A I Faden

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (358)1658.96 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuronal cell death as well as microglial activation and related neurotoxicity that contribute to subsequent neurological dysfunction. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) induces neuronal cell death through activation of caspase-independent mechanisms, including release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and microglial activation. Administration of PJ34, a selective PARP-1 inhibitor, reduced cell death of primary cortical neurons exposed to N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a potent inducer of AIF-dependent cell death. PJ34 also attenuated lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced activation of BV2 or primary microglia, limiting NF-κB activity and iNOS expression as well as decreasing generation of reactive oxygen species and TNFα. Systemic administration of PJ34 starting as late as 24 h after controlled cortical impact resulted in improved motor function recovery in mice with TBI. Stereological analysis demonstrated that PJ34 treatment reduced the lesion volume, attenuated neuronal cell loss in the cortex and thalamus, and reduced microglial activation in the TBI cortex. PJ34 treatment did not improve cognitive performance in a Morris water maze test or reduce neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. Overall, our data indicate that PJ34 has a significant, albeit selective, neuroprotective effect after experimental TBI, and its therapeutic effect may be from multipotential actions on neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory pathways.
    Journal of neurotrauma 01/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system injury causes a marked increase in the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. In this study, we show that cell cycle activation (CCA) is detected in mature neurons at 24 hours after rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI), as reflected by increased expression of cyclin G1, phosphorylated retinoblastoma (phospho-Rb), E2F1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). These changes were associated with progressive cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic neuronal loss and microglial and astrocyte activation. Notably, we detected 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive neurons, microglia, and astrocytes at 7 days, but not at 24 hours, suggesting that cell cycle reaches the S phase in these cell types at the latter time point. A delayed systemic post-LFP administration at 3 hours of CR8-a potent second-generation cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor-reduced CCA; cortical, hippocampal, and thalamic neuronal loss; and cortical microglial and astrocyte activation. Furthermore, CR8 treatment attenuated sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, alleviated depressive-like symptoms, and decreased lesion volume. These findings underscore the contribution of CCA to progressive neurodegeneration and chronic neuroinflammation following TBI, and demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of cell cycle inhibition in a clinically relevant experimental TBI model.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 8 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.228.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 01/2014; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1-(3-Oxocyclobutyl) carboxylic acid (4a) was converted into N-Boc-protected 1-(3-oxocyclobutyl) urea (5a), a key intermediate for the preparation of agonists of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, in one-step when treated with diphenyl phosphoryl azide and triethylamine in tert-butanol. The mechanism of the reaction involves a nucleophilic addition of the in situ generated tert-butyl carbamate to the isocyanate intermediate. This reaction is applicable to other 1-(3-oxocycloalkyl) carboxylic acids but not to linear γ-keto carboxylic acids.
    Tetrahedron Letters 01/2014; 55(4):842–844. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β (Aβ) is produced through the enzymatic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β (Bace1) and γ -secretases. The accumulation and aggregation of Aβ as amyloid plaques is the hallmark pathology of Alzheimer’s disease and has been found in other neurological disorders, such as traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. Although the role of Aβ after injury is not well understood, several studies have reported a negative correlation between Aβ formation and functional outcome. In this study we show that levels of APP, the enzymes cleaving APP (Bace1 and γ-secretase), and Aβ are significantly increased from 1 to 3 days after impact spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. To determine the role of Aβ after SCI, we reduced or inhibited Aβ in vivo through pharmacological (using DAPT) or genetic (Bace1 knockout mice) approaches. We found that these interventions significantly impaired functional recovery as evaluated by white matter sparing and behavioral testing. These data are consistent with a beneficial role for Aβ after SCI.
    Brain research 01/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Tetrahedron Letters 01/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Shruti V Kabadi, Alan I Faden
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces secondary biochemical changes that contribute to delayed neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and neurological dysfunction. Attenuating such secondary injury has provided the conceptual basis for neuroprotective treatments. Despite strong experimental data, more than 30 clinical trials of neuroprotection in TBI patients have failed. In part, these failures likely reflect methodological differences between the clinical and animal studies, as well as inadequate pre-clinical evaluation and/or trial design problems. However, recent changes in experimental approach and advances in clinical trial methodology have raised the potential for successful clinical translation. Here we critically analyze the current limitations and translational opportunities for developing successful neuroprotective therapies for TBI.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(1):1216-1236. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical studies indicate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces chronic and progressive neurodegenerative changes leading to late neurologic dysfunction, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying such changes. Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury mechanism after TBI. In human studies, microglial activation has been found to persist for many years after the initial brain trauma, particularly after moderate to severe TBI. In the present study, adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to single moderate-level controlled cortical impact and were followed up by longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in combination with stereologic histologic assessment of lesion volume expansion, neuronal loss, and microglial activation for up to 1 year after TBI. Persistent microglial activation was observed in the injured cortex through 1 year after injury and was associated with progressive lesion expansion, hippocampal neurodegeneration, and loss of myelin. Notably, highly activated microglia that expressed major histocompatibility complex class II (CR3/43), CD68, and NADPH oxidase (NOX2) were detected at the margins of the expanding lesion at 1 year after injury; biochemical markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were significantly elevated at this time point. These data support emerging clinical TBI findings and provide a mechanistic link between TBI-induced chronic microglial activation and progressive neurodegeneration.
    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury causes progressive neurodegeneration associated with chronic microglial activation. Recent studies show that neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury can be inhibited as late as one month in animals by the activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in microglia using (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxy-phenylglycine. However, the therapeutic potential of this agonist is limited due to its relatively weak potency and brain permeability. To address such concerns, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of several positive allosteric modulators using various in vitro assays, and found that 3,3'-difluorobenzaldazine, 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide and 4-nitro-N-(1-(2-fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide showed significantly improved potency which makes them potential lead compounds for further development of positive allosteric modulators for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.
    CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 10/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microglial activation is implicated in delayed tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Activation of microglia causes up-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, with the release of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity. Propofol appears to have antiinflammatory actions. The authors evaluated the neuroprotective effects of propofol after TBI and examined in vivo and in vitro whether such actions reflected modulation of NADPH oxidase. Adult male rats were subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI. Effect of propofol on brain microglial activation and functional recovery was assessed up to 28 days postinjury. By using primary microglial and BV2 cell cultures, the authors examined propofol modulation of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced microglial reactivity and neurotoxicity. Propofol improved cognitive recovery after TBI in novel object recognition test (48 ± 6% for propofol [n = 15] vs. 30 ± 4% for isoflurane [n = 14]; P = 0.005). The functional improvement with propofol was associated with limited microglial activation and decreased cortical lesion volume and neuronal loss. Propofol also attenuated lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced microglial activation in vitro, with reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interlukin-1β, reactive oxygen species, and NADPH oxidase. Microglial-induced neurotoxicity in vitro was also markedly reduced by propofol. The protective effect of propofol was attenuated when the NADPH oxidase subunit p22 was knocked down by small interfering RNA. Moreover, propofol reduced the expression of p22 and gp91, two key components of NADPH oxidase, after TBI. The neuroprotective effects of propofol after TBI appear to be mediated, in part, through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase.
    Anesthesiology 10/2013; · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is an inducer of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) that has been used clinically for many years as an antiulcer treatment. It is centrally active after oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke models. We examined the effects of single oral GGA before treatment (800 mg/kg, 48 hours before trauma) or after treatment (800 mg/kg, 3 hours after trauma) on long-term functional recovery and histologic outcomes after moderate-level controlled cortical impact, an experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in mice. The GGA pretreatment increased the number of HSP70(+) cells and attenuated posttraumatic α-fodrin cleavage, a marker of apoptotic cell death. It also improved sensorimotor performance on a beam walk task; enhanced recovery of cognitive/affective function in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests; and improved outcomes using a composite neuroscore. Furthermore, GGA pretreatment reduced the lesion size and neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex when compared with vehicle-treated TBI controls. Notably, GGA was also effective in a posttreatment paradigm, showing significant improvements in sensorimotor function, and reducing cortical neuronal loss. Given these neuroprotective actions and considering its longstanding clinical use, GGA should be considered for the clinical treatment of TBI.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 14 August 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.144.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 08/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently causes severe, persistent central neuropathic pain that responds poorly to conventional pain treatments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling appears to contribute to central sensitization and nocifensive behaviors in certain animal models of chronic pain through effects mediated in part by the alternatively spliced truncated isoform of the BDNF receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B.T1 (trkB.T1). Mechanisms linking trkB.T1 to SCI-induced chronic central pain are unknown. Here, we examined the role of trkB.T1 in central neuropathic pain after spinal cord contusion. Genetic deletion of trkB.T1 in mice significantly reduced post-SCI mechanical hyperesthesia, locomotor dysfunction, lesion volumes, and white matter loss. Whole genome analysis, confirmed at the protein level, revealed that cell cycle genes were upregulated in trkB.T1(+/+) but not trkB.T1(-/-) spinal cord after SCI. TGFβ-induced reactive astrocytes from WT mice showed increased cell cycle protein expression that was significantly reduced in astrocytes from trkB.T1(-/-) mice that express neither full-length trkB nor trkB.T1. Administration of CR8, which selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases, reduced hyperesthesia, locomotor deficits, and dorsal horn (SDH) glial changes after SCI, similar to trkB.T1 deletion, without altering trkB.T1 protein expression. In trkB.T1(-/-) mice, CR8 had no effect. These data indicate that trkB.T1 contributes to the pathobiology of SCI and SCI pain through modulation of cell cycle pathways and suggest new therapeutic targets.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/2013; 33(30):12447-63. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes not only sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, but frequently also severe chronic pain that is difficult to treat (SCI pain). We previously showed that hyperesthesia, as well as spontaneous pain induced by electrolytic lesions in the rat spinothalamic tract, is associated with increased spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in the posterior thalamic nucleus (PO). We have also demonstrated that rodent impact SCI increases cell cycle activation (CCA) in the injury region and that post-traumatic treatment with cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors reduces lesion volume and motor dysfunction. Here we examined whether CCA contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability of PO and hyperpathia after rat contusion SCI, as well as to microglial and astroglial activation (gliopathy) that has been implicated in delayed SCI pain. Trauma caused enhanced pain sensitivity, which developed weeks after injury and was correlated with increased PO neuronal activity. Increased CCA was found at the thoracic spinal lesion site, the lumbar dorsal horn, and the PO. Increased microglial activation and cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 expression was also observed in the PO after SCI. In vitro, neurons co-cultured with activated microglia showed up-regulation of cyclin D1 and cysteine-cysteine chemokine ligand 21 expression. In vivo, post-injury treatment with a selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CR8) significantly reduced cell cycle protein induction, microglial activation, and neuronal activity in the PO nucleus, as well as limiting chronic SCI-induced hyperpathia. These results suggest a mechanistic role for CCA in the development of SCI pain, through effects mediated in part by the PO nucleus. Moreover, cell cycle modulation may provide an effective therapeutic strategy to improve reduce both hyperpathia and motor dysfunction after SCI.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 06/2013; · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are G-protein coupled receptors with a large bilobate extracellular ligand binding region (LBR) that resembles a Venus fly trap. Closing of this LBR in the presence of a ligand is associated with the activation of the receptor. From conformational sampling of the LBR-ligand complexes using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterized the conformational minima related to the hinge like motion associated with the LBR closing/opening in the presence of known agonists and antagonists. By applying a harmonic restraint on the LBR, we also determined the conformational forces generated by the different ligands. The change in the location of the minima and the conformational forces were used to quantify the efficacies of the ligands. This analysis shows that efficacies can be estimated from the forces of a single conformation of the receptor, indicating the potential of MD simulations as an efficient and useful technique to quantify efficacies, thereby facilitating the rational design of mGluR agonists and antagonists.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 05/2013; · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed secondary biochemical and cellular changes after traumatic brain injury continue for months to years, and are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Physical activity can reduce inflammation and facilitate recovery after brain injury. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects, and underlying mechanisms of post-traumatic exercise initiation on outcome after moderate traumatic brain injury using a well-characterized mouse controlled cortical impact model. Late exercise initiation beginning at 5 weeks after trauma, but not early initiation of exercise at 1 week, significantly reduced working and retention memory impairment at 3 months, and decreased lesion volume compared to non-exercise injury controls. Cognitive recovery was associated with attenuation of classical inflammatory pathways, activation of alternative inflammatory responses and enhancement of neurogenesis. In contrast, early initiation of exercise failed to alter behavioral recovery or lesion size, while increasing the neurotoxic pro-inflammatory responses. These data underscore the critical importance of timing of exercise initiation after trauma and its relation to neuroinflammation, and challenge the widely held view that effective neuroprotection requires early intervention.
    Neurobiology of Disease 01/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes chronic microglial activation that contributes to subsequent neurodegeneration, with clinical outcomes declining as a function of aging. Microglia/macrophages (MG/Mɸ) have multiple phenotypes, including a classically activated, proinflammatory (M1) state that might contribute to neurotoxicity, and an alternatively activated (M2) state that might promote repair. In this study we used gene expression, immunohistochemical, and stereological analyses to show that TBI in aged versus young mice caused larger lesions associated with an M1/M2 balance switch and increased numbers of reactive (bushy and hypertrophic) MG/Mɸ in the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. Chitinase3-like 3 (Ym1), an M2 phenotype marker, displayed heterogeneous expression after TBI with amoeboid-like Ym1-positive MG/Mɸ at the contusion site and ramified Ym1-positive MG/Mɸ at distant sites; this distribution was age-related. Aged-injured mice also showed increased MG/Mɸ expression of major histocompatibility complex II and NADPH oxidase, and reduced antioxidant enzyme expression which was associated with lesion size and neurodegeneration. Thus, altered relative M1/M2 activation and an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase)-mediated shift in redox state might contribute to worse outcomes observed in older TBI animals by creating a more proinflammatory M1 MG/Mɸ activation state.
    Neurobiology of aging 12/2012; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces microglial activation, which can contribute to secondary tissue loss. Activation of mGluR5 reduces microglial activation and inhibits microglial-mediated neurodegeneration in vitro, and is neuroprotective in experimental models of CNS injury. In vitro studies also suggest that the beneficial effects of mGluR5 activation involve NADPH oxidase inhibition in activated microglia. We hypothesized that activation of mGluR5 by the selective agonist CHPG after TBI in mice is neuroprotective, and that its therapeutic actions are mediated by NADPH oxidase inhibition. Vehicle, CHPG, or CHPG plus the mGluR5 antagonist (MPEP), were administered centrally, 30 minutes post-TBI and functional recovery and lesion volume was assessed. CHPG significantly attenuated posttraumatic sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, and reduced lesion volumes; these effects were blocked by MPEP, thereby indicating neuroprotection involved selective activation of mGluR5. CHPG treatment also reduced NFB activity and nitrite production in LPS-stimulated microglia and the protective effects of CHPG treatment were abrogated in NADPH oxidase deficient microglial cultures (gp91phox-/-). To address whether the neuroprotective effects of CHPG are mediated via the inhibition of NADPH oxidase, we administered the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin with or without CHPG treatment after TBI. Both apocynin or CHPG treatment alone improved sensorimotor deficits and reduced lesion volumes when compared to vehicle-treated mice; however, the combined CHPG + apocynin treatment was not superior to CHPG alone. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effects of activating mGluR5 receptors after TBI are mediated, in part, via the inhibition of NADPH oxidase.  
    Journal of neurotrauma 11/2012; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) is a widely-used, clinically-relevant model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although functional outcomes have been used for years in this model, little work has been done to compare the predictive value of various cognitive and sensorimotor assessment tests, singly or in combination. Such information would be particularly useful for assessing mechanisms of injury or therapeutic interventions. Following isoflurane anesthesia, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham, mild (5.0 m/sec), moderate (6.0 m/sec), or severe (7.5 m/sec) CCI. A battery of behavioral tests were evaluated and compared, including the standard Morris water maze (sMWM), reversal Morris water maze (rMWM), novel object recognition (NOR), passive avoidance (PA), tail-suspension (TS), beam walk (BW), and open-field locomotor activity. The BW task, performed at post-injury days (PID) 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28, showed good discrimination as a function of injury severity. The sMWM and rMWM tests (PID 14-23), as well as NOR (PID 24 and 25), effectively discriminated spatial and novel object learning and memory across injury severity levels. Notably, the rMWM showed the greatest separation between mild and moderate/severe injury. PA (PID 27 and 28) and TS (PID 24) also reflected differences across injury levels, but to a lesser degree. We also compared individual functional measures with histological outcomes such as lesion volume and neuronal cell loss across anatomical regions. In addition, we created a novel composite behavioral score index from individual complementary behavioral scores, and it provided superior discrimination across injury severities compared to individual tests. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of using a larger number of complementary functional outcome behavioral tests than those traditionally employed to follow post-traumatic recovery after TBI, and suggests that the composite score may be a helpful tool for screening new neuroprotective agents or for addressing injury mechanisms.
    Journal of neurotrauma 08/2012; 29(15):2475-89. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HSP70 is a member of the family of heat-shock proteins that are known to be up-regulated in neurons following injury and/or stress. HSP70 over-expression has been linked to neuroprotection in multiple models, including neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, less is known about the neuroprotective effects of HSP70 in neuronal apoptosis and with regard to modulation of programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms in neurons. We examined the effects of HSP70 over-expression by transfection with HSP70-expression plasmids in primary cortical neurons and the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line using four independent models of apoptosis: etoposide, staurosporine, C2-ceramide, and β-Amyloid. In these apoptotic models, neurons transfected with the HSP70 construct showed significantly reduced induction of nuclear apoptotic markers and/or cell death. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HSP70 binds and potentially inactivates Apoptotic protease-activating factor 1, as well as apoptosis-inducing factor, key molecules involved in development of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent PCD, respectively. Markers of caspase-dependent PCD, including active caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleaved PARP were attenuated in neurons over-expressing HSP70. These data indicate that HSP70 protects against neuronal apoptosis and suggest that these effects reflect, at least in part, to inhibition of both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent PCD pathways.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2012; 123(4):542-54. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation has long been implicated in secondary tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our previous studies of inflammatory gene expression in rats after SCI revealed two temporally correlated clusters: the first was expressed early after injury and the second was up-regulated later, with peak expression at 1-2 weeks and persistent up-regulation through 6 months. To further address the role of inflammation after SCI, we examined inflammatory genes in a second species, mice, through 28 days after SCI. Using anchor gene clustering analysis, we found similar expression patterns for both the acute and chronic gene clusters previously identified after rat SCI. The acute group returned to normal expression levels by 7 days post injury. The chronic group, which included C1qB, p22(phox) and galectin-3, showed peak expression at 7 days and remained up-regulated through 28 days. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of these genes was consistent with the mRNA expression. Further exploration of the role of one of these genes, galectin-3, suggests that galectin-3 may contribute to secondary injury. In summary, our findings extend our prior gene profiling data by demonstrating the chronic expression of a cluster of microglial associated inflammatory genes after SCI in mice. Moreover, by demonstrating that inhibition of one such factor improves recovery, the findings suggest that such chronic up-regulation of inflammatory processes may contribute to secondary tissue damage after SCI, and that there may be a broader therapeutic window for neuroprotection than generally accepted.
    Brain research 08/2012; 1475:96-105. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with astrogliosis and inflammation. We previously reported that acute upregulation of a cluster of cell-cycle-related genes contributes to post-mitotic cell death and secondary damage after SCI. However, it remains unclear whether cell cycle activation continues more chronically and contributes to more delayed glial change. Here we examined expression of cell cycle-related proteins up to 4 months following SCI, as well as the effects of the selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) inhibitor CR8, on astrogliosis and microglial activation in a rat SCI contusion model. Adult male rats were subjected to moderate spinal cord contusion injury at T8 using a well-characterized weight-drop model. Tissue from the lesion epicenter was obtained 4 weeks or 4 months post-injury, and processed for protein expression and lesion volume. Functional recovery was assessed over the 4 months after injury. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a marked continued upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins - including cyclin D1 and E, CDK4, E2F5 and PCNA - for 4 months post-injury that were highly expressed by GFAP+ astrocytes and microglia, and co-localized with inflammatory-related proteins. CR8 administrated systemically 3 h post-injury and continued for 7 days limited the sustained elevation of cell cycle proteins and immunoreactivity of GFAP, Iba-1 and p22PHOX - a key component of NADPH oxidase - up to 4 months after SCI. CR8 treatment significantly reduced lesion volume, which typically progressed in untreated animals between 1 and 4 months after trauma. Functional recovery was also significantly improved by CR8 treatment after SCI from week 2 through week 16. These data demonstrate that cell cycle-related proteins are chronically upregulated after SCI and may contribute to astroglial scar formation, chronic inflammation and further tissue loss.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 07/2012; 9:169. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,658.96 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Maryland Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1992–2012
    • Georgetown University
      • • Department of Neuroscience
      • • Institute for Cognitive and Computational Sciences
      • • Department of Neurology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2007
    • Washington DC VA Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2006
    • Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1981–2006
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Neurology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • Children's National Medical Center
      • Center for Genetic Medicine Research
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1995
    • Chiba University
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 1990–1995
    • James Cook University
      • School of Pharmacy and Molecular Sciences
      Townsville, Queensland, Australia
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Division of Neurobiology
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 1988–1995
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Surgery
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1985–1994
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • Morehouse School of Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1989
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1978–1983
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States