULs express significantly higher levels of p19(Arf) mRNA than myometrium and that UL with 12q14 approximately 15 rearrangements showed higher expression levels than UL with other cytogenetic aberrations. Furthermore, the finding of a significant correlation between the expressions of p19(Arf) and CDKN1A shows that p19(Arf) triggers senescence rather than apoptosis in UL. Furthermore, the expression levels of HMGA2, p19(Arf), and CDKN1A were found to be correlated with the size of the tumors, indicating that an enhanced growth potential is counterbalanced by the p19(Arf) pathway. Mechanistically, the UL may thus execute a program already present in their cell of origin, where it is activated to protect the genome, for example, in the case of enhanced proliferation. In summary, the results identify the p19(Arf)-TP53-CDKN1A pathway as a major player in the growth control and genomic stability of uterine fibroids.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 08/2010; 49(8):661-8. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem-like tumor cells comprise a highly tumorigenic and therapy-resistant tumor subpopulation, which is believed to substantially influence tumor initiation and therapy resistance in glioma. Currently, therapeutic, drug-induced differentiation is considered as a promising approach to eradicate this tumor-driving cell population; retinoic acid is well known as a potent modulator of differentiation and proliferation in normal stem cells. In glioma, knowledge about the efficacy of retinoic acid-induced differentiation to target the stem-like tumor cell pool could have therapeutic implications.
Stem-like glioma cells (SLGC) were differentiated with all-trans retinoic acid-containing medium to study the effect of differentiation on angiogenesis, invasive growth, as well as radioresistance and chemoresistance of SLGCs. In vivo effects were studied using live microscopy in a cranial window model.
Our data suggest that in vitro differentiation of SLGCs induces therapy-sensitizing effects, impairs the secretion of angiogenic cytokines, and disrupts SLGCs motility. Further, ex vivo differentiation reduces tumorigenicity of SLGCs. Finally, we show that all-trans retinoic acid treatment alone can induce antitumor effects in vivo.
Altogether, these results highlight the potential of differentiation treatment to target the stem-like cell population in glioblastoma.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2010; 16(10):2715-28. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial endocarditis is a frequent infectious cardiac disease, especially in patients with congenital or acquired heart defects. It is characterized by bacterial colonization of the heart valves and the appearance of vegetations consisting of fibrin, blood cells, and bacteria. The glycoprotein Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein with functions in innate immunity and epithelial differentiation. Because of the aggregating capacity of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1, we hypothesized that an up-regulation in bacterial endocarditis may be linked to the development of vegetations.
Heart tissue of 19 patients with bacterial endocarditis and 10 controls without bacterial endocarditis was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of human recombinant Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 on erythrocyte aggregation was measured using an automated red blood cell aggregometer MA1. Binding of human recombinant Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 to erythrocyte membranes, platelets, fibrin, and fibrinogen was analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 expression was up-regulated in affected heart valves with bacterial endocarditis and limited to the colonizing bacteria on the heart valves and granulocyte-depleted fibrin/fibrinogen formations, and around localized atheromatosis. Patients with aggressive bacteria showed higher DMBT1 levels than patients with less aggressive bacteria. Human recombinant Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 aggregates erythrocytes and binds to erythrocyte membranes, platelets, and fibrin/fibrinogen.
Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 up-regulation at sites of bacterial endocarditis, its association with platelets and fibrin/fibrinogen, and its ability to aggregate erythrocytes through binding to their membranes indicate a potential role in the development of vegetations and thrombosis.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 10/2009; 138(3):725-32. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of advanced cardiac light-chain amyloidosis is poor. Heart transplantation might enable causative therapy and ultimately improve prognosis.
Nineteen patients with cardiac amyloidosis but no obvious involvement of other organs were scheduled for heart transplantation. Four to 6 months later, high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM-ASCT) was planned in patients not in complete remission. Seven of nineteen patients died while waiting for heart transplantation. The remaining 12 patients (complete remission, n = 4) underwent surgery. Chemotherapy in patients not in complete remission consisted of HDM-ASCT (n = 5/12; subsequent complete remission, n = 2; partial remission, n = 3) or melphalan-prednisolone (partial remission, n = 1). Two of twelve patients were ineligible for any chemotherapy. Three of twelve patients died [423.5 (105-2131) days] from progressive disease, relapse, or sepsis. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 83 and 83%, respectively, similar to those of patients undergoing heart transplantation for standard indications. Corresponding survival rates stratified by haematological response were 100 and 100% for complete remission (partial remission, 100 and 100%; progressive disease, 0 and 0%).
Heart transplantation in advanced cardiac amyloidosis is a promising approach to interrupting the vicious circle of ineligibility for potential curative chemotherapeutic treatment and extremely poor prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis without chemotherapy. Highly urgent heart transplantation combined with subsequent HDM-ASCT appears to offer a successful treatment option to improve the poor outcome of cardiac amyloidosis. However, it should be restricted to highly selected patients in specialized centres.
European Journal of Heart Failure 10/2009; 11(10):1014-20. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a woman presenting with fever and novel round lesion in the lung four months after heart transplantation. Microbiologic assessment of bronchial lavage and operative specimen revealed pulmonary nocardiosis. Furthermore, cerebral involvement has been observed. Antibiotic treatment according to the microbiological sensitivity test for eleven months resulted in complete remission of pulmonary and cerebral nocardiosis. Immunosuppressive treatment increases the risk for opportunistic infections early after transplantation as well as malignancies during the late course.
Der Internist 09/2009; 51(2):207-12. · 0.33 Impact Factor