[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In tests of spatial ability males outperform females. The mechanism underlying this gender differential learning ability and memory in spatial tasks remain unknown. The aim of this work was to assess whether differences between male and female rats in spatial learning are associated with differences in basal synaptic activity and in LTP in hippocampus and to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the gender differences in LTP. We analyzed in young male and female rats: a) performance in spatial tasks in the Radial and Morris water mazes; b) basal synaptic activity in hippocampal slices; c) LTP and some mechanisms modulating its magnitude. Female rats show larger AMPA receptor-mediates synaptic responses under basal conditions, likely due to enhanced phosphorylation of GluR2 in Ser880 and increased amount of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors in post-synaptic densities. In contrast, the magnitude of tetanus-induced LTP was lower in females than in males. This is due to reduced activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and formation of cGMP, leading to lower activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and phosphorylation of GluR1 in Ser845, which results in lower insertion of AMPA receptors in the synaptic membrane and a lower magnitude of LTP. These mechanisms would be involved in the reduced performance of females in the radial and Morris water mazes.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience 06/2015; 6(8). DOI:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00096 · 4.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic GMP (cGMP) modulates important cerebral processes including some forms of learning and memory. cGMP pathways are strongly altered in hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients with liver cirrhosis show reduced intracellular cGMP in lymphocytes, increased cGMP in plasma and increased activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide (NO) in lymphocytes, which correlates with minimal HE assessed by psychometric tests. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by NO is also increased in cerebral cortex, but reduced in cerebellum, from patients who died with HE. This opposite alteration is reproduced in vivo in rats with chronic hyperammonemia or HE. A main pathway modulating cGMP levels in brain is the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway. The function of this pathway is impaired both in cerebellum and cortex of rats with hyperammonemia or HE. Impairment of this pathway is responsible for reduced ability to learn some types of tasks. Restoring the pathway and cGMP levels in brain restores learning ability. This may be achieved by administering phosphodiesterase inhibitors (zaprinast, sildenafil), cGMP, anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen) or antagonists of GABAA receptors (bicuculline). These data support that increasing cGMP by safe pharmacological means may be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with minimal or clinical HE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β (Aβ) rapidly impairs hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and cognitive function in rats. We hypothesized that: a) Aβ-induced impairment of LTP would be due to impairment of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway and AMPA receptor translocation; and b) treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen would restore the NO-cGMP pathway and LTP. The aims of this work were to assess whether ibuprofen prevents and/or rescues Aβ-induced LTP impairments in hippocampal slices and to analyze the role of the altered NO-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway and AMPA receptor phosphorylation and synaptic expression in the mechanisms by which Aβ impairs and ibuprofen restores LTP. Aβ impairs tetanus-induced activation of guanylate cyclase and cGMP increase, preventing protein kinase G activation, phosphorylation of GluR1 in Ser845 and AMPA receptors translocation to synaptic membranes, which is responsible for LTP impairment by Aβ. Ibuprofen prevents LTP impairment by Aβ by restoring guanylate cyclase activation and increase in cGMP and, subsequently, activation of protein kinase G, phosphorylation of GluR1 in Ser845 and synaptic expression of AMPA receptors. Restoration of cGMP levels is enough to restore all this process as indicated by the fact that the cGMP analog 8-Br-cGMP also normalizes the function of this pathway and restores LTP in the presence of Aβ. These results indicate that Aβ impairs LTP by impairing the NO-cGMP pathway and that ibuprofen restores LTP by restoring this pathway. These data suggest that restoring cGMP levels may have therapeutic utility to improve cognitive function impaired by Aβ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive function is impaired in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Learning ability is also impaired in rats with hepatic encephalopathy due to portacaval shunts. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus, considered the basis of some forms of learning and memory, is impaired in rats with portacaval shunt. We analyzed the mechanisms by which LTP is impaired in these rats. In control rats, application of the tetanus to induce LTP increases phosphorylation of Thr286 of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II. This activates the kinase which phosphorylates the GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in Ser831 and induces its translocation to the post-synaptic densities. All these steps are completely prevented in rats with hepatic encephalopathy in which the tetanus does not induce phosphorylation of CaMKII or GluR1 nor translocation of this subunit to the post-synaptic membrane. This would explain the impairment in LTP in these rats.
Neurochemistry International 06/2009; 55(7):514-20. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2009.05.006 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) may present different neurological alterations including impaired cognitive function and altered motor activity and coordination. HE may lead to coma and death. Many of these neurological alterations are the consequence of altered neurotransmission. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the alterations in neurotransmission and in neurological functions in HE. Both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are altered in animal models of HE. We review some of these alterations, especially those alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission responsible for some specific neurological alterations in hyperammonemia and HE: the role 1) of excessive NMDA receptors activation in death induced by acute hyperammonemia; 2) of impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, associated to NMDA receptors, in cognitive impairment in chronic HE; 3) of increased extracellular glutamate and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in substantia nigra in hypokinesia in chronic HE. The therapeutic implications are discussed. We also review the alterations in the function of the neuronal circuits between basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex modulating motor activity and the role of sequential alterations in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in these alterations. HE would be a consequence of altered neuronal communication due to alterations in general neurotransmission involving different neurotransmitter systems in different neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with liver diseases (e.g. cirrhosis) may present hepatic encephalopathy (HE), an alteration in cerebral function which is a consequence of previous failure of liver function. Patients with minimal or clinical HE present different levels of cognitive impairment. Hyperammonemia is considered a main contributor to the neurological alterations in HE. Animal models of chronic HE (e.g. rats with portacaval shunts) or of "pure" hyperammonemia also show impaired cognitive function. The studies summarized here show that the impairment of some types of cognitive function in chronic HE is due to the impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in brain. Both hyperammonemia and neuroinflammation contribute to the impairment of the pathway and of cognitive function. Treatment of rats with chronic HE or hyperammonemia with inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 restores the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and cGMP levels in brain as well as the ability to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task. The same beneficial effects may be obtained by treating the rats chronically with an anti-inflammatory, ibuprofen. As the function of this pathway is also altered in brain of patients died in HE, this alteration would also contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with HE. Increasing cGMP by using inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) or anti-inflammatories (under safe conditions) would be therefore a new therapeutic approach to improve learning and memory performance in individuals with minimal or clinical HE.
Neurochemistry International 01/2009; 55(1-3):106-12. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2009.01.021 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation.
European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2008; 27(1):177-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.5988.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NMDA type of glutamate receptors modulates learning and memory. Excessive activation of NMDA receptors leads to neuronal degeneration and death. Hyperammonemia and liver failure alter the function of NMDA receptors and of some associated signal transduction pathways. The alterations are different in acute and chronic hyperammonemia and liver failure. Acute intoxication with large doses of ammonia (and probably acute liver failure) leads to excessive NMDA receptors activation, which is responsible for ammonia-induced death. In contrast, chronic hyperammonemia induces adaptive responses resulting in impairment of signal transduction associated to NMDA receptors. The function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway is impaired in brain in vivo in animal models of chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia and in homogenates from brains of patients died in hepatic encephalopathy. The impairment of this pathway leads to reduced cGMP and contributes to impaired cognitive function in hepatic encephalopathy. Learning ability is reduced in animal models of chronic liver failure and hyperammonemia and is restored by pharmacological manipulation of brain cGMP by administering phosphodiesterase inhibitors (zaprinast or sildenafil) or cGMP itself. NMDA receptors are therefore involved both in death induced by acute ammonia toxicity (and likely by acute liver failure) and in cognitive impairment in hepatic encephalopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function which could be due to reduced synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent form of increased transmission efficacy at synapses that is considered the basis for some forms of learning and memory. We studied the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-dependent LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus in young (2 months) and mature (8 months) male and female rats. We have found that in young male rats the tetanus increased the magnitude of excitatory post-synaptic potentials to 204+/-10% of basal while in mature male rats the magnitude of the LTP was significantly lower reaching only 153+/-11% of basal. This decrease did not occur in female rats. Similar changes occurred in the content of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in hippocampus. The amount of both subunits was reduced significantly (15-16%) in hippocampus of 8-month-old compared with 2-month-old male rats. This decrease was not observed in female rats. Moreover, there is a significant correlation between the content of NR1 subunit and the magnitude of the potentiation. These data suggest that some of the neurobiological changes induced in hippocampus by aging are different in males and females.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive function is impaired in patients with liver disease by unknown mechanisms. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is considered the basis of some forms of learning and memory. The aims of this work were to assess (i) whether chronic liver failure impairs hippocampal LTP; (ii) if this impairment may be due to alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission, and (iii) if impairment of LTP is associated with reduced learning ability. It is shown that liver failure in Wistar rats induces the following alterations in the hippocampus; (i) alters the phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors; (ii) reduces the expression of NMDA and AMPA receptors in membranes, (iii) reduces the magnitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) induced by activation of NMDA or AMPA receptors, and (iv) impairs NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. Liver failure also impairs learning of the Morris water maze task. Impairment of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and NMDA receptor-mediated responses may be involved in the alterations of cognitive function in patients with liver disease.
European Journal of Neuroscience 05/2007; 25(7):2103-11. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05444.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the previously published data suggest a role for oxidative or nitrosative stress in ethanol-induced nervous system damage. Moreover, ethanol is able to impair learning abilities in adult mammalian brain, a process suggested to be directly related to hippocampal neurogenesis. Ebselen, a synthetic compound with antioxidant properties, is able to prevent ethanol-induced impairment of neurogenesis in adult rats. The aim of the present work was to further demonstrate the ability of ebselen to prevent biochemical alterations, and preserve long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning abilities, in the hippocampus of chronic alcoholic adult rats.
Biochemical markers of oxidative stress (glutathione and malondialdehyde) were assayed in hippocampi of control rats and animals fed a liquid alcoholic diet (Lieber-De Carli) supplemented or not with ebselen. Long-term potentiation and hippocampal-dependent tests were studied in all animal groups.
The hippocampal concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde were decreased and increased, respectively, in alcohol-treated animals, and did not differ from those of the control and the alcohol+ebselen groups. Long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from ethanol-treated animals was prevented, when compared with controls, and occurred with a similar profile in control animals and in the alcohol+ebselen groups. Learning ability was tested with the Morris water maze test. Escape latencies were higher in ethanol-treated rats than in control animals or the ones treated with ethanol+ebselen.
The results herein strongly suggest that oxidative mechanisms may underlie the hippocampal effects of ethanol in adult rats, in view of the protective effect of ebselen.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2007; 31(3):486-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00329.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants. Significant amounts of PBDEs are present in the milk of lactating women. The possible neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are not well known. Perinatal exposure to PBDEs affects both motor and cognitive functions by mechanisms that remain unclear. Some types of learning depend on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, which increases intracellular calcium that binds to calmodulin and activates nitric oxide synthase, increasing nitric oxide formation that activates guanylate cyclase, increasing cGMP formation. Part of this cGMP is released to the extracellular fluid. We studied whether prenatal exposure of rats to PBDE99 alters the function of this glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in rat brain in vivo. At 10 weeks of age, rats treated with PBDE99 showed increased function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo, as assessed by microdialysis in freely moving rats. The increased function of the pathway was reproduced in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons prepared from rats prenatally exposed to PBDE99 as well as in neurons cultured from normal rats and treated in vitro with PBDE99. Increased calmodulin content and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide contributed to the increased function of the pathway.
European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2007; 25(2):373-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.05289.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome present in patients with chronic or acute liver disease. We review here some recent advances in the study, in animal models, of the mechanisms involved in the impairment in intellectual function in hepatic encephalopathy. These studies show that the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway is impaired in brain in vivo in rats with chronic hyperammonemia or liver failure and from patients died in hepatic encephalopathy. This impairment leads to a reduced extracellular concentration of cGMP in the cerebellum and is associated with reduced learning ability in these animal models. Moreover, learning ability of hyperammonemic rats was restored by increasing cGMP by: (1) continuous intracerebral administration of zaprinast, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase, (2) chronic oral administration of sildenafil, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that crosses the blood-brain barrier and (3) continuous intracerebral administration of cGMP. The data summarized indicate that impairment of learning ability in rats with chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia is due to impairment of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. Moreover, increasing extracellular cGMP by pharmacological means may be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.
Neurochemistry International 05/2006; 48(6-7):441-6. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2005.10.016 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome present in patients with liver disease that includes impaired intellectual function. To develop therapeutic treatments to restore cognitive function, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that impair cognitive function in HE. This review summarizes data showing that: (a) cognitive function and learning are impaired in patients with liver disease and in animal models of chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia; (b) the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway modulates some forms of learning; and (c) the function of this pathway is impaired in brain in vivo in rats with chronic hyperammonemia or liver failure and from patients who died from HE. Learning ability of hyperammonemic rats was restored by increasing cGMP by: (1) continuous intracerebral administration of zaprinast, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase; (2) chronic oral administration of sildenafil, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that crosses the blood-brain barrier; and (3) continuous intracerebral administration of cGMP. The data summarized indicate that impairment of learning ability in rats with chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia is due to impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway. Moreover, increasing extracellular cGMP by pharmacological means may be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with HE.
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 04/2006; 2(1):53-63. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission efficacy and is considered the base for some forms of learning and memory. Hyperammonemia impairs LTP in hippocampus. Proper LTP induction in hippocampal slices requires activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-protein kinase G (PKG)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-degrading phosphodiesterase pathway. Hyperammonemia impairs LTP by impairing the tetanus-induced activation of this pathway. The tetanus induces a rapid cGMP rise, reaching a maximum at 10 s, both in the absence or in the presence of ammonia. The increase in cGMP is followed, in control slices, by a sustained decrease in cGMP because of PKG-mediated activation of cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase, which is required for maintenance of LTP. Hyperammonemia prevents completely tetanus-induced decrease in cGMP by impairing PKG-mediated activation of cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase. Addition of 8 Br-cGMP to slices treated with ammonia restores both phosphodiesterase activation and maintenance of LTP. Impairment of LTP in hyperammonemia may be involved in the impairment of the cognitive function in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices from rats with chronic moderate hyperammonemia. We studied the mechanisms by which hyperammonemia in vivo impairs LTP. This process requires sequential activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and cyclic GMP-degrading phosphodiesterase. Application of the tetanus induced a rapid increase of cyclic GMP in slices from control or hyperammonemic rats, which is followed in control slices by a sustained decrease in cyclic GMP due to sustained activation of cyclic GMP-degrading phosphodiesterase, which in turn is due to sustained activation of PKG. In slices from rats with chronic hyperammonemia tetanus-induced decrease in cyclic GMP was delayed and transient due to lower and transient activation of PKG and of the phosphodiesterase. Hyperammonemia-induced impairment of LTP may be involved in the alterations of cognitive function in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.
Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2005; 94(4):934-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03236.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intellectual function is impaired in patients with hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. Chronic hyperammonemia with or without liver failure impairs the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway function in brain in vivo and reduces extracellular cGMP in brain as well as the ability of rats to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task. We hypothesized that the decrease in extracellular cGMP may be responsible for the impairment in learning ability and intellectual function and that pharmacological modulation of the levels of cGMP may restore learning ability. The aim of this work was to try to reverse the impairment in learning ability of hyperammonemic rats by pharmacologically increasing extracellular cGMP in brain. We assessed whether learning ability may be restored by increasing extracellular cGMP in brain by continuous intracerebral administration of: (1) zaprinast, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that degrades cGMP or (2) cGMP. We carried out tests of conditional discrimination learning in a Y maze with control and hyperammonemic rats treated or not with zaprinast or cGMP. Learning ability was reduced in hyperammonemic rats, which needed more trials than control rats to learn the task. Continuous intracerebral administration of zaprinast or cGMP restored the ability of hyperammonemic rats to learn this task. Pharmacological modulation of extracellular cGMP levels in brain may be a useful therapeutic approach to improve learning and memory performance in individuals in whom cognitive abilities are impaired by different reasons, for example in patients with liver disease who present hyperammonemia and decreased intellectual function.
Brain Research 04/2005; 1036(1-2):115-21. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.12.045 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with liver disease with overt or minimal hepatic encephalopathy show impaired intellectual capacity. The underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Rats with portacaval anastomosis or with hyperammonemia without liver failure also show impaired learning ability and impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cyclic guanine monophosphate (glutamate-NO-cGMP) pathway in brain. We hypothesized that pharmacological manipulation of the pathway in order to increase cGMP content could restore learning ability. We show by in vivo brain microdialysis that chronic oral administration of sildenafil, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that degrades cGMP, normalizes the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and extracellular cGMP in brain in vivo in rats with portacaval anastomosis or with hyperammonemia. Moreover, sildenafil restored the ability of rats with hyperammonemia or with portacaval shunts to learn a conditional discrimination task. In conclusion, impairment of learning ability in rats with chronic liver failure or with hyperammonemia is the result of impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway. Moreover, chronic treatment with sildenafil normalizes the function of the pathway and restores learning ability in rats with portacaval shunts or with hyperammonemia. Pharmacological manipulation of the pathway may be useful for the clinical treatment of patients with overt or minimal hepatic encephalopathy.