Carlo Giaquinto

University-Hospital of Padova, Padua, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (198)1089.4 Total impact

  • Floridia M, Ravizza M, Tamburrini E, Mori F, Ortolani P, Dalle Nogare ER, Di Lorenzo F, Sterrantino G, Meli M, Polemi S, [......], Baroncelli S, Regazzi M, Villani P, Cusato M, Cerioli A, De Martino M, Mastroiacovo P, Moroni M, Parazzini F, Vella S
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Atazanavir and lopinavir represent the main HIV protease inhibitors recommended in pregnancy, but comparative data in pregnant women are limited. METHODS: Women from a national observational study, exposed in pregnancy to either atazanavir or lopinavir, were compared for glucose and lipid profiles, liver function tests, CD4 count, HIV RNA and main pregnancy outcomes. Statistical methods included univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The study population included 428 pregnancies (lopinavir, 322; atazanavir, 106). The lopinavir group was characterized by higher rates of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and treatment indication for maternal health, lower CD4 counts, higher HIV RNA levels, less frequent antiretroviral treatment at conception and shorter duration of drug exposure during pregnancy. No differences in pregnancy outcomes, glucose metabolism and weight gain were observed. The two groups also showed in a multivariable analysis similar odds for detectable HIV RNA in the third trimester (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.35-2.10, P = 0.730). Total lipid levels were significantly higher in the lopinavir group (median values in the third trimester 239 versus 221 mg/dL for total cholesterol and 226 versus 181 mg/dL for triglycerides; P < 0.001 for both comparisons) and bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the atazanavir group (1.53 versus 0.46 mg/dL, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study atazanavir and lopinavir showed similar safety and activity in pregnancy, with no differences in the main pregnancy outcomes. Atazanavir use was associated with a better lipid profile and with higher bilirubin levels. Overall, the study findings confirm that these two HIV protease inhibitors represent equally valid alternative options. KEYWORDS: HIV RNA, bilirubin, cholesterol, pre-term delivery, triglycerides
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2014; 69(5):1377-84. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is involved in a wide range of malignancies, particularly in immunocompromised subjects. In Africa, EBV primary infection occurs during early childhood, but little is known about EBV load in HIV-1-infected children.Methods. Dried Blood Spot samples from 213 HIV-1-infected children, 140 on antiretroviral therapy (ART), were collected at the Nsambya Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Nucleic acids were extracted and analysed for quantification of EBV types 1 and 2, 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA), a marker of microbial translocation, and HIV-1 RNA.Results. Ninety-two of 140(66%) children on ART and 57 of 73(78%) ART-naive children had detectable EBV-DNA levels. Co-infection with both EBV types was less frequent in ART-treated than in ART-naive children (OR=0.54[95%CI 0.30-0.98];P= .042). EBV-DNA levels were lower in the former (3.99±0.59 vs 4.22±0.54 log10 copies/ml;P= .006) and tended to be inversely associated with time on ART. EBV-DNA levels were higher in children with HIV-1 RNA>3 log10 copies/ml of blood (regression coefficient=0.32[95%CI 0.05-0.59];P= .020) and correlated with circulating 16S rDNA levels(rs=0.25[95%CI 0.02-0.46];P= .031).Conclusions. These findings suggest that ART, by limiting HIV-1 replication, microbial translocation and related immune activation, prevents super-infection with both EBV types and keeps EBV viremia down, thus potentially reducing the risk of EBV-associated lymphomas.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) changed the natural history of pediatric HIV infection. This review focuses on trends of HIV-associated cancers in childhood in the HAART era and analyses potential pathogenetic mechanisms. HAART reduced AIDS-defined malignancies (ADM), but incidence of several non-ADM is increasing. HIV-associated immune activation and inflammation, promoting tumorigenesis, can only partially be reduced by HAART. In addition, HIV-infected children may undergo accelerated immune senescence that favors cancer development. How HAART affects this condition is an open question. Lastly, there is no evidence that prenatal exposure to HAART increases the risk of cancer in childhood, but long-term studies are needed.
    Cancer letters 02/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To compare steady-state (ss) pharmacokinetic (PK) targets of nevirapine extended-release (NVP-XR) tablets once-daily (QD) with immediate-release (NVP-IR) tablet or oral suspension twice-daily (BID) in HIV-1 infected children and adolescents. Phase I, open-label, multi-dose, cross-over study with optional extension phase, in 85 patients 3 to <18 years old, previously on an NVP-IR based regimen for 18 weeks with baseline viral load <50 copies/mL. Patients were stratified by age, treated with NVP-IR BID for 11 days, then NVP-XR QD for 10 days. Cpre,ss (steady state, pre-dose concentrations) was obtained from all, and 12-h NVP-IR and 24-h NVP-XR steady state PK profiles were obtained in the PK sub-study. Viral loads, CD4 counts and adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Eighty patients completed the trial. Adjusted geometric mean (gMean) Cpre,ss for NVP-XR and NVP-IR exceeded the target of 3,000 ng/mL, and the adjusted gMean NVP-XR:NVP-IR ratio (90% CI) for QD normalized and un-normalized Cpre,ss were 91.2% (83.5%,99.6%) and 91.8% (83.7%, 100.7%). gMean 24-h AUC,ss NVP-XR:NVP-IR for un-normalized dose was 90.4% and un-normalized Cpre,ss NVP-XR:NVP-IR were 91.0%, 81.9%,103.7% for the three age groups, 3 to<6 y, 6 to <12 y, and 12 to <18 y, respectively. gMean values indicated no exposure to subtherapeutic NVP concentrations and viral suppression was adequate and maintained in all QD groups. Most AEs were mild and similar between age groups. No serious or DAIDS Grade 4 AEs or AE related treatment discontinuations occurred. NVP-XR exhibited adequate trough concentrations with equivalent AUCτ,ss relative to NVP-IR. NVP-XR was well tolerated and is a valuable treatment option for HIV-infected children and adolescents.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 12/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that an early initiation of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 vertically infected children enhanced the function of memory B-cells gained during childhood routine vaccinations. On the other hand, a significant waning of immunity was observed for patients with a late treatment. In this follow-up study, we report data from a sample of patients in our cohort including late-treated patients being revaccinated with routine childhood vaccines. The levels of serum antibodies and cellular immunity were measured by antigen-specific ELISA and B-cell ELISpot. Moreover, flow cytometry on the frequencies of mature-activated (CD10-CD21-) (MA) and double negative (CD27-IgD-) (DN) B-cells as hallmarks of immune-activation and immune-senescence respectively, were performed for all patients. Reduced protective humoral immunity and cellular immunity to routine childhood vaccines was observed in late-treated patients. Moreover we found that timing of HAART related with the frequencies of MA and DN. Altogether the data presented in this follow-up study re-enforce the importance for an early start of HAART in HIV-1 vertically infected individuals and suggest that timing of HAART is a fundamental factor to take into account for vaccination design in this population.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 12/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lopinavir/ritonavir pediatric tablets (LPV/r 100/25mg) are approved by the FDA and EMA as part of combination antiretroviral therapy. Dosing is based on body weight bands or body surface area under FDA approval, and only body surface area by the EMA. This can lead to a different recommended dose. Also, weight band based dosing has not been formally studied in the target population. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of LPV/r in children, administered twice daily according to the FDA weight bands, using pediatric tablets. Fifty-three HIV-infected children were included in the pharmacokinetic substudy of the PENTA18 trial (KONCERT). In this study, children were randomized to receive LPV/r twice or once daily, according to FDA weight bands. A pharmacokinetic assessment was performed in 17, 16 and 20 children in the 15-25kg, ≥25-35kg and >35kg weight band respectively, while children took the tablets twice daily. Rich sampling was performed and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Given the high percentage of Asian children, it was also tested whether there was a difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between Asian and non-Asian children. For the total group, LPV geometric mean AUC0-12, Cmax and C12 were 106.9 h*mg/L, 12.0 mg/L and 4.9 mg/L, respectively. There were no significant differences in LPV pharmacokinetic parameters between the weight bands. Also, weight was not found to be associated with variability in Cmax, C12 or AUC0-12 for the LPV pharmacokinetic parameters. FDA weight band based dosing recommendations provide adequate exposure to LPV when using LPV/r pediatric tablets.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 12/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY We conducted an epidemiological, observational cohort study to determine the incidence and complications of acute otitis media (AOM) in children aged <6 years. Data on physician-diagnosed AOM were collected from retrospective review of medical charts for the year preceding enrolment and then prospectively in the year following enrolment. The study included 5776 children in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. AOM incidence was 256/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 243-270] in the prospective study period. Incidence was lowest in Italy (195, 95% CI 171-222) and highest in Spain (328, 95% CI 296-363). Complications were documented in <1% of episodes. Spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation was documented in 7% of episodes. Both retrospective and prospective study results were similar and show the high incidence during childhood in these five European countries. Differences by country may reflect true differences and differences in social structure and diagnostic procedures.
    Epidemiology and Infection 12/2013; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure is idiopathic and drug-related in, respectively, around 50 and 15 % of children. Population-based, epidemiologic data about the pattern of disease manifestation and incidence of less severe acute liver injury, either idiopathic or potentially drug-attributed are limited in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: (i) To assess the incidence of idiopathic acute liver injury (ALI) and its clinical features in children and adolescent outpatients; and (ii) to investigate the role of the drug as a potential cause of ALI which is considered idiopathic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed during the years 2000-2008. Data were retrieved from three longitudinal electronic healthcare databases in two European countries: Pedianet and Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database from Italy and the Integrated Primary Care Information database from The Netherlands. Cases of idiopathic acute liver injury in population aged <18 years were identified by exclusion of all competing causes of liver injury (e.g. viral, autoimmune hepatitis), according to CIOMS criteria. The potential role of drug exposure as actual underlying cause of idiopathic ALI was detected through signal detection mining techniques. Both pooled and country-specific incidence rates [IR/100,000 person-years (PYs)] of idiopathic ALI and pooled adjusted rate ratios (RR) of drugs identified as a potential cause of idiopathic ALI, plus 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the custom-built software Jerboa. RESULTS: Among 785 definite cases of idiopathic ALI, the pooled IR was 62.4/100,000 PYs (95 % CI 58.1-66.8). The country-specific IR was higher in Italy (73.0/100,000 PYs, 95 % CI 67.8-78.4) than in The Netherlands (21.0/100,000 PYs, 95 % CI 16.0-27.2) and increased with age in both countries. Isolated elevations of liver enzymes were reported in around two-thirds of cases in Italy, while in The Netherlands the cases were more often identified by a combination of signs/symptoms. Among drugs detected as potential underlying cause of idiopathic ALI, clarithromycin (RR 25.9, 95 % CI 13.4-50), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (RR 18.6, 95 % CI 11.3-30.6), and amoxicillin (RR 7.5, 95 % CI 3.4-16.8) were associated with the highest risk compared to non-use. CONCLUSION: The incidence of idiopathic ALI in paediatrics is relatively low and comparable with adults. Clinical presentations differ between the two European countries. Signal detection in healthcare databases allowed identifying antibiotics as the drugs mostly associated with ALI with apparently unknown aetiology.
    Drug Safety 04/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 56(8):1190-3. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate use of combination neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in Europe and investigate whether CNP is more effective in preventing MTCT than single drug neonatal prophylaxis (SNP). DESIGN: Individual patient-data meta-analysis across eight observational studies. METHODS: Factors associated with CNP receipt and with MTCT were explored by logistic regression using data from nonbreastfed infants, born between 1996 and 2010 and at high risk for MTCT. RESULTS: In 5285 mother-infant pairs, 1463 (27.7%) had no antenatal or intrapartum antiretroviral prophylaxis, 915 (17.3%) had only intrapartum prophylaxis and 2907 (55.0%) mothers had detectable delivery viral load despite receiving antenatal antiretroviral therapy. Any neonatal prophylaxis was administered to 4623 (87.5%) infants altogether; 1105 (23.9%) received CNP. Factors significantly associated with the receipt of CNP were later calendar birth year, no elective caesarean section, maternal CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/μl, maternal delivery viral load more than 1000 copies/ml, no antenatal antiretroviral therapy, receipt of intrapartum single-dose nevirapine and cohort. After adjustment, absence of neonatal prophylaxis was associated with higher risk of MTCT compared to neonatal prophylaxis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.29; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.46-2.59; P < 0.0001]. Further, there was no association between CNP and MTCT compared to SNP (aOR 1.41; 95% CI 0.97-2.5; P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: In this European population, CNP use is increasing and associated with presence of MTCT risk factors. The finding of no observed difference in MTCT risk between one drug and CNP may reflect residual confounding or the fact that CNP may be effective only in a subgroup of infants rather than the whole population of high-risk infants.
    AIDS. 01/2013; 27(6):991-1000.
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    ABSTRACT: Current evidence on routine immunization of HIV-1 infected children point out the need for a special vaccine schedule in this population. However, optimal strategies for identifying individuals susceptible to infections, and then offering them sustained protection through appropriate immunization schedule, both in terms of timing and number of vaccine doses, still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the degree of immune recovery after HAART initiation is important in guiding administration of routine vaccination in HIV-1 infected children. Although quantitative measures (e.g., CD4+ T-cell counts and immunoglobulin levels) are frequently performed to evaluate immune parameters, these measures do not fully mirror functional immune recovery. Here, we will review the status of single mandatory and recommended vaccines for HIV-1 infected children in relation to immune recovery after HAART initiation with the aim of identifying new means to help design personalized vaccine schedules for this population.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 12/2012; 8(12).
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) vary from country to country. Geographical variations together with differences in study designs, reporting and settings play a role. We assessed the incidence of AOM in Italian children seen by primary care paediatricians (PCPs), and described the methods used to diagnose the disease. METHODS: This secondary data analysis from the Pedianet database considered children aged 0 -- 6 years between 01/2003 and 12/2007. The AOM episodes were identified and validated by means of patient diaries. Incidence rates/100 person-years (PY) were calculated for total AOM and for single or recurrent AOM. RESULTS: The 92,373 children (52.1% males) were followed up for a total of 227,361 PY: 23,039 (24.9%) presented 38,241 episodes of AOM (94.6% single episodes and 5.4% recurrent episodes). The total incidence rate of AOM in the 5-year period was 16.8 episodes per 100 PY (95% CI: 16.7-16.9), including single AOM (15.9 episodes per 100 PY; 95% CI: 15.7-16.1) and recurrent AOM (0.9 episodes per 100 PY; 95% CI: 0.9-0.9). There was a slight and continuously negative trend decrease over time (annual percent change -4.6%; 95%CI: -5.3, -3.9%). The AOM incidence rate varied with age, peaking in children aged 3 to 4 years (22.2 episodes per 100 PY; 95% CI 21.8-22.7). The vast majority of the AOM episodes (36,842/38,241, 96.3%) were diagnosed using a static otoscope; a pneumatic otoscope was used in only 3.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data fill a gap in our knowledge of the incidence of AOM in Italy, and indicate that AOM represents a considerable burden for the Italian PCP system. Educational programmes concerning the diagnosis of AOM are needed, as are further studies to monitor the incidence in relation to the introduction of wider pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
    BMC Pediatrics 11/2012; 12(1):185. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To describe the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir and emtricitabine in the third trimester of pregnant HIV-infected women and at postpartum. DESIGN:: A non-randomized, open-label, multi-centre phase-IV study in HIV-infected pregnant women recruited from HIV treatment centres in Europe. METHODS:: HIV-infected pregnant women treated with the nucleotide/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF 300 mg; equivalent to 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil) and/or emtricitabine (FTC 200 mg) were included in the study. 24 h pharmacokinetic curves were recorded in the 3 trimester (preferably week 33) and postpartum (preferably week 4-6). Collection of a cord blood sample and maternal sample at delivery was optional. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using WinNonlin software version 5.3. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS:: 34 women were included in the analysis. Geometric mean ratios of 3 trimester vs. postpartum (90% confidence interval) were 0.77 (0.71-0.83) for TDF AUC0-24h; 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for TDF Cmax and 0.79 (0.70-0.90) for TDF C24h, and 0.75 (0.68-0.82) for FTC AUC0-24h; 0.87 (0.77-0.99) for FTC Cmax and 0.77 (0.52-1.12) for FTC C24h. The viral load close to delivery was <200 copies/mL in all but one patient, the average gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. All children were tested HIV-negative and no congenital abnormalities were reported. CONCLUSIONS:: Although PK exposure of the NRTIs TDF and FTC during pregnancy is approximately 25% lower, this was not associated with virological failure in this study and did not result in mother to child transmission.
    AIDS (London, England) 11/2012; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Data from electronic healthcare records (EHR) can be used to monitor drug safety, but in order to compare and pool data from different EHR databases, the extraction of potential adverse events must be harmonized. In this paper, we describe the procedure used for harmonizing the extraction from eight European EHR databases of five events of interest deemed to be important in pharmacovigilance: acute myocardial infarction (AMI); acute renal failure (ARF); anaphylactic shock (AS); bullous eruption (BE); and rhabdomyolysis (RHABD). DESIGN: The participating databases comprise general practitioners' medical records and claims for hospitalization and other healthcare services. Clinical information is collected using four different disease terminologies and free text in two different languages. The Unified Medical Language System was used to identify concepts and corresponding codes in each terminology. A common database model was used to share and pool data and verify the semantic basis of the event extraction queries. Feedback from the database holders was obtained at various stages to refine the extraction queries. MEASUREMENTS: Standardized and age specific incidence rates (IRs) were calculated to facilitate benchmarking and harmonization of event data extraction across the databases. This was an iterative process. RESULTS: The study population comprised overall 19 647 445 individuals with a follow-up of 59 929 690 person-years (PYs). Age adjusted IRs for the five events of interest across the databases were as follows: (1) AMI: 60-148/100 000 PYs; (2) ARF: 3-49/100 000 PYs; (3) AS: 2-12/100 000 PYs; (4) BE: 2-17/100 000 PYs; and (5) RHABD: 0.1-8/100 000 PYs. CONCLUSIONS: The iterative harmonization process enabled a more homogeneous identification of events across differently structured databases using different coding based algorithms. This workflow can facilitate transparent and reproducible event extractions and understanding of differences between databases.
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 09/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for initiation of ART in children were revised in 2010 but the programmatic impact has had limited study. METHODS:: We used a cohort of 985 Ugandan children followed since 2003 by the Tukula Fenna project to model the differential impact of the 2006, 2008 and 2010 WHO pediatric ART inititation criteria on the proportion of children eligible for ART at enrollment and over time. RESULTS:: Using the WHO 2006, 2008 and 2010 ART criteria, 40%, 57% and 66% of children, respectively, would have been eligible for ART at enrolment, and 76%, 84% and 88% by 2 years later. Evaluating the entire cohort followed for 6 years using the 2006, 2008 and 2010 guidelines, the proportion in need of ART was 70%, 82% and 87%, respectively. Between 2006 and 2008, the proportion of eligible children starting ART within 6 and 12 months were 39% and 50%, respectively; after this, the proportion starting within 6 and 12 months was 50% and 52%. Prior to 2008, the most common eligibility criteria met in children who did not start ART was WHO clinical stage (OR=2.0,I.C.95%=1.2-3.2); after the 2008 recommendations, the most common eligibility criteria in children who did not start ART was age <12 months (OR=10.5,I.C.95%=3.8-31.1). CONCLUSIONS:: An overall increase of 17% (from 70% to 87%) in children in need of ART was observed in our cohort comparing the 2006 and 2010 guidelines; this increase was primarily driven by the introduction of universal treatment for infants <12 months in 2008.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 206(4):618. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been no paediatric randomised trials describing the effect of planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on adherence, or evaluating acceptability of such a strategy. In PENTA 11, HIV-infected children were randomised to CD4-guided PTIs (n = 53) or continuous therapy (CT, n = 56). Carers, and children if appropriate, completed questionnaires on adherence to ART and acceptability of PTIs. There was no difference in reported adherence on ART between CT and PTI groups; non-adherence (reporting missed doses over the last 3 days or marking <100 % adherence since the last clinical visit on a visual analogue scale) was 18 % (20/111) and 14 % (12/83) on carer questionnaires in the CT and PTI groups respectively (odds ratios, OR (95 % CI) = 1.04 (0.20, 5.41), χ(2) (1) = 0.003, p = 0.96). Carers in Europe/USA reported non-adherence more often (31/121, 26 %) than in Thailand (1/73, 1 %; OR (95 % CI) = 54.65 (3.68, 810.55), χ(2) (1) = 8.45, p = 0.004). The majority of families indicated they were happy to have further PTIs (carer: 23/36, 64 %; children: 8/13, 62 %), however many reported more clinic visits during PTI were a problem (carer: 15/36, 42 %; children: 6/12, 50 %).
    AIDS and Behavior 05/2012; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between 2007 and 2008, the Mozambique Ministry of Health conducted an assessment of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) using World Health Organization (WHO) methods in a cohort of children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the main pediatric ART referral center in Mozambique. It was shown that prior to ART initiation 5.4% of children had HIVDR that was associated with nevirapine perinatal exposure (P < .001). Twelve months after ART initiation, 77% had viral load suppression (<1000 copies/mL), exceeding the WHO target of ≥ 70%; 10.3% had HIVDR at 12 months. Baseline HIVDR (P = .04), maternal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (P = .02), and estimated days of missed medication (P = .03) predicted HIVDR at 12 months. As efforts to eliminate pediatric AIDS are intensified, implementation of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor regimens in children with prevention of mother-to-child transmission exposure may reduce risk of virological failure in our setting.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2012; 54 Suppl 4:S369-74. · 9.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
1,089.40 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • University-Hospital of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • MRC Clinical Trials Unit
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Emory University
      • Department of Global Health
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1988–2014
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2013
    • Second University of Naples
      Caserta, Campania, Italy
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2011
    • CVBF - Consorzio per le Valutazioni Biologiche e Farmacologiche
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2010–2011
    • Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico
      • Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Departamento de Pediatría, Obstetricia, Ginecología y Medicina Preventiva
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2005–2011
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Medical Informatics
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008–2010
    • The School of Pharmacy
      • Institute of Child Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Tampere
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland
    • Public Health England
      • Centre for Infections Services
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University of Antwerp
      • Faculteit Geneeskunde en Gezondheidswetenschappen
      Antwerpen, VLG, Belgium
  • 2003
    • National Research Council
      • Institute of Biomedical Technologies ITB
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2001
    • University College London
      • Institute of Child Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • St George's, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • Interuniversity Research Centre on Bioactive Peptides
      Napoli, Campania, Italy