Lori A Bastian

Spokane VA Medical Center, Spokane, Washington, United States

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Publications (88)309.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Prior cross-sectional studies have reported greater pain intensity among persistent smokers compared to non-smokers or former smokers, yet few prospective studies have examined how smoking abstinence affects pain intensity. To determine the impact of smoking cessation on subsequent pain intensity in smokers with chronic illness enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. We recruited veteran smokers with chronic illness (heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or hypertension) for a randomized-controlled smoking cessation trial and prospectively examined pain intensity and smoking status. Participants (n=380) were asked to rate their pain in the past week from 0 to 10 at baseline and the five-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was self-reported pain intensity at the five-month follow-up survey. Self-reported smoking status was categorized as an abstainer if patients reported no cigarettes in the seven days prior to the follow-up survey. In unadjusted analyses, abstainers reported significantly lower pain levels at the five-month follow-up compared to patients who continued to smoke (parameter estimate = -1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.77, -0.36). In multivariable modeling, abstaining from cigarettes was not associated with subsequent pain intensity at five-month follow-up (parameter estimate = -0.27, 95% CI= -0.79, 0.25). Participants who were classified as abstainers did not report significantly different levels of pain intensity than patients who continued to smoke. Future studies should expand upon our findings and monitor pain intensity in smoking cessation trials. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.06.012 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Shounak Majumder · Jennifer M Gierisch · Lori A Bastian
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. We conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing whether cigarette smoking is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis (AP) and recurrent AP (RAP). MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for studies published from database inception through March 2013. Two investigators independently reviewed articles for eligibility; discordant decisions were resolved by a third investigator's review and consensus. When there were sufficient studies, random-effects meta-analyses were performed by estimating pooled hazards ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria: 7 for AP, 5 for RAP. Compared with never smokers, the risk for AP was significantly increased in current smokers (6 studies; HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.26-2.44) and former smokers (5 studies; HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.18-2.27). Compared with never smokers, ever smokers were at higher risk for developing RAP (5 studies; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.19-2.12). This meta-analysis provides supportive evidence for the association of smoking status and AP. This effect is most pronounced for current smokers, but the risk exists among the former smokers compared with never smokers. There was an increased risk for RAP among ever smokers compared with that among never smokers.
    Pancreas 05/2015; 44(4):540-546. DOI:10.1097/MPA.0000000000000301 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain and smoking are highly prevalent among Veterans. Studies in non-Veteran populations have reported higher pain intensity among current smokers compared with nonsmokers and former smokers. We examined the association of smoking status with reported pain intensity among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). The sample consisted of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans who had at least one visit to Veterans Affairs (2001-2012) with information in the electronic medical record for concurrent smoking status and pain intensity. The primary outcome measure was current pain intensity, categorized as none to mild (0-3); moderate (4-6); or severe (≥7); based on a self-reported 11-point pain numerical rating scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of current smoking status with moderate to severe (≥4) pain intensity, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, 50,988 women and 355,966 men Veterans were examined. The sample mean age was 30 years; 66.3% reported none to mild pain; 19.8% moderate pain; and 13.9% severe pain; 37% were current smokers and 16% former smokers. Results indicated that current smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.27-1.31)] and former smoking [OR = 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01-1.05)] were associated with moderate to severe pain intensity, controlling for age, service-connected disability, gender, obesity, substance abuse, mood disorders, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. We found an association between current smoking and pain intensity. This effect was attenuated in former smokers. Our study highlights the importance of understanding reported pain intensity in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans who continue to smoke. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pain Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/pme.12753 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1:S1-S4. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000344 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, the Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA) implemented policy to provide Comprehensive Primary Care (for acute, chronic, and female-specific care) from designated Women's Health providers (DWHPs) at all VA sites. However, since that time no comparisons of quality measures have been available to assess the level of care for women Veterans assigned to these providers. To evaluate the associations between cervical and breast cancer screening rates among age-appropriate women Veterans and designation of primary-care provider (DWHP vs. non-DWHP). Cross-sectional analyses using the fiscal year 2012 data on VA women's health providers, administrative files, and patient-specific quality measures. The sample included 37,128 women Veterans aged 21 through 69 years. Variables included patient demographic and clinical factors (ie, age, race, ethnicity, mental health diagnoses, obesity, and site), and provider factors (ie, DWHP status, sex, and panel size). Screening measures were defined by age-appropriate subgroups using VA national guidelines. Female-specific cancer screening rates were higher among patients assigned to DWHPs (cervical cytology 94.4% vs. 91.9%, P<0.0001; mammography 86.3% vs. 83.3%, P<0.0001). In multivariable models with adjustment for patient and provider characteristics, patients assigned to DWHPs had higher odds of cervical cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.47; P<0.0001) and breast cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; P<0.0001). As the proportion of women Veterans increases, assignment to DWHPs may raise rate of female-specific cancer screening within VA. Separate evaluation of sex neutral measures is needed to determine whether other measures accrue benefits for patients with DWHPs.
    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1:S47-S54. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000323 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of young women Veterans seek reproductive health care through the VA, yet little is known regarding the provision of infertility care for this population. The VA provides a range of infertility services for Veterans including artificial insemination, but does not provide in vitro fertilization. This study will be the first to characterize infertility care among OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans using VA care. We analyzed data from the OEF/OIF/OND roster file from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)-Contingency Tracking System Deployment file of military discharges from October 1, 2001-December 30, 2010, which includes 68,442 women Veterans between the ages of 18 and 45 who utilized VA health care after separating from military service. We examined the receipt of infertility diagnoses and care using ICD-9 and CPT codes. Less than 2% (n=1323) of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received an infertility diagnosis during the study period. Compared with women VA users without infertility diagnosis, those with infertility diagnosis were younger, obese, black, or Hispanic, have a service-connected disability rating, a positive screen for military sexual trauma, and a mental health diagnosis. Overall, 22% of women with an infertility diagnosis received an infertility assessment or treatment. Thirty-nine percent of women Veterans receiving infertility assessment or treatment received this care from non-VA providers. Overall, a small proportion of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received infertility diagnoses from the VA during the study period, and an even smaller proportion received infertility treatment. Nearly 40% of those who received infertility treatments received these treatments from non-VA providers, indicating that the VA may need to examine the training and resources needed to provide this care within the VA. Understanding women's use of VA infertility services is an important component of understanding VA's commitment to comprehensive medical care for women Veterans.
    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1:S68-S75. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000301 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women's needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women's mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women's key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women's mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women's services. Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women's mental health care in the VHA.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 02/2015; 66(2):155-62. DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201300551 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women veterans comprise a small percentage of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. Prior research on women veterans' experiences with primary care has focused on VA site differences and not individual provider characteristics. In 2010, the VA established policy requiring the provision of comprehensive women's health care by designated women's health providers (DWHPs). Little is known about the quality of health care delivered by DWHPs and women veterans' experience with care from these providers. Secondary data were obtained from the VA Survey of Healthcare Experience of Patients (SHEP) using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) patient-centered medical home (PCMH) survey from March 2012 through February 2013, a survey designed to measure patient experience with care and the DWHPs Assessment of Workforce Capacity that discerns between DWHPs versus non-DWHPs. Of the 28,994 surveys mailed to women veterans, 24,789 were seen by primary care providers and 8,151 women responded to the survey (response rate, 32%). A total of 3,147 providers were evaluated by the SHEP-CAHPS-PCMH survey (40%; n = 1,267 were DWHPs). In a multivariable model, patients seen by DWHPs (relative risk, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04) reported higher overall experiences with care compared with patients seen by non-DWHPs. The main finding is that women veterans' overall experiences with outpatient health care are slightly better for those receiving care from DWHPs compared with those receiving care from non-DWHPs. Our findings have important policy implications for how to continue to improve women veterans' experiences. Our work provides support to increase access to DWHPs at VA primary care clinics. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Women s Health Issues 11/2014; 24(6):605-12. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.07.005 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality for U.S. women. Racial minorities are a particularly vulnerable population. The increasing female veteran population has an higher prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors compared with non-veteran women; however, little is known about gender and racial differences in cardiovascular risk factor control among veterans. Methods We used analysis of variance, adjusting for age, to compare gender and racial differences in three risk factors that predispose to CVD (diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia) in a cohort of high-risk veterans eligible for enrollment in a clinical trial, including 23,955 men and 1,010 women. Findings Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) values were higher in women veterans than men with age-adjusted estimated mean values of 111.7 versus 97.6 mg/dL (p < .01). Blood pressures (BPs) were higher among African-American than White female veterans with age-adjusted estimated mean systolic BPs of 136.3 versus 133.5 mmHg, respectively (p < .01), and diastolic BPs of 82.4 versus 78.9 mmHg (p < .01). African-American veterans with diabetes had worse BP, LDL values, and hemoglobin A1c levels, although the differences were only significant among men. Conclusions Female veterans have higher LDL cholesterol levels than male veterans and African-American veterans have higher BP, LDL cholesterol, and A1c levels than Whites after adjusting for age. Further examination of CVD gender and racial disparities in this population may help to develop targeted treatments and strategies applicable to the general population.
    Women s Health Issues 10/2014; 24(5):477–483. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.05.005 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article aims to critically analyze research focused on the findings for five chronic conditions: chronic pain, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, HIV and cancer among women veterans to identify opportunities for comparative effectiveness research. We provide a descriptive analysis from the relevant articles in prior systematic reviews. In order to identify potential gaps in research for these specific conditions, we also conducted a literature search to highlight studies focusing on women veterans published since the last systematic review. While the scientific knowledge base has grown for these chronic conditions among women veterans, the vast majority of the published literature remains descriptive and/or observational, with only a few studies examining gender differences and even fewer clinical trials. There is a need to conduct comparative effectiveness research on chronic conditions among women veterans to improve health and healthcare.
    03/2014; 3(2):155-66. DOI:10.2217/cer.14.4
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of young women veterans are returning from war and military service and are seeking reproductive health care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Many of these women seek maternity benefits from the VHA, and yet little is known regarding the number of women veterans utilizing VHA maternity benefits nor the characteristics of pregnant veterans using these benefits. In May 2010, VHA maternity benefits were expanded to include 7 days of infant care, which may serve to entice more women to use VHA maternity benefits. Understanding the changing trends in women veterans seeking maternity benefits will help the VHA to improve the quality of reproductive care over time. The goal of this study was to examine the trends in delivery claims among women veterans receiving VHA maternity benefits over a 5-year period and the characteristics of pregnant veterans utilizing VHA benefits. We undertook a retrospective, national cohort study of pregnant veterans enrolled in VHA care with inpatient deliveries between fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2012. We included pregnant veterans using VHA maternity benefits for delivery. Measures included annualized numbers and rates of inpatient deliveries and delivery-related costs, as well as cesarean section rates as a quality indicator. During the 5-year study period, there was a significant increase in the number of deliveries to women veterans using VHA maternity benefits. The overall delivery rate increased by 44% over the study period from 12.4 to 17.8 deliveries per 1,000 women veterans. A majority of women using VHA maternity benefits were age 30 or older and had a service-connected disability. From FY 2008 to 2012, the VHA paid more than $46 million in delivery claims to community providers for deliveries to women veterans ($4,993/veteran). Over a 5-year period, the volume of women veterans using VHA maternity benefits increased by 44%. Given this sizeable increase, the VHA must increase its capacity to care for pregnant veterans and ensure care coordination systems are in place to address the needs of pregnant veterans with service-connected disabilities.
    Women s Health Issues 01/2014; 24(1):e37-e42. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.002 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    Journal of General Internal Medicine 07/2013; 28 Suppl 2(S2):504-9. DOI:10.1007/s11606-013-2476-3 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    Journal of General Internal Medicine 07/2013; 28 Suppl 2(S2):491-4. DOI:10.1007/s11606-013-2470-9 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose. When a patient is diagnosed with lung cancer, members of his/her social network may be more likely to engage in smoking cessation efforts. Proactive telephone counseling combined with a tailored self-directed intervention may be more effective at promoting smoking cessation than a tailored self-directed intervention alone. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. Four clinical sites. Subjects. Current smokers who are family members and close friends of patients with lung cancer. Intervention. Six counselor-initiated counseling calls using motivational interviewing techniques and focusing on teaching adaptive coping skills based on the transactional model of stress and coping along with tailored self-directed materials (including nicotine patches, if not contraindicated) (n  =  245) vs. tailored self-directed materials (including nicotine patches, if not contraindicated) (n  =  251). Measures. Participants were surveyed at baseline and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. The outcome was 7-day point prevalent abstinence. Analysis. The objective of this study was to test for arm differences in smoking cessation rates at 2 weeks and 6 months postintervention (primary) and at 12 months postintervention (secondary). Results. We found no overall effect of the proactive intervention on cessation rates. Among younger participants (age <50), the cessation rate in the intervention group was higher than in the control group at 2 weeks postintervention (16% vs. 4%, p  =  .046). For older participants (age >50), there were no group differences. Conclusion. Proactive telephone counseling focusing on adaptive coping skills was difficult to implement among smokers in lung cancer patients' social network. Although this study did not demonstrate any added benefit to cessation rates, this null finding may be a result of an intervention that was weaker than intended, owing to difficulties in completing the counseling phone calls. We discuss lessons learned and areas for future research in this special population.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 01/2013; 27(3):181-90. DOI:10.4278/ajhp.101122-QUAN-387 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued specific behavioral recommendations to prevent obesity. It is unclear how often high-risk preschoolers and overweight mothers meet recommended behavior goals and whether meeting these goals is negatively associated with overweight/obesity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of preschoolers and mothers that meet AAP-recommended behavior goals and examine the associations of meeting goals with weight-status, and mothers meeting goals and children meeting corresponding goals. METHODS: Secondary analysis of baseline data (before an intervention) from mother-preschooler dyads in a weight-control study. Mothers were overweight or obese. Preschoolers were 2-5 years old. Dietary and feeding practices were assessed by the use of questionnaires. Activity was measured directly using accelerometry. Outcomes included preschooler overweight and maternal obesity. RESULTS: The respective proportions of children and mothers that met behavior goals were: 17% and 13% for ≥5 fruits/vegetables/day, 46% and 33% for zero sugar-sweetened beverages/day, 41% and 13% for fast-food <1×/week, and 46% and 13% for screentime ≤2 hours/day. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity did not exceed 60 minutes/day in any participant. A total of 49% ate family meals together 7×/week. For each additional goal met, the adjusted odds for preschooler overweight was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.1) and for maternal obesity, 0.8 (95% confidence interval 0.6-0.9). Preschoolers had significantly greater odds of meeting each goal when mothers met the corresponding goal. CONCLUSIONS: Few high-risk preschoolers or overweight mothers meet AAP-recommended behavior goals. Meeting a greater number of behavior goals may be particularly important for maternal weight. Preschoolers have greater odds of meeting behavior goals when mothers meet behavior goals.
    Academic pediatrics 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.acap.2013.01.003 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Annals of internal medicine 07/2012; 157(1). DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-157-1-201207030-00450 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study presents the immediate post-intervention results of Kids and Adults Now - Defeat Obesity!, a randomized controlled trial to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviors in mother-preschooler (2-5years old) dyads in North Carolina (2007-2011). The outcomes include change from baseline in the child's diet, physical activity and weight, and in the mother's parenting behaviors, diet, physical activity, and weight. The intervention targeted parenting through maternal emotion regulation, home environment, feeding practices, and modeling of healthy behaviors. 400 mother-child dyads were randomized. Mothers in the intervention arm, compared to the control arm, reduced instrumental feeding (-0.24 vs. 0.01, p<0.001) and TV snacks (-.069 vs. -0.24, p=0.001). There were also improvements in emotional feeding (p=0.03), mother's sugary beverage (p=0.03) and fruit/vegetable (p=0.04) intake, and dinners eaten in front of TV (p=0.01); these differences were not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. KAN-DO, designed to maximize the capacity of mothers as agents of change, improved several channels of maternal influence. There were no group differences in the primary outcomes, but differences were observed in the parenting and maternal outcomes and there were trends toward improvement in the preschoolers' diets. Long-term follow-up will address whether these short-term trends ultimately improve weight status.
    Preventive Medicine 06/2012; 55(3):188-95. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.06.005 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite increasing emphasis on the role of clinical decision-support systems (CDSSs) for improving care and reducing costs, evidence to support widespread use is lacking. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of CDSSs on clinical outcomes, health care processes, workload and efficiency, patient satisfaction, cost, and provider use and implementation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through January 2011. Study Selection: Investigators independently screened reports to identify randomized trials published in English of electronic CDSSs that were implemented in clinical settings; used by providers to aid decision making at the point of care; and reported clinical, health care process, workload, relationship-centered, economic, or provider use outcomes. Data Extraction: Investigators extracted data about study design, participant characteristics, interventions, outcomes, and quality. Data Synthesis: 148 randomized, controlled trials were included. A total of 128 (86%) assessed health care process measures, 29 (20%) assessed clinical outcomes, and 22 (15%) measured costs. Both commercially and locally developed CDSSs improved health care process measures related to performing preventive services (n = 25; odds ratio [OR], 1.42 [95% CI, 1.27 to 1.58]), ordering clinical studies (n = 20; OR, 1.72 [CI, 1.47 to 2.00]), and prescribing therapies (n = 46; OR, 1.57 [CI, 1.35 to 1.82]). Few studies measured potential unintended consequences or adverse effects. Limitations: Studies were heterogeneous in interventions, populations, settings, and outcomes. Publication bias and selective reporting cannot be excluded. Conclusion: Both commercially and locally developed CDSSs are effective at improving health care process measures across diverse settings, but evidence for clinical, economic, workload, and efficiency outcomes remains sparse. This review expands knowledge in the field by demonstrating the benefits of CDSSs outside of experienced academic centers. Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
    Annals of internal medicine 04/2012; 157(1). DOI:10.1059/0003-4819-157-1-201207030-00450 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To catalogue study designs used to assess the clinical effectiveness of CDSSs and KMSs, to identify features that impact the success of CDSSs/KMSs, to document the impact of CDSSs/KMSs on outcomes, and to identify knowledge types that can be integrated into CDSSs/KMSs. MEDLINE®, CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and Web of Science®. We included studies published in English from January 1976 through December 2010. After screening titles and abstracts, full-text versions of articles were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Included articles were abstracted to evidence tables by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed for seven domains in which sufficient studies with common outcomes were included. We identified 15,176 articles, from which 323 articles describing 311 unique studies including 160 reports on 148 randomized control trials (RCTs) were selected for inclusion. RCTs comprised 47.5 percent of the comparative studies on CDSSs/KMSs. Both commercially and locally developed CDSSs effectively improved health care process measures related to performing preventive services (n = 25; OR 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27 to 1.58), ordering clinical studies (n = 20; OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.00), and prescribing therapies (n = 46; OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.82). Fourteen CDSS/KMS features were assessed for correlation with success of CDSSs/KMSs across all endpoints. Meta-analyses identified six new success features: Integration with charting or order entry system. Promotion of action rather than inaction. No need for additional clinician data entry. Justification of decision support via research evidence. Local user involvement. Provision of decision support results to patients as well as providers. Three previously identified success features were confirmed: Automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow. Provision of decision support at time and location of decisionmaking. Provision of a recommendation, not just an assessment. Only 29 (19.6%) RCTs assessed the impact of CDSSs on clinical outcomes, 22 (14.9%) assessed costs, and 3 assessed KMSs on any outcomes. The primary source of knowledge used in CDSSs was derived from structured care protocols. Strong evidence shows that CDSSs/KMSs are effective in improving health care process measures across diverse settings using both commercially and locally developed systems. Evidence for the effectiveness of CDSSs on clinical outcomes and costs and KMSs on any outcomes is minimal. Nine features of CDSSs/KMSs that correlate with a successful impact of clinical decision support have been newly identified or confirmed.
    Evidence report/technology assessment 04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic literature review of smoking cessation interventions for patients with histories of depressive disorders or current significant depressive symptoms. We examined the comparative effectiveness of smoking cessation strategies on abstinence rates, differential effects of cessation strategies by depression status (i.e., history positive vs. current depression), and differential effects by gender. Peer-reviewed literature in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomized controlled trials or secondary analysis of RCT data comparing two or more smoking cessation interventions or intervention to control, and reporting cessation outcomes in adults with depression. Two trained researchers screened articles for inclusion. When possible, we estimated pooled risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals by using a random effects model with the Mantel-Haenszel method. We synthesized other studies qualitatively. We classified each intervention as antidepressants, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), brief smoking cessation counseling, smoking cessation behavioral counseling, or behavioral mood management. We identified 16 unique RCTs, of which, only three trials recruited participants with current depression. Meta-analysis demonstrated a small, positive effect of adding behavioral mood management (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.96). All included antidepressant trials showed small, positive effects, but risk ratio summary was not significant (RR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.73-2.34). Three NRT trials demonstrated small, positive effects on smoking cessation rates. We found insufficient evidence to examine gender and depression status moderator effects. Few RCTs exist that test smoking cessation interventions among adults with depression. To make meaningful comparisons, we created broad intervention categories that contained heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Few trials enrolled smokers with current depression. Most of data identified were from subgroup analyses of patients history-positive for depression. However, several promising interventions exist. Healthcare providers should consider encouraging their patients with significant depressive symptoms or depression histories to seek smoking cessation services that include NRT and behavioral mood management.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 03/2012; 27(3):351-60. DOI:10.1007/s11606-011-1915-2 · 3.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
309.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Spokane VA Medical Center
      Spokane, Washington, United States
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Duke University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1996–2011
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Community and Family Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2006
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States