Rainer G Ulrich

University of Bonn - Medical Center, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (164)471.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A 21-year-old male patient from Borna, Saxony, in Eastern Germany, suffered from acute kidney injury (AKI) and symptoms typical for a hantavirus infection. These symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and acute renal failure. Serological investigations by indirect IgM and IgG in-house ELISAs, commercial immunofluorescence and line assays, as well as chemiluminescence focus reduction neutralization assay confirmed an acute Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infection of the patient. Serological and RT-PCR analyses of striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) trapped in a neighboring region of the residence of the patient identified an infection by DOBV, genotype Kurkino. This is the first report of an autochthonous DOBV infection in a German patient living far from the known endemic region in the north of the country. This finding has implications for the awareness of physicians in areas which are not recognized as hantavirus endemic regions but where the reservoir host of the virus is present.
    Clinical nephrology 02/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replicative capacity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was assessed in cell lines derived from livestock and peridomestic small mammals on the Arabian Peninsula. Only cell lines originating from goats and camels showed efficient replication of MERS-CoV. These results provide direction in the search for the intermediate host of MERS-CoV.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 20(2). · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Few data are available on the occurrence of chlamydial infections in wild small mammals. We investigated the significance of free-living small mammals as reservoirs or transmission hosts for microorganisms of the phylum/class Chlamydiae. We obtained 3,664 tissue samples from 911 animals in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Afghanistan. Samples included internal organs (n = 3,652) and feces (n = 12) from 679 rodents (order Rodentia) and 232 insectivores (order Soricomorpha) and were tested by three TaqMan® real-time PCRs specific for members of the family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp. Only one of 911 (0.11%) animals exhibited a questionable positive result by Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR. Five of 911 animals (0.55%) were positive by specific real-time PCR for Parachlamydia spp. but could not be confirmed by quantitative PCR targeting the Parachlamydia acanthamoebae secY gene (secY qPCR). One of 746 animals (0.13%) was positive by real-time PCR for Waddlia chondrophila. This result was confirmed by Waddlia secY qPCR. This is the first detection of Chlamydia-like organisms in small wildlife in Switzerland. Considering previous negative results for Chlamydiaceae in wild ruminant species from Switzerland, these data suggest that wild small mammals are unlikely to be important carriers or transport hosts for Chamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 01/2014; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) species are hantaviruses carried by different Apodemus mice as reservoir hosts and causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. In Central Europe, the Kurkino genotype of DOBV, associated with the striped field mouse, A. agrarius, is prevalent. This paper presents the first extensive study of the serological and molecular diagnostics, epidemiology, and clinics of DOBV-Kurkino infections in Central Europe. Serum samples from 570 German patients living in the habitat of A. agrarius (North and North-East Germany) and exhibiting febrile disease, were analysed. All samples were tested by ELISA, subsets of samples were also analysed by immunoblot, neutralisation assay, and RT-PCR. A group of 86 individuals was confirmed as DOBV-infected. The virus neutralization assay allowed a reliable identification of DOBV antibodies during both, acute and convalescent, phases of infection. However, differentiation of relevant DOBV genotypes was not possible by neutralization test but required molecular analysis. Whereas DOBV IgM antibodies tend to persist in the infected organism, RNAemia seems to be only short. Nucleotide sequences were amplified from 4 patients, and their analysis demonstrated infection by DOBV-Kurkino. With respect to the initial results, the high degree of identity of local patient- and A.agrarius-derived virus sequences may allow a closer allocation of the geographical place where the human infection occurred. In contrast to moderate/severe HFRS caused by DOBV genotypes Dobrava or Sochi, all available data showed a rather mild clinical course of HFRS due to DOBV-Kurkino infection without lethal outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, human Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections were reported on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Serologic and molecular studies of potential rodent reservoirs demonstrated DOBV infections in Apodemus flavicollis and A. uralensis mice. Phylogenetic analysis of DOBV strains showed their similarity to A. flavicollis mice-borne DOBV in Greece, Slovenia, and Slovakia.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 20(1):121-5. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    Isabella Eckerle, Matthias Lenk, Rainer G Ulrich
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    ABSTRACT: Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.
    Viruses 01/2014; 6(3):951-67. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80-89) or site #4 (aa 280-289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.
    Viruses 01/2014; 6(2):640-60. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland.
    Viruses 01/2014; 6(1):340-53. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of acute autochthonous human hepatitis E virus (HEV)-infections was noticed in Germany and other developed countries, most likely the result of a zoonotic virus transmission from pig, wild boar and deer. Currently there is still a lack of profound data concerning the actual prevalence of HEV-specific antibodies in domestic pig herds in Germany, in particular for regions with high pig density, and its age-dependency. 2273 domestic pig sera were collected in 2011 mainly from Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony from areas having a high pig density. Initially, 420 randomly selected pig sera were tested in three commercially available and in two in-house HEV-antibody ELISAs. 43.6% (183/420) to 65.5% (275/420) of the sera were demonstrated to be reactive against human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1 and/or 3. The majority of sera reacted only weakly or not at all with the rat HEV antigen with very few sera showing a stronger reactivity to this antigen compared to the genotype 3 antigen. The results of all three HEV-IgG tests, i.e. the PrioCHECK(®) HEV Ab porcine ELISA kit, the ID Screen(®) Hepatitis E Indirect Multi-species ELISA kit and the genotype 3 in-house ELISA were in good accordance. Therefore, the remaining sera were tested using the PrioCHECK(®) HEV Ab porcine ELISA kit. Samples with a borderline result were finally determined by application of the conjugate-modified recomLine HEV IgG assay. A total of 1065 of the 2273 sera (46.9%) were found to be anti-HEV IgG-positive. While 38.4% (306/796) of fatteners (age between 3 and 9 months) exhibited HEV-specific antibodies, 51.4% (759/1477) of sows (age older than 9 months) exhibited anti-HEV antibodies (P<0.001). Fatteners kept in Southern Germany had a significantly higher HEV IgG prevalence compared to fatteners kept in the high pig density federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony but also in German federal states with a low pig density. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that a high percentage of domestic pigs in Germany have had contact with HEV. Seroprevalence depends on the pig's age and herd origin with the most significant regional variations for fatteners. The presence of anti-HEV-free herds may indicate that it is feasible to establish and sustain HEV-free pig herds. HEV seroprevalence still depends on the assay used for testing. This demonstrates an urgent need for test validation.
    Veterinary Microbiology 10/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 10/2013; 126(11/12):514-526.
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    ABSTRACT: The hepatitis B virus (HBV), family Hepadnaviridae, is one of most relevant human pathogens. HBV origins are enigmatic, and no zoonotic reservoirs are known. Here, we screened 3,080 specimens from 54 bat species representing 11 bat families for hepadnaviral DNA. Ten specimens (0.3%) from Panama and Gabon yielded unique hepadnaviruses in coancestral relation to HBV. Full genome sequencing allowed classification as three putative orthohepadnavirus species based on genome lengths (3,149-3,377 nt), presence of middle HBV surface and X-protein genes, and sequence distance criteria. Hepatic tropism in bats was shown by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. Infected livers showed histopathologic changes compatible with hepatitis. Human hepatocytes transfected with all three bat viruses cross-reacted with sera against the HBV core protein, concordant with the phylogenetic relatedness of these hepadnaviruses and HBV. One virus from Uroderma bilobatum, the tent-making bat, cross-reacted with monoclonal antibodies against the HBV antigenicity determining S domain. Up to 18.4% of bat sera contained antibodies against bat hepadnaviruses. Infectious clones were generated to study all three viruses in detail. Hepatitis D virus particles pseudotyped with surface proteins of U. bilobatum HBV, but neither of the other two viruses could infect primary human and Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes. Hepatocyte infection occurred through the human HBV receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide but could not be neutralized by sera from vaccinated humans. Antihepadnaviral treatment using an approved reverse transcriptase inhibitor blocked replication of all bat hepadnaviruses. Our data suggest that bats may have been ancestral sources of primate hepadnaviruses. The observed zoonotic potential might affect concepts aimed at eradicating HBV.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Detlev H Krüger, Rainer G Ulrich, Jörg Hofmann
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    ABSTRACT: Hantavirus disease is a zoonosis of increasing clinical importance. A new incidence peak was reached in Germany in 2012, with more than 2800 reported cases. These viruses are transmitted from small mammals to human beings. The disease begins with high fever and non-pathognomonic manifestations that can end in shock and organ failure. This article is based on a selective literature search, on the authors' experiences at the National Referral Laboratory for Hantavirus Infections (Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hantaviren), and on published recommendations from Germany and abroad. Two hantavirus species cause clinically relevant infections in Germany. Puumala virus, which is transmitted by bank voles, causes large outbreaks of disease every 2 to 3 years in the southwestern and western regions of Germany and in the Bavarian Forest. Dobrava-Belgrad virus, transmitted by striped field mice, causes infections in the north and east of the country. Serological tests are available for primary and confirmatory diagnosis; moreover, viral nucleic acids can be amplified in the early phase of illness and compared with the viral nucleic acids from the reservoir hosts of the corresponding type of infection. Infections with American types of hantavirus have ca. 35% case fatality, and hantaviruses from southeastern Europe and Asia are also highly pathogenic; in contrast, the febrile illnesses caused by hantaviruses in Germany are usually relatively mild. When persons living in high-risk areas present with fever of unknown origin or with renal dysfunction of unknown origin, physicians should consider the possibility of a hantavirus infection and should initiate the appropriate diagnostic evaluation.
    07/2013; 110(27-28):461-7. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species). Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8%) of 1,465 European bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and 10 (1.9%) of 518 South African four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%). Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage efforts to develop rodent surrogate models for HCV.
    PLoS Pathogens 06/2013; 9(6):e1003438. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have detected a high incidence of lymphomas in a colony of GASH:Sal Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). This strain is characterised by its ability to present convulsive crises of audiogenic origin. Almost 16 % (90 males and 60 females) of the 975 animals were affected during a 5-year period by the development of a progressing lymphoid tumour and exhibited similar clinical profiles characterised by lethargy, anorexia, evident abdominal distension, and a rapid disease progression resulting in mortality within 1 to 2 weeks. A TaqMan® probe-based real-time PCR analysis of genomic DNA from different tissue samples of the affected animals revealed the presence of a DNA sequence encoding the hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV) VP1 capsid protein. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis using HaPyV-VP1-specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of viral proteins in all hamster tumour tissues analysed within the colony. An indirect ELISA and western blot analysis confirmed the presence of antibodies against the VP1 capsid protein in sera, not only from affected and non-affected GASH:Sal hamsters but also from control hamsters from the same breeding area. The HaPyV genome that accumulated in tumour tissues typically contained deletions affecting the noncoding regulatory region and adjacent sequences coding for the N-terminal part of the capsid protein VP2.
    Archives of Virology 05/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (S. minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 04/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (GT3) have been reported increasingly from industrialized countries. In this paper the development and validation of an IgG ELISA for the detection of HEV-specific antibodies in domestic pigs is described. Comparison of the diagnostic value of E. coli-expressed HEV-GT3 capsid protein (CP) derivatives revealed a carboxy-terminal derivative as most suitable. Validation of the in-house assay using a commercially available IgG ELISA revealed a high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. The average HEV seroprevalence of domestic pigs from Germany and the federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg determined by the in-house test was 42.7% and 50.3%, respectively. The seroprevalence in different districts of Baden-Wuerttemberg ranged from 34.9% to 60%, but from 0% to 100% between different herds. These data were compared to those achieved by two commercially available ELISA kits and an in-house ratHEV-based ELISA. In conclusion, the CP-based in-house test proved sensitive and specific, indicating that the ORF3-encoded protein might be dispensable for diagnostics. The novel assay also allowed a parallel analysis by a homologous ratHEV-derived antigen. Thus, the novel IgG ELISA represents a useful tool for future standardized seroprevalence studies in domestic pigs from Germany and other regions of Europe.
    Journal of virological methods 03/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, are synanthropic and inhabit urban infrastructures.…
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wild rats can be reservoirs and vectors for several human pathogens. An initial RT-PCR screening of the intestinal contents of Norway rats trapped in the sewer system of Copenhagen, Denmark, for caliciviruses revealed the presence of a human norovirus in one of 11 rodents. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the ~4.0-kb 3'-terminus of the norovirus genome resulted in the identification of a recombinant GI.b/GI.6 strain. The simultaneous detection of hepatitis E virus-like particles in the feces of this rat by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequence determination, resulting in the identification of a novel rat hepatitis E virus.
    Archives of Virology 02/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, the highest annual number of human Puumala virus (PUUV) infections was reported in Germany since hantavirus surveillance started in 2001. The increase in annual case numbers was especially marked in western Thuringia. We combined results of case-based hantavirus surveillance in humans and serological and molecular investigations in the rodent reservoir to describe the epidemiological situation and to identify the putative outbreak strain. A 5-fold increase in notified hantavirus cases compared to the previous annual maximum was observed in western Thuringia in 2010. Disease incidence varied tremendously within a small geographical area with case patients' places of residence clustering around beech-dominated broad leaf forest patches. Investigations in the rodent reservoir revealed a novel Puumala virus (PUUV) subtype, which is clearly distinct from strains collected in other PUUV endemic regions of Germany. It can be assumed that in regions in western Thuringia where hantavirus cases occurred in 2010 or previous outbreak years, PUUV has been present in the environment for a long time. Further studies are needed to elucidate the population dynamics and hantavirus prevalence of the rodent reservoir and driving ecological factors.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 02/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated viability of hepatitis E virus (HEV) identified in contaminated pork liver sausages obtained from France. HEV replication was demonstrated in 1 of 4 samples by using a 3-dimensional cell culture system. The risk for human infection with HEV by consumption of these sausages should be considered to be high.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2013; 19(2):264-6. · 6.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
471.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Bonn - Medical Center
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Institut für Hygiene und Infektionskrankheiten der Tiere
      Gießen, Hesse, Germany
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Institut für Mikrobiologie
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2012–2013
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
    • University of Bonn
      • Institute of Zoology
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Christian Medical College & Hospital
      Ludhiana, Punjab, India
  • 2006–2013
    • Friedrich Loeffler Institute
      • • Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases
      • • Institute of Epidemiology
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2010–2012
    • Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Vilnius University
      • Biotechnologijos institutas
      Vilnius, Vilniaus Apskritis, Lithuania
  • 1992–2011
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • • Institute of Medical Sociology
      • • Institute of Virology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2008–2010
    • Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2007–2008
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Institute of Biochemistry and Biology
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
    • Robert Koch Institut
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002–2007
    • Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre
      Rija, Rīga, Latvia
    • Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Veterinary Sciences
      Bristol, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Latvia
      • Biomedical Research and Study Centre
      Riga, Riga, Latvia
  • 1999–2007
    • Institute of Biotechnology Vilnius University
      Vil'nyus, Vilniaus Apskritis, Lithuania
  • 1991–2005
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Biology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2003
    • Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2001
    • Universität zu Lübeck
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2000–2001
    • Karolinska Institutet
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1990
    • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany