[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) hyperplasia has been principally attributed to hypervitaminosis A. There are sporadic reports of HSC hyperplasia in other conditions such as chronic biliary disease and hepatitis C, but clinical associations of this entity have not been studied in detail. We aimed to investigate the clinical associations of HSC hyperplasia aside from hypervitaminosis A. We identified 34 patients whose liver histology showed HSC hyperplasia. We reviewed the liver samples; additional histologic findings in addition to HSC hyperplasia were consolidated into a histologic diagnosis. We collected clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data; the histologic diagnosis was combined with this data to reach an "overall diagnosis." Four patients had hypervitaminosis A (all native livers). In native livers (n = 24), HSC hyperplasia also occurred in association with drug-induced hepatitis [n = 6, niacin was the most common inducing agent (n = 3)], reactive hepatitis (n = 4), chronic hepatitis C (n = 4), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 3), steatohepatitis (n = 1), chronic biliary disease (n = 1), and portal venopathy (n = 1). In liver allografts (n = 10), HSC hyperplasia was seen in protocol biopsies without other significant abnormalities (n = 5), chronic biliary disease (n = 4), and acute cellular rejection (n = 1). All patients used medications (total of 99) and 82 % were on multiple medications. HSC hyperplasia is an uncommon and relatively nonspecific finding that most commonly occurs in multimedicated patients, often in the absence of hypervitaminosis A. Associated conditions include drug toxicity (such as niacin), post-liver transplant setting, reactive hepatitis (due to systemic illness or inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract), and chronic liver disease.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 05/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Allelic variation (rs738409C→G) in adiponutrin (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3, PNPLA3) has been associated with hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis. The physiologic impact of the PNPLA3 G allele may be exacerbated in patients with severe obesity. In this study, we investigated the interactions of PNPLA3 rs738409 with a broad panel of metabolic and histologic characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with medically complicated obesity. Design and Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery were selected for a prospective study. They underwent extensive laboratory and histologic (liver biopsy) assessment, as well as evaluation of rs738409 polymorphism by TaqMan assay. Results: Only 12 (8.3%) of the 144 patients had normal liver histology, with 72 (50%) NASH, of whom 15 (10.4% of total patients) had fibrosis stage 2-3. PNPLA3 GG genotype correlated positively (P < 0.05) with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, fibrinogen, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, homeostasis model assessment—insulin resistance, and presence of NASH. Multivariate analysis indicated that PNPLA3 rs738409 G versus C allele remained an (independent) risk factor for NASH, in addition to CK-18 >145 IU/l, glucose >100 mg/dl, and C-reactive protein (CRP) >0.8 mg/dl. The probability of NASH increased from 9% (no risk factor) to 82% if all four risk factors were present. Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with medically complicated obesity, PNPLA3 rs738409 G allelic expression is associated with hepatic (NASH) and nonhepatic complications of obesity, such as insulin resistance. These novel findings may be related to a greater impact of PNPLA3 variant in magnitude and scope in patients with severe obesity than in less obese populations. Further studies are needed to characterize the nature of these associations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue regeneration requires the activation of a set of specific growth signaling pathways. The identity of these cascades and their biological roles are known, however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the interplay between these pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we define a new role for SULFATASE 2 (SULF2) in regulating tissue regeneration and define the WNT-GLI1 axis as a novel downstream effector for this sulfatase in a liver model of tissue regeneration. SULF2 is a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, which releases growth factors from extracellular storage sites turning activate multiple signaling pathways. We demonstrate that SULF2-KO mice display delayed regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Mechanistic analysis of the SULF2-KO phenotype showed a decrease in WNT signaling pathway activity in vivo. In isolated hepatocytes, SULF2 deficiency blocked WNT-induced β-CATENIN nuclear translocation, TCF activation, and proliferation. Furthermore, we identified the transcription factor GLI1 as a novel target of the SULF2-WNT cascade. WNT induces GLI1 expression in a SULF2- and β-CATENIN-dependent manner. GLI1-KO mice phenocopied the SULF2-KO, showing delayed regeneration and decreased hepatocyte proliferation. Moreover, we identified CYCLIN D1, a key mediator of cell growth during tissue regeneration, as a GLI1 transcriptional target. GLI1 binds to the cyclin d1 promoter and regulates its activity and expression. Finally, restoring GLI1 expression in the liver of SULF2-KO mice after PH rescues CYCLIN D1 expression and hepatocyte proliferation to wild-type levels. Thus, together these findings define a novel pathway in which SULF2 regulates tissue regeneration in part via the activation of a novel WNT-GLI1-CYCLIN D1 pathway.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of biliary tract cancers has changed in the United States in the past several decades. The aim of this study is to evaluate biliary tract cancers with regard to the incidence rates, etiology, treatment, and survival in Olmsted County between 1976 and 2008.
Community residents over 20 years of age with a newly diagnosed biliary tract cancers were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical information, including tumor stage, treatment, and survival status was abstracted from the medical records. The incidence rate was calculated considering the entire population of Olmsted County to be at risk and adjusted by age and sex according to US Census 2000 population. Temporal trends of patient survival with biliary tract cancers were assessed.
A total of 116 subjects met the study criteria. The age-sex-adjusted incidence rate of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) increased from 0.3 to 2.1 (P=0.02) but one of gall bladder (GB) cancer decreased from 4.0 to 2.2 (P=0.04) per 100,000 person-years between 1976 and 2008 (P<0.01). Overall incidence rates of remaining biliary tract cancers have not changed. Overall 59% of patients presented with stage 3 or 4 cancers and a median survival was 6.3 months. Survival in patients with biliary tract cancer has minimally improved from median survival of 4.2-7.7 months between 1976 and 2008 (P=0.05).
In Olmsted County, the incidence of ICC and GB cancer has increased and decreased, respectively. The prognosis remains poor in community residents diagnosed with biliary tract cancers.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2012; 107(8):1256-62. · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the prevalence and severity of portal hypertension in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the prevalence and noninvasive predictors of portal hypertension in patients with NAFLD.
Signs of portal hypertension, including esophageal varices, splenomegaly, portosystemic encephalopathy, and ascites, were investigated in 354 patients with NAFLD.
One hundred patients had portal hypertension at the time of NAFLD diagnosis (28.2%), 88 of these patients had septal fibrosis or cirrhosis (88%). Fibrosis stage correlated with presence (r = 0.41, P < .0001) and number of findings (r = 0.48, P = .006) of portal hypertension. Of the 204 patients with no or mild fibrosis (stages, 0-2), 12 patients had portal hypertension (6%); they had a significantly higher grade of steatosis, based on biopsy analysis, compared with the 192 patients without portal hypertension (94%). Thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, cirrhosis, and obesity were associated independently with portal hypertension. Esophageal varices were found in 57 of the 128 patients undergoing endoscopic screening (44.5%) and were associated independently with thrombocytopenia, type 2 diabetes, and splenomegaly.
Signs of portal hypertension were present in 25% of patients at the time of diagnosis of NAFLD; most had advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Portal hypertension can occur in a small proportion of patients with mild or no fibrosis and is associated with the extent of steatosis. Features of advanced liver disease and insulin resistance might identify patients with NAFLD and portal hypertension, and those expected to derive the most benefit from endoscopic screening for esophageal varices.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 05/2012; 10(9):1028-33.e2. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of preformed donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) in liver transplant recipients is increasingly recognized; however, the prevalence of DSA and their impact on early allograft function remains unknown. We prospectively followed serum DSA levels of 90 consecutive liver transplant recipients from baseline to 4 months. Twenty recipients (22.2%) had preformed DSA. No antibody-targeting treatments were undertaken. Seven days after transplantation, DSA levels decreased markedly in all but three patients. Day 7 protocol biopsies showed diffuse C4d deposition along the portal stroma, central vein, subendothelial and stromal space in the patients with persistent high DSA levels. The rate of acute cellular rejection was not significantly different in patients with DSA. The transaminase and bilirubin levels remained comparable during the first year despite the presence of DSA. The three patients with persistently high DSA levels continue to have normal allograft function. We conclude that in most cases, DSA disappear after liver transplant, however in rare instances where they persist, there is evidence of complement activation in the liver allograft, without significant clinical impact in the first year.
American Journal of Transplantation 03/2012; 12(6):1504-10. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasingly being recognized as a common cause of acute hepatitis. The clinical impact of DILI after liver transplantation (LT) is not known. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, clinical presentation, and outcomes of DILI in LT recipients. LT recipients with possible DILI were identified with electronic pathology records and clinical note database retrieval tools. Diagnostic criteria were applied to identify cases of DILI. Twenty-nine of 1689 LT recipients (1.7%) were identified with DILI. The mean age was 52 years, and 52% were women. The major indications for LT were primary sclerosing cholangitis (28%), cholangiocarcinoma (14%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (14%). The severity of DILI was mild or moderate in 92% of the cases. Nausea or diarrhea (31%), jaundice (24%), and pruritus (10%) were the most common symptoms at the time of diagnosis. The mean biochemistry values were as follows: alanine aminotransferase, 204 ± 263 U/L; aspartate aminotransferase, 108 ± 237 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 469 ± 689 U/L; and total bilirubin, 1.9 ± 10.3 mg/dL. The median duration of medication use until the diagnosis of DILI was 57 days, and the major agent classes were antibiotics (48%), immunosuppressive agents (14%), and antihyperlipidemic drugs (7%). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was the most common implicated agent (n = 11). Serum liver enzymes improved within a median time of 34 days (range = 5-246 days) after drug withdrawal. Hepatic retransplantation or death did not occur. Among the 50 cases with possible DILI explained by other causes, 13 individuals (26%) had no alternative diagnosis despite histological findings compatible with DILI. In conclusion, DILI is a rare yet underrecognized event among LT recipients. The majority of cases are not clinically severe, and they resolve after drug cessation without hepatic retransplantation or death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is determined by the extent of the tumor and the underlying liver function. We aimed to develop a survival model for HCC based on objective parameters including the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) as a gauge of liver dysfunction. This analysis is based on 477 patients with HCC seen at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1994 and 2008 (derivation cohort) and 904 patients at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2000 and 2003 (validation cohort). Multivariate proportional hazards models and corresponding risk score were created based on baseline demographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics. Internal and external validation of the model was performed. Discrimination and calibration of this new model were compared against existing models including Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), and Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) scores. The majority of the patients had viral hepatitis as the underlying liver disease (100% in the derivation cohort and 85% in the validation cohort). The survival model incorporated MELD, age, number of tumor nodules, size of the largest nodule, vascular invasion, metastasis, serum albumin, and alpha-fetoprotein. In cross-validation, the coefficients remained largely unchanged between iterations. Observed survival in the validation cohort matched closely with what was predicted by the model. The concordance (c)-statistic for this model (0.77) was superior to that for BCLC (0.71), CLIP (0.70), or JIS (0.70). The score was able to further classify patient survival within each stage of the BCLC classification. CONCLUSION: A new model to predict survival of HCC patients based on objective parameters provides refined prognostication and supplements the BCLC classification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze longitudinal trends in the incidence, etiology, and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in community residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and their survival.
Olmsted County residents 20 years or older with HCC newly diagnosed from January 1, 1976, through December 31, 2008, were identified using a community-wide medical record linkage system (Rochester Epidemiology Project). The incidence rate of HCC was calculated by age and sex according to the 2000 US Census population. Temporal trends of HCC etiology, treatment, and patient survival were assessed.
The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate for HCC in Olmsted County was 3.5 per 100,000 person-years for the first era (1976-1990), 3.8 per 100,000 for the second era (1991-2000), and 6.9 per 100,000 for the third era (2001-2008). Alcohol use was the most common risk factor in the first and second eras and chronic hepatitis C virus in the third. The proportion attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was small (5/47 [10.6%] in the third era). Because the proportion of patients receiving curative treatment increased over time, survival also improved, with a median survival time of 3, 6, and 9 months in the first, second, and third eras, respectively (P=.01).
In this midwestern US community, the incidence of HCC has increased, primarily due to hepatitis C virus. Although there was a demonstrable improvement in the outcome of HCC in community residents over time, the overall prognosis remains poor.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 01/2012; 87(1):9-16. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver-related clinical consequences of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are seen only in the minority of patients with advanced fibrosis. The aim of our study was to generate insight into a potential endocrine basis of steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD.
Biopsy and blood samples were prospectively collected from patients with medically complicated obesity. Patients were categorized, according to liver histology, into: (i) normal, (ii) simple steatosis (SS), (iii) non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis stage (FS) 0-1 and (iv) NASH with FS ≥ 2. A broad panel of potential biomarkers included DHEA-S, growth hormone (GH), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, resistin, adiponectin and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) fragments.
We studied 160 patients (mean BMI 46.8 ± 8.2 kg/m(2) ). Liver biopsies demonstrated normal histology in 10%, SS in 45%, NASH with FS 0-1 in 37.5% and NASH with FS ≥ 2 in 7.5%. C-reactive protein, IL-6, GH, CK-18, adiponectin, HOMA-IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were significantly associated with NASH in univariate analysis, but overall predictivity of these parameters was low (AUC ROC = 0.62-0.68). In contrast, all patients with NASH with FS ≥ 2 had insulin resistance, as measured by QUICKI, and GH levels <0.45 ng/ml and all but one patient with NASH FS 2-3 had low DHEA levels (<123 μg/dl).
Low serum levels of GH and DHEA are very common in patients with NASH with more advanced fibrosis. Other biomarkers, including CK-18 fragment levels, have predictivity characteristics that would be of low clinical utility for distinguishing patients with normal histology or SS from those with NASH. These findings demonstrate an endocrine profile associated with advanced fibrosis.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 09/2011; 32(2):279-86. · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a noninherited condition, associated with high morbidity, and characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis, alopecia, onychodystrophy, hyperpigmentation, and diarrhea. All features may respond to immunosuppressive therapy, but little is known about the etiology. An autoimmune origin has been suggested but not proved. From a retrospectively selected cohort, we evaluated clinicopathologic features, including immunostaining for IgG4 (an antibody associated with autoimmunity), and therapeutic outcomes in a cohort of CCS patients to provide further insights into this disease.
Cases included 14 consecutive CCS patients seen at the Mayo Clinic on whom tissue and follow-up were available. All histology was reviewed by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist. Immunostaining for IgG4 was performed on 42 polyps from CCS cases and on control tissues, including 46 histologically similar hamartomas [from juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS)] and 20 normal mucosae (six stomach, three small bowel, and 11 colon). Clinical features and treatment outcomes were descriptive.
All CCS cases had both upper and lower gastrointestinal polyps; most had typical dermatologic features of alopecia, hyperpigmentation, and onychodystrophy; and most had evidence of protein-losing enteropathy. Ten patients (71%) had adenomatous polyps and 2 (14%) had colorectal cancer. IgG4 immunostaining was positive (>5 cells/HPF) in 52% of CCS polyps compared to 12% of JPS polyps (P = 0.001); IgG4 staining was negative in all other control tissues. Of 11 CCS patients treated with oral corticosteroids, 91% achieved remission. Relapse was common with steroid tapering. Five patients who initially responded to corticosteroids were maintained in remission on azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day) with no relapse after a median of 4.5 years.
Immunostaining for the autoimmune-related IgG4 antibody is significantly increased in CCS polyps compared to disease and normal control tissues. Furthermore, immunosuppression by corticosteroids or long-term azathioprine may eradicate or lessen manifestations of CCS. These histologic findings and treatment responses are consistent with an autoimmune mechanism underlying CCS.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 09/2011; 57(2):496-502. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there are small animal platforms that recapitulate some of the histological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there are no small animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with consistent hepatocellular ballooning and progressive fibrosis that also exhibit fidelity to the human condition physiologically. We examined the metabolic and histological effects of a diet on the basis of the composition of "fast food" (high saturated fats, cholesterol, and fructose). Mice (n = 8 in each group) were assigned to diets as follows: 1) standard chow (SC), i.e., 13% energy as fat [1% saturated fatty acids (SFA)], 2) high fat (HF), i.e., 60% energy as fat (1% SFA), and 3) fast food (FF), i.e., 40% energy as fat (12% SFA, 2% cholesterol). All three diets were supplemented with high fructose. All diets produced obesity. The HF and FF diets produced insulin resistance. Liver histology was normal in animals fed the SC diet. Steatohepatitis with pronounced ballooning and progressive fibrosis (stage 2) was observed in mice fed the FF diet. Although the HF diet produced obesity, insulin resistance, and some steatosis; inflammation was minimal, and there was no increase in fibrosis. The FF diet produced a gene expression signature of increased fibrosis, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipoapoptosis. A diet based on high cholesterol, high saturated fat, and high fructose recapitulates features of the metabolic syndrome and NASH with progressive fibrosis. This represents a novel small animal model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition. These results highlight the contribution of dietary composition to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and NASH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a rigorous evaluation of the repeatability of liver stiffness assessed by MR elastography (MRE) in healthy and hepatitis-C-infected subjects.
A biopsy-correlated repeatability study using four-slice MRE was conducted in five healthy and four HCV-infected subjects. Subjects were scanned twice on day 1 and after 7-14 days. Each slice was acquired during a 14-s breath-hold with a commercially available acquisition technique (MR-Touch, GE Healthcare). Results were analyzed by two independent analysts.
The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 0.98) for the between-scan average of maximum stiffness within each slice and 0.88 (90% CI: 0.78 to 0.99) for the average of mean stiffness within each slice for the primary analyst. For both analysts, the average of the mean liver stiffness within each slice was highly reproducible with ICC of 0.93 and 0.94. Within-subject coefficients of variation ranged from 6.07% to 10.78% for HCV+ and healthy subjects.
MRE is a highly reproducible modality for assessing liver stiffness in HCV patients and healthy subjects and can discriminate between moderate fibrosis and healthy liver. MRE is a promising modality for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis (CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00896233).
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 07/2011; 34(4):947-55. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography for the early detection of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
An institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was conducted in 58 NAFLD patients. Informed consent was waived by the review board. Hepatic stiffness, relative fat fraction, inflammation grade, and fibrosis stage were assessed from MR elastography, in-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging, and liver biopsy histopathologic review, respectively. Pairwise t testing, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and partial correlation analysis were performed.
The mean hepatic stiffness for patients with simple steatosis (2.51 kPa) was less (P = .028) than that for patients with inflammation but no fibrosis (3.24 kPa). The mean hepatic stiffness for patients with inflammation but no fibrosis was less (P = .030) than that for patients with hepatic fibrosis (4.16 kPa). Liver stiffness had high accuracy (AUROC = 0.93) for discriminating patients with NASH from those with simple steatosis, with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity 73% by using a threshold of 2.74 kPa.
In patients with NAFLD, hepatic stiffness measurements with MR elastography can help identify individuals with steatohepatitis, even before the onset of fibrosis; NAFLD patients with inflammation but no fibrosis have greater liver stiffness than those with simple steatosis and lower mean stiffness than those with fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic fates of copper and iron are closely linked through ceruloplasmin and hephaestin. Ceruloplasmin is the principal copper carrying protein and decreases in acquired copper deficiency. Congenital absence of ceruloplasmin (aceruloplasminemia) results in tissue iron overload. Animal studies suggest hypoceruloplasminemia and impaired hephaestin function result in tissue iron accumulation.
There are no data on hepatic function, pathology, and iron status in patients with acquired copper deficiency. This report studies these issues in 4 patients with acquired copper deficiency.
This is a retrospective review of hepatic status (imaging, liver function tests, liver biopsy) in 4 patients with neurologic and hematologic manifestations of acquired copper deficiency who also had imaging and/or pathologic evidence of hepatic dysfunction.
Two patients (cases 1 and 2) showed imaging evidence of cirrhosis and pathologic evidence of cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis. Two patients (cases 3 and 4) had pathologic evidence of hepatic iron overload. All patients had some evidence of abnormality on liver function tests.
Acquired copper deficiency causes a secondary ceruloplasmin deficiency which can result in hepatic iron overload and/or cirrhosis.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 02/2011; 45(2):153-8. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few data available about the prevalence or effects of cirrhosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from viral hepatitis. We compared patients with HCC and hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections to determine the proportions of cirrhosis in each group, virologic and tumor characteristics, and overall survival.
This analysis included patients with HBV (n = 64) or HCV (n = 118) infection who were diagnosed with HCC at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota from 1994-2008; groups were matched for age and sex. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on histology and, if histologic information was insufficient or unavailable, clinical indicators that included ascites or varices, thrombocytopenia or splenomegaly, and radiographic configuration of cirrhosis. Virologic characteristics, tumor stage, and patient survival were also assessed.
The prevalence of histologic cirrhosis was 88% among patients with HBV infection and 93% among those with HCV infection (P = .46). When the most inclusive criteria for cirrhosis were applied, cirrhosis was present in 94% of patients with HBV and 97% with HCV (P = .24). Among HCV patients, 5.2% were negative for HCV RNA after antiviral treatment; 63.4% of HBV patients had HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL with or without treatment. Patients with HBV tended to have less surveillance and more advanced stages of HCC, without differences in survival from those with HCV infection (P = .75).
Most patients with HCC and chronic viral hepatitis had evidence of cirrhosis, including those with HBV infection and those without active viral replication.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 01/2011; 9(1):64-70. · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as coreceptors or storage sites for growth factors and cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor and Wnts. Glypican 3 (GPC3) is the most highly expressed HSPG in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sulfatase 2 (SULF2), an enzyme with 6-O-desulfatase activity on HSPGs, is up-regulated in 60% of primary HCCs and is associated with a worse prognosis. We have previously shown that the oncogenic effect of SULF2 in HCC may be mediated in part through up-regulation of GPC3. Here we demonstrate that GPC3 stimulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and mediates the oncogenic function of SULF2 in HCC. Wnt signaling in vitro and in vivo was assessed in SULF2-negative Hep3B HCC cells transfected with SULF2 and in SULF2-expressing Huh7 cells transfected with short hairpin RNA targeting SULF2. The interaction between GPC3, SULF2, and Wnt3a was assessed by coimmunoprecipitation and flow cytometry. β-catenin-dependent transcriptional activity was assessed with the TOPFLASH (T cell factor reporter plasmid) luciferase assay. In HCC cells, SULF2 increased cell surface GPC3 and Wnt3a expression, stabilized β-catenin, and activated T cell factor transcription factor activity and expression of the Wnt/β-catenin target gene cyclin D1. Opposite effects were observed in SULF2-knockdown models. In vivo, nude mouse xenografts established from SULF2-transfected Hep3B cells showed enhanced GPC3, Wnt3a, and β-catenin levels. CONCLUSION: Together, these findings identify a novel mechanism mediating the oncogenic function of SULF2 in HCC that includes GPC3-mediated activation of Wnt signaling via the Wnt3a/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta axis.