[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in GSDMB and ORMDL3 are strongly associated with childhood asthma but the molecular alterations contributing to disease remain unknown. We investigated the effects of asthma-associated SNPs on DNA methylation and mRNA-levels of GSDMB and ORMDL3. Genetic association between GSDMB/ORMDL3 and physician-diagnosed childhood asthma was confirmed in the Swedish birth-cohort BAMSE. CpG-site SNPs (rs7216389 and rs4065275) showed differences in DNA methylation depending on carrier status of the risk alleles, and were significantly associated with methylation levels in two CpG sites in the 5'UTR of ORMDL3. In the Swedish Search study, we found significant differences in DNA methylation between asthmatics and controls in five CpG sites; after adjusting for lymphocyte and neutrophil cell counts, three remained significant: one in IKZF3 (cg16293631) and two in the CpG island of ORMDL3 (cg02305874 and cg16638648). Also, cg16293631 and cg02305874 correlated with mRNA levels of ORMDL3. The association of methylation and asthma was independent of the genotype in rs7216389, rs4065275 and rs12603332. Both SNPs and CpG sites showed significant associations with ORMDL3 mRNA levels. SNPs influenced expression independently of methylation and the residual association between methylation and expression was not mediated by these SNPs. We found a differentially methylated region in the CpG island shore of ORMDL3 with six CpG sites less methylated in CD8(+)T-cells. In summary, this study supports that there are differences in DNA methylation at this locus between asthmatics and controls; and both SNPs and CpG sites are independently associated with ORMDL3 expression.
Human Molecular Genetics 09/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes, nano-sized membrane vesicles, are released by various cells and are found in many human body fluids. They are active players in intercellular communication and have immune-suppressive, immune-regulatory, and immune-stimulatory functions. EBV is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with various lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. EBV infection of B cells in vitro induces the release of exosomes that harbor the viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). LMP1 per se mimics CD40 signaling and induces proliferation of B lymphocytes and T cell-independent class-switch recombination. Constitutive LMP1 signaling within B cells is blunted through the shedding of LMP1 via exosomes. In this study, we investigated the functional effect of exosomes derived from the DG75 Burkitt's lymphoma cell line and its sublines (LMP1 transfected and EBV infected), with the hypothesis that they might mimic exosomes released during EBV-associated diseases. We show that exosomes released during primary EBV infection of B cells harbored LMP1, and similar levels were detected in exosomes from LMP1-transfected DG75 cells. DG75 exosomes efficiently bound to human B cells within PBMCs and were internalized by isolated B cells. In turn, this led to proliferation, induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and the production of circle and germline transcripts for IgG1 in B cells. Finally, exosomes harboring LMP1 enhanced proliferation and drove B cell differentiation toward a plasmablast-like phenotype. In conclusion, our results suggest that exosomes released from EBV-infected B cells have a stimulatory capacity and interfere with the fate of human B cells.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To study the adjuvant effect of mesoporous silica particles and their capability of modifying an already existing allergic Th2-like immune response. Materials & methods: The adjuvant effect of Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15) mesoporous silica particles was studied in an antigen-specific ovalbumin (OVA) system in vitro and in vivo. The capacity of the OVA-loaded SBA-15 particles (SBA-15-OVA) to modify an existing immune response was assessed in a murine allergy model. Results: SBA-15-OVA induced significantly stronger OVA-specific splenocyte proliferation compared with OVA alone. Significantly higher IFN-γ production was observed in ex vivo OVA-stimulated splenocytes from SBA-15-OVA-immunized mice compared with mice injected with only SBA-15 or OVA. Treatment of OVA-sensitized mice with SBA-15-OVA modified the immune response with significantly lower serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and higher IgG levels compared with the alum-OVA-treated group. Conclusion: The results are promising for the continued development of mesoporous silica materials for therapeutic applications. Original submitted 18 January 2013; Revised submitted 30 August 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast-feeding has many beneficial effects on the developing immune system of the newborn. Breast milk contains immunoregulatory factors, such as nano-sized vesicles named exosomes. This study aimed at characterizing breast milk exosomes from human early milk and mature milk and to investigate whether allergic sensitization and an anthroposophic lifestyle could influence the exosome profile.
Breast milk was collected from 22 mothers at day 3-8 and from 61 mothers at 2 months postpartum, all part of the ALADDIN birth cohort. Isolated exosomes were captured on anti-MHC-class II- or anti-CD63 beads and analyzed by flow cytometry. Exosomal phenotype was related to lifestyle and allergic sensitization of the mothers, and sensitization of the child at 2 years of age.
We found a higher content of exosomes in early milk compared with mature milk. Early milk exosomes were enriched in HLA-DR molecules and displayed significantly lower levels of HLA-ABC compared with those in mature milk. Phenotypically different subpopulations of exosomes were found in mature milk. Significantly lower levels of MUC1 were detected on CD63-enriched exosomes from sensitized mothers compared with nonsensitized. Furthermore, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had significantly lower MUC1 expression on their HLA-DR-enriched milk exosomes and up-regulated levels of CD63 on CD63-enriched exosomes compared with nonanthroposophic mothers. Notably, mothers whose children developed sensitization had an increased amount of HLA-ABC on their milk exosomes enriched for CD63.
The phenotype of exosomes in breast milk varies with maternal sensitization and lifestyle, which might influence allergy development in the child.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hygiene hypothesis states that children exposed to higher loads of microbes such as farmers' children suffer less from allergies later in life. Several immunological mechanisms underpinning the hygiene hypothesis have been proposed such as a shift in T helper cell balance, T regulatory cell activity, or immune regulatory mechanisms induced by the innate immunity.
To investigate whether the proposed immunological mechanisms for the hygiene hypotheses are found in farmers' children.
We assessed gene expression levels of 64 essential markers of the innate and adaptive immunity by quantitative real-time PCR in white blood cells in 316 Swiss children of the PARSIFAL study to compare farmers' to non-farmers' expressions and to associate them to the prevalence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, total and allergen-specific IgE in serum, and expression of Cε germ-line transcripts.
We found enhanced expression of genes of the innate immunity such as IRAK-4 and RIPK1 and enhanced expression of regulatory molecules such as IL-10, TGF-β, SOCS4, and IRAK-2 in farmers' children. Furthermore, farmers' children expressed less of the TH1 associated cytokine IFN-γ while TH2 associated transcription factor GATA3 was enhanced. No significant associations between the assessed immunological markers and allergic diseases or sensitization to allergens were observed.
Farmers' children express multiple increased innate immune response and immune regulatory molecules, which may contribute to the mechanisms of action of the hygiene hypothesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91097. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several human skin diseases and disorders are associated with two groups of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases and disorders of mankind. These fungi are phylogenetically divergent, with the dermatophytes within the Ascomycota and Malassezia within Basidiomycota. Genome analysis indicates that the adaptations to the skin environment are different in these two groups of fungi. Malassezia are dependent on host lipids and secrete lipases and phospholipases that likely release host fatty acids. The dermatophytes encode multiple enzymes with potential roles in modulating host interactions: polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, LysM, proteases, kinases, and pseudokinases. These two fungal groups have maximized their interactions with the host using two very different mechanisms.
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 01/2014; 4(8).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which has increased in prevalence. Evidence points toward lifestyle as a major risk factor. AE is often the first symptom early in life later followed by food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Thus, there is a great need to find early, preferentially noninvasive, biomarkers to identify individuals that are predisposed to AE with the goal to prevent disease development.
To investigate whether the protein abundances in vernix can predict later development of AE.
Vernix collected at birth from 34 newborns within the Assessment of Lifestyle and Allergic Disease During INfancy (ALADDIN) birth cohort was included in the study. At 2 years of age, 18 children had developed AE. Vernix proteins were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
We identified and quantified 203 proteins in all vernix samples. An orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was found with R(2) = 0.85, Q(2) = 0.39, and discrimination power between the AE and healthy group of 73.5%. Polyubiquitin-C and calmodulin-like protein 5 showed strong negative correlation to the AE group, with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 and 0.68, respectively, and a P-value of 8.2 E-7 and 1.8 E-5, respectively. For these two proteins, the OPLS-DA model showed a prediction accuracy of 91.2%.
The protein abundances in vernix, and particularly that of polyubiquitin-C and calmodulin-like protein 5, are promising candidates as biomarkers for the identification of newborns predisposed to develop AE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections caused by Malassezia yeasts are most likely underdiagnosed, because fatty acid supplementation is needed for growth. Rapid identification of Malassezia species is essential for appropriate treatment of Malassezia related skin-infections, fungemia and nosocomial outbreaks in neonates, children and adults and can be live saving for those patients. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was reported as a rapid and reliable diagnostic tool to identify clinically important yeasts, but so far no data have been reported on identification of Malassezia isolates with this technique.
To create an extensive database of main mass spectra (MSPs) that will allow quick identification of Malassezia species by MALDI-TOF MS.
An in-house library of 113 MSPs was created from 48 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW yeast collection. The in-house library was challenged with two test sets of Malassezia strains, namely 165 reference strains from the CBS collection and 338 isolates collected in Greece, Italy, Sweden, and Thailand.
MALDI-TOF MS allowed correct identification of all 14 Malassezia spp. MALDI-TOF MS results were concordant with those of sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1/ITS2) and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA).
Implementation of the MALDI-TOF MS system as a routine identification tool will contribute to correct identification of Malassezia yeasts with a minimal effort and in a short turnaround time which is specifically important for the rapid identification of Malassezia in skin diseases and nosocomial outbreaks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
British Journal of Dermatology 10/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, a novel method to synthesize soluble, sub-micrometer sized protein aggregates is demonstrated by mixing native and denatured proteins without using bacteria and contaminating proteins. Ovalbumin (OVA) is employed as a model protein. The average size of the formed aggregates can be controlled by adjusting the fraction of denatured protein in the sample and it is possible to make unimodal size distributions of protein aggregates. OVA aggregates with a size of ∼95 nm are found to be more immunogenic compared to native OVA in a murine splenocyte proliferation assay. These results suggest that the novel method of engineering size specific sub-micrometer sized aggregates may constitute a potential route to increasing the efficacy of protein vaccines. The protein aggregates may also be promising for use in other applications including the surface functionalization of biomaterials and as industrial catalysis materials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The yeast Malassezia belongs to our normal cutaneous flora, but is capable of sensitizing individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD). Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to Malassezia with a 10-yr follow-up among children suffering from AD combined with food allergy (FA) in relation to the extent of AD in infancy. METHODS: One hundred and eighty seven infants diagnosed with AD and milk/wheat allergy before 1 yr of age were included in the study. The area of AD was estimated from patient records of the first visit and measured with SCORAD at the 10-yr follow-up. Specific IgE against Malassezia was determined with ImmunoCAP™ at 11 yr of age. RESULTS: In infancy, 24 children (13%) were allergic to milk, 71 (38%) to wheat, and 92 (49%) to both milk and wheat, and 94 (50%) children had mild, 57 (30%) moderate and 36 (19%) severe AD. At the 10-yr follow-up visit, 19 (10%) of the children had ongoing milk and/or wheat allergy; 147 children (79%) had mild AD and 30 (16%) had SCORAD index of 0. Specific IgE against Malassezia mix was positive (≥0.35 kU/l) in 27% and specific IgE against M. sympodialis in 20% of the 187 children. The area of AD in infancy was associated with a greater risk of having allergen-specific IgE to Malassezia at the 10-yr follow-up. The risk ratio for FA was 3.11 (95% CI: 2.05-4.72; p < 0.001) if specific IgE to Malassezia was positive. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with severe AD and FA seem to have a greater risk of becoming sensitized to Malassezia during a 10-yr follow-up.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 04/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Growing up in families with an anthroposophic lifestyle has been associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children. The aim of this report was to assess whether children with this lifestyle are infected earlier with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which has been associated with reduced risk of allergic disease, and three other herpesviruses potentially involved in allergy development, namely Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). METHODS: Within the ALADDIN (Assessment of Lifestyle and Allergic Disease During Infancy), birth cohort study 157 children were categorized according to lifestyle into anthroposophic and non-anthroposophic. IgG-levels for EBV, HHV6, HHV7 and CMV were determined in plasma samples collected at ages 12 and 24 months and from parents. IgE levels against seven common allergens were analyzed at 24 months. RESULTS: No significant differences in seroprevalence of EBV, HHV7 or CMV were detected at any age between the two lifestyle groups. The seroprevalence of HHV6 was significantly lower in the anthroposophic group at 24 months of age (74.6% vs. 87.5%, p-value 0.048). Further, no significant associations between allergic sensitization and seropositivity to any of the viruses were detected; however, an interaction effect of lifestyle could not be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there is no strong influence of exposure to the anthroposophic lifestyle on the time for infection with EBV, HHV6, HHV7 or CMV. These infections can therefore not be assumed to be important factors in the allergy-protective effect of this lifestyle.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 02/2013; 24(1):61-65. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms integrate genetic and environmental causes of disease, but comprehensive genome-wide analyses of epigenetic modifications have not yet demonstrated robust association with common diseases. Using Illumina HumanMethylation450 arrays on 354 anti-citrullinated protein antibody-associated rheumatoid arthritis cases and 337 controls, we identified two clusters within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region whose differential methylation potentially mediates genetic risk for rheumatoid arthritis. To reduce confounding factors that have hampered previous epigenome-wide studies, we corrected for cellular heterogeneity by estimating and adjusting for cell-type proportions in our blood-derived DNA samples and used mediation analysis to filter out associations likely to be a consequence of disease. Four CpGs also showed an association between genotype and variance of methylation. The associations for both clusters replicated at least one CpG (P < 0.01), with the rest showing suggestive association, in monocyte cell fractions in an independent cohort of 12 cases and 12 controls. Thus, DNA methylation is a potential mediator of genetic risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoid acid receptor-related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma in a genome-wide association study. To investigate the impact of RORA on asthma susceptibility, we performed a genetic association study between RORA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vicinity of the asthma-associated SNP (rs11071559) and asthma-related traits. Because the regulatory region of a previously implicated asthma susceptibility gene, Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1), has predicted elements for RORA binding, we hypothesized that RORA may interact biologically and genetically with NPSR1. 37 RORA SNPs and eight NPSR1 SNPs were genotyped in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE (2033 children) and the European cross-sectional PARSIFAL study (1120 children). Seven RORA SNPs confined into a 49 kb region were significantly associated with physician-diagnosed childhood asthma. The most significant association with rs7164773 (T/C) was driven by the CC genotype in asthma cases (OR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.36-2.93, p = 0.0003 in BAMSE; and 1.61, 1.18-2.19, p = 0.002 in the combined BAMSE-PARSIFAL datasets, respectively), and strikingly, the risk effect was dependent on the Gln344Arg mutation in NPSR1. In cell models, stimulation of NPSR1 activated a pathway including RORA and other circadian clock genes. Over-expression of RORA decreased NPSR1 promoter activity further suggesting a regulatory loop between these genes. In addition, Rora mRNA expression was lower in the lung tissue of Npsr1 deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates during the early hours of the light period. We conclude that RORA SNPs are associated with childhood asthma and show epistasis with NPSR1, and the interaction between RORA and NPSR1 may be of biological relevance. Combinations of common susceptibility alleles and less common functional polymorphisms may modify the joint risk effects on asthma susceptibility.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60111. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome repertoire with that of Malassezia globosa, associated with dandruff, as well as those of other closely related fungi. Ninety percent of the predicted M. sympodialis protein coding genes were experimentally verified by mass spectrometry at the protein level. We identified a relatively limited number of genes related to lipid biosynthesis, and both species lack the fatty acid synthase gene, in line with the known requirement of these yeasts to assimilate lipids from the host. Malassezia species do not appear to have many cell wall-localized glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) proteins and lack other cell wall proteins previously identified in other fungi. This is surprising given that in other fungi these proteins have been shown to mediate interactions (e.g., adhesion and biofilm formation) with the host. The genome revealed a complex evolutionary history for an allergen of unknown function, Mala s 7, shown to be encoded by a member of an amplified gene family of secreted proteins. Based on genetic and biochemical studies with the basidiomycete human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, we characterized the allergen Mala s 6 as the cytoplasmic cyclophilin A. We further present evidence that M. sympodialis may have the capacity to undergo sexual reproduction and present a model for a pseudobipolar mating system that allows limited recombination between two linked MAT loci. IMPORTANCE Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders. The previously published genome of M. globosa provided some of the first insights into Malassezia biology and its involvement in dandruff. Here, we present the genome of M. sympodialis, frequently isolated from patients with atopic eczema and healthy individuals. We combined comparative genomics with sequencing and functional characterization of specific genes in a population of clinical isolates and in closely related model systems. Our analyses provide insights into the evolution of allergens related to atopic eczema and the evolutionary trajectory of the machinery for sexual reproduction and meiosis. We hypothesize that M. sympodialis may undergo sexual reproduction, which has important implications for the understanding of the life cycle and virulence potential of this medically important yeast. Our findings provide a foundation for the development of genetic and genomic tools to elucidate host-microbe interactions that occur on the skin and to identify potential therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma and allergy are complex disorders influenced by both inheritance and environment, a relationship that might be further clarified by epigenetics. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) has been associated with asthma and allergy and a study suggested modulation of the genetic risk by environmental factors. We aimed to study DNA methylation in the promoter region of NPSR1 in relation to asthma and environmental exposures. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) was used to investigate potential functional roles of both genotypes and methylation status in the NPSR1 promoter. DNA methylation was analysed using EpiTYPER in blood samples from two well-characterized cohorts; the BIOAIR study of severe asthma in adults and the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE. We observed that DNA methylation and genetic variants in the promoter influenced the binding of nuclear proteins to DNA, suggesting functional relevance. Significant, although small, differences in methylation were related to both adult severe asthma (p = 0.0001) and childhood allergic asthma (p = 0.01). Furthermore, DNA methylation was associated with exposures such as current smoking in adults for two CpG sites (p = 0.005 and 0.04), parental smoking during infancy in the children (p = 0.02) and in which month the sample was taken (p = 0.01). In summary, DNA methylation levels in the promoter of NPSR1 showed small but significant associations with asthma, both in adults and in children, and to related traits such as allergy and certain environmental exposures. Both genetic variation and the methylated state of CpG sites seem to have an effect on the binding of nuclear proteins in the regulatory region of NPSR1 suggesting complex regulation of this gene in asthma and allergy.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53877. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children) and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children), genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6) and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0) in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0) of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies of etiological mechanisms and may also strengthen the basis for risk assessment and prevention.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80080. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive in vitro assessment of two commercial metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2 and ZnO, was performed using human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), and Jurkat T cell leukemia-derived cell line. TiO2 nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic whereas ZnO nanoparticles caused dose-dependent cell death. Subsequently, global gene expression profiling was performed to identify transcriptional response underlying the cytotoxicity caused by ZnO nanoparticles. Analysis was done with doses 1 µg/ml and 10 µg/ml after 6 and 24 h of exposure. Interestingly, 2703 genes were significantly differentially expressed in HMDM upon exposure to 10 µg/ml ZnO nanoparticles, while in MDDCs only 12 genes were affected. In Jurkat cells, 980 genes were differentially expressed. It is noteworthy that only the gene expression of metallothioneins was upregulated in all the three cell types and a notable proportion of the genes were regulated in a cell type-specific manner. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the top biological processes disturbed in HMDM and Jurkat cells were regulating cell death and growth. In addition, genes controlling immune system development were affected. Using a panel of modified ZnO nanoparticles, we obtained an additional support that the cellular response to ZnO nanoparticles is largely dependent on particle dissolution and show that the ligand used to modify ZnO nanoparticles modulates Zn(2+) leaching. Overall, the study provides an extensive resource of transcriptional markers for mediating ZnO nanoparticle-induced toxicity for further mechanistic studies, and demonstrates the value of assessing nanoparticle responses through a combined transcriptomics and bioinformatics approach.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68415. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in the paint and coating industry as well as in cosmetics, but the knowledge of their possible interactions with the immune system is very limited. Our aims were to investigate if commercially available TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles may affect different human immune cells and their production of exosomes, nano-sized vesicles that have a role in cell to cell communication. We found that the TiO2 or ZnO nanoparticles at concentrations from 1 to 100 μg/mL did not affect the viability of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In contrast, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) reacted with a dose dependent increase in cell death and caspase activity to ZnO but not to TiO2 nanoparticles. Non-toxic exposure, 10 μg/mL, to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles did not significantly alter the phenotype of MDDC. Interestingly, ZnO but not TiO2 nanoparticles induced a down regulation of FcγRIII (CD16) expression on NK-cells in the PBMC population, suggesting that subtoxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles might have an effect on FcγR-mediated immune responses. The phenotype and size of exosomes produced by PBMC or MDDC exposed to the nanoparticles were similar to that of exosomes harvested from control cultures. TiO2 or ZnO nanoparticles could not be detected within or associated to exosomes as analyzed with TEM. We conclude that TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles differently affect immune cells and that evaluations of nanoparticles should be performed even at subtoxic concentrations on different primary human immune cells when investigating potential effects on immune functions.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2012; 264(1):94–103. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We have previously found an inverse association of bacterial diversity with childhood asthma. It remains unclear whether certain bacteria account for the protective effect. METHODS: The high variability of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene allows assessing diversity and specificity of bacterial communities by single-strand configuration polymorphism (SSCP). DNA was extracted from mattress dust samples of 489 school-age children from rural and suburban regions in Germany. A fragment of the bacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, digested to single-strand DNA, and subjected to electrophoresis. The resulting band patterns reflect the underlying DNA sequences. The individual bands were tested for associations with asthma, hay fever, and atopy in quantitative and qualitative multivariable analyses. Significantly associated bands were isolated and sequenced. The sequences were compared to a database, and distinct bacteria were identified. RESULTS: Seven of 76 independent bands were found to be inversely associated with asthma, atopic sensitization, and hay fever with odds ratios ranging from 0.17 to 0.73. The bands contained the sequences of Acinetobacter sp., Lactobacillus spp., Neisseria spp., Staphylococcus sciuri, Jeotgalicoccus sp., Corynebacterium spp., and others. CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse microbial environment, certain bacteria may account for the protective effect on the development of asthma and atopy.