[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant host defense, maintains the cellular redox homeostasis.
This study was designed to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms by which Nrf2 regulates toll-like receptor (TLR)4-driven inflammation response in a mouse model of hepatic warm ischemia (90 min) and reperfusion (6 hr) injury (IRI).
Activation of Nrf2 after preconditioning of wild-type mouse recipients with cobalt protoporphyrin ameliorated liver IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (serum alanine aminotransferase levels), and preserved tissue architecture (histology Suzuki's score). In marked contrast, ablation of Nrf2 signaling exacerbated IR-induced liver inflammation and damage in Nrf2 knockout hosts irrespective of adjunctive cobalt protoporphyrin treatment. The Nrf2 activation reduced macrophage and neutrophil trafficking, proinflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis or apoptosis while increasing antiapoptotic functions in IR-stressed livers. At the molecular level, Nrf2 activation augmented heme oxygenase-1 expression and Stat3 phosphorylation and promoted PI3K-Akt while suppressing forkhead box O (Foxo)1 signaling. In contrast, Nrf2 deficiency diminished PI3K-Akt and enhanced Foxo1 expression in the ischemic livers. In parallel in vitro studies, Nrf2 knockdown in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) decreased heme oxygenase-1 and PI3K-Akt yet increased Foxo1 transcription, leading to enhanced expression of TLR4 proinflammatory mediators. Moreover, pretreatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) activated Foxo1 signaling, which in turn enhanced TLR4-driven innate responses in vitro.
Activation of Nrf2 promoted PI3K-Akt, and inhibited Foxo1 activity in IR-triggered local inflammation response. By identifying a novel integrated Nrf2-Akt-Foxo1 signaling network in PI3K-dependent regulation of TLR4-driven innate immune activation, this study provides the rationale for refined therapeutic approaches to manage liver inflammation and IRI in transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are instrumental in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Although Nrf2 regulates macrophage-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense, it remains unknown whether HO-1 induction might rescue macrophage Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory functions. This study explores the mechanisms by which Nrf2-HO-1 axis regulates non-sterile liver inflammation response after adoptive transfer of ex-vivo modified HO-1 overexpressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Livers in Nrf2-deficient mice preconditioned with Ad-HO-1-BMMs, but not Ad-β-Gal-BMMs, ameliorated liver IRI (at 6 h of reperfusion after 90 min of warm ischemia), evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (sALT levels) and preserved hepatic architecture (histology Suzuki's score). Treatment with Ad-HO-1-BMMs decreased neutrophil accumulation, pro-inflammatory mediators, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in ischemic livers. Moreover, Ad-HO-1 transfection of Nrf2-deficient BMMs suppressed M1 (Nos2+) while promoting M2 (Mrc-1/Arg-1+) phenotype. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1-BMMs increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt in IR-stressed Nrf2-deficient livers as well as in LPS-stimulated BMMs. Thus, adoptive transfer of ex-vivo generated Ad-HO-1-BMMs rescued Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory phenotype by promoting Notch1/Hes1/Stat3 signaling and reprogramming macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. These findings provide the rationale for a novel clinically attractive strategy to manage IR-liver inflammation/damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates host cell defense responses against oxidative stress and maintains the cellular redox balance.
We investigated the function/molecular mechanisms by which Keap1-Nrf2 complex may influence liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of hepatic cold storage (20h at 4°C) followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).
The Keap1 hepatocyte-specific knock-out (HKO) in the donor liver ameliorated post-transplant IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function and OLT outcomes (Keap1HKO→Keap1HKO; 100% survival), as compared with controls (WT→WT; 50% survival; p<0.01). In contrast, donor liver Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated IRI in transplant recipients (Nrf2KO→Nrf2KO; 40% survival). Ablation of Keap1 signaling reduced macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, pro-inflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis, while simultaneously promoting anti-apoptotic functions in OLTs. At the molecular level, Keap1HKO increased Nrf2 levels, stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of anti-oxidant Trx1, HIF-1α, and HO-1. Pretreatment of liver donors with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) disrupted Akt/HIF-1α signaling and recreated hepatocellular damage in otherwise IR-resistant Keap1HKO transplants. In parallel in vitro studies, hydrogen peroxide-stressed Keap1-deficient hepatocytes were characterized by enhanced expression of Nrf2, Trx1, and Akt phosphorylation, in association with decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cell culture supernatants.
Keap1-Nrf2 complex prevents oxidative injury in IR-stressed OLTs through Keap1 signaling, which negatively regulates Nrf2 pathway. Activation of Nrf2 induces Trx1 and promotes PI3K/Akt, crucial for HIF-1α activity. HIF-1α -mediated overexpression of HO-1/CyclinD1 facilitates cytoprotection by limiting hepatic inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in PI3K-dependent manner.
Journal of Hepatology 07/2013; 59(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.07.016 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical mediators of immune responses that integrate signals from the innate immune system to orchestrate adaptive host immunity. This study was designed to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms of STAT3-induced β-catenin in the regulation of DC function and inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. STAT3 induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) triggered β-catenin activation by way of GSK-3β phosphorylation. The activation of β-catenin inhibited phosphatase and tensin homolog delete on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and promoted the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which in turn down-regulated DC maturation and function. In contrast, knockdown of β-catenin increased PTEN/TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and proinflammatory cytokine programs in response to LPS stimulation. In a mouse model of warm liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI), disruption of β-catenin signaling increased the hepatocellular damage, enhanced hepatic DC maturation/function, and PTEN/TLR4 local inflammation in vivo.
These findings underscore the role of β-catenin to modulate DC maturation and function at the innate-adaptive interface. Activation of β-catenin triggered PI3K/Akt, which in turn inhibited TLR4-driven inflammatory response in a negative feedback regulatory mechanism. By identifying the molecular pathways by which β-catenin regulates DC function, our findings provide the rationale for novel therapeutic approaches to manage local inflammation and injury in IR-stressed liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs in multiple clinical settings, including liver transplantation. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway inhibits hepatocellular apoptosis and regulates toll-like receptor 4-triggered inflammation responses in vitro. Here we examined the function and therapeutic potential of cAMP-PKA activation in a murine (C57/BL6) model of liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) followed by reperfusion. Liver IRI triggered cAMP-PKA activation, whereas the administration of its specific inhibitor, H89, exacerbated hepatocellular damage. Conversely, forskolin therapy, which activates PKA by elevating cAMP levels, protected livers from IRI; this was evidenced by diminished serum alanine aminotransferase levels and well-preserved tissue architecture. Liver protection due to cAMP-PKA stimulation was accompanied by diminished neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation, reduced hepatocyte necrosis/apoptosis, and increased cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression and augmented interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression. The neutralization of IL-10 restored liver damage in otherwise ischemia/reperfusion-resistant, forskolin-treated mice. In vitro, cAMP-PKA activation diminished macrophage tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, and IL-12 in an IL-10-dependent manner and prevented necrosis/apoptosis in primary mouse hepatocyte cultures. Our novel findings in a mouse model of liver IRI document the importance of cAMP-PKA signaling in hepatic homeostasis and cytoprotection in vivo. The activation of cAMP-PKA signaling differentially regulates local inflammation and prevents hepatocyte death, and this provides a rationale for novel therapeutic approaches to combating liver IRI in transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antithymocyte therapy, specifically antithymocyte globulin (ATG; Thymoglobulin), is increasingly being used in organ transplantation to reduce allograft rejection. The T-lymphocyte has been purported to also play a role in ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI); however, it has not been well studied. Our aim is to determine if ATG treatment impacts murine intestinal IRI.
Under anesthesia, male C57BL6 mice underwent 100 minutes of warm intestinal IRI by clamping the superior mesenteric artery. The treatment group received rabbit anti-murine ATG (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 6 hours before IRI. Separate survival and analysis groups were performed. Intestinal tissue was procured at 4 and 24 hours after IRI. Tissue analysis included hematoxylin-eosin staining, CD3, CD4, and CD8 immunostaining, myeloperoxidase assay (MPO), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies, and Western blot.
ATG treatment led to marked improvement in 7-day survival and a reduction in tissue injury by histology. MPO was also reduced, and immunostaining confirmed a significant reduction in CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) infiltrating cells in the treatment group. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-inducible protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interferon-γ, interleukin-2, and increased production of interleukins -13 and -10 in the treatment group. Western blot analysis revealed decreased caspase-3 and increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 levels in the ATG-treated group.
This study is the first to show that ATG treatment ameliorates intestinal IRI. Treatment with ATG leads to reduced local infiltration by T-lymphocytes, with fewer inflammatory and chemotactic programs and less apoptosis. Treatment also is associated with a T(H)2-type cytokine switch. These novel findings suggest that T-lymphocytes represent important mediators of intestinal IRI and that ATG therapies may be beneficial in the prevention of IRI.
Surgery 05/2012; 152(5):843-50. DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2012.03.001 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a key mediator of anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling, is essential for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-induced cytoprotection. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homolog delete on chromosome 10 (PTEN) pathways regulate diverse innate immune responses. This study was designed to investigate the role of STAT3 in the regulation of PI3K/PTEN cascade after HO-1 induction in a mouse model of innate immune-dominated liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI).
Partial warm ischemia was produced in the left and middle hepatic lobes of C57BL/6 mice for 90 min, followed by 6h of reperfusion.
Mice subjected to Ad-HO-1 transfer were resistant to liver IRI, and this cytoprotective effect correlated with increased intrahepatic PI3K/Akt and diminished PTEN expression. In contrast, mice undergoing adjunctive Ad-HO-1 treatment and STAT3 knockdown (siRNA) remained susceptible to IR-mediated local inflammatory response and hepatocellular damage. Consistent with decreased cell apoptosis and inhibited TLR4 expression after PI3K/Akt activation, treatment with specific PI3k inhibitor increased local inflammation and recreated liver IRI despite Ad-HO-1 gene transfer. Parallel in vitro studies with bone marrow derived-macrophages have confirmed that HO-1-STAT3 axis-induced PI3K/Akt negatively regulated PTEN expression in TLR4-dependent fashion.
These findings underscore the role of HO-1 induced STAT3 in modulating PI3K/PTEN in liver IRI cascade. Activating PI3K/Akt provides negative feedback mechanism for TLR4-driven inflammation. Identifying molecular pathways of STAT3 modulation in the innate immune system provides the rationale for novel therapeutic approaches for the management of liver inflammation and IRI in transplant patients.
Journal of Hepatology 07/2011; 56(2):359-66. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2011.05.023 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional immunosuppressive therapies failed to prevent allograft chronic rejection. New approaches to modulate recipient immune response are needed. Donor-like MHC class I soluble proteins demonstrated therapeutic potential to suppress chronic rejection. The present study was designed to clarify the ability of MHC class I soluble proteins to induce T regulatory cells with true regulatory potential in a fully allogeneic rat cardiac transplant model. Donor-like MHC class I proteins upregulate small population of splenic CD8(-) negative CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) positive cells. CD4(+) splenocytes after MHC therapy suppress lymphocyte proliferation against donor antigens in vitro. ACI recipients of WF hearts treated with CD4(+) cells, induced with donor-like MHC class I proteins (CD4-MHC), demonstrated stable survival of the transplanted organ (MST >120 days; n=17). Histology revealed that grafts of recipients treated with CD4-MHC had 23.6% vessels affected 100 days postgrafting. On the contrary, hearts obtained from long-term surviving hosts treated with CD4(+) cells induced with high-dose CsA (CD4-CsA) had 50-70% of affected vessels. CD4-MHC class I treated transplants were mostly CD3(-) negative, had low level of mast and FoxP3(+) cell infiltration compared to CD4-CsA treated hearts. Intragraft CD4(+) cells were close to mast cells in morphology. The same graft tissues had similar number of CD4(+) positive cells and mast cells suggesting existence of CD4(+) positive mast cells. On the other hand, a negligible number of FoxP3(+) positive cells in the grafts after CD4-MHC treatment supports the idea of CD4(+) positive FoxP3(+) negative mast cells population. We demonstrate that donor-like MHC class I protein therapy induces population of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD8(-)FoxP3(+) cells with potential to ameliorate development of transplant vascular disease and evoke CD4(+) positive FoxP3 negative mast cells in the secondary hosts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensitized patients can develop an accelerated form of graft rejection mediated by humoral and T-cell-mediated responses, which are resistant to currently used immunosuppression.
In our model of fulminant cardiac allograft rejection in sensitized hosts, groups of wild-type (WT) and B-cell-deficient (BKO) mice (B6) were challenged with skin grafts (B/c). Alloreactive CD8 T effector (Teff) activation and T memory (Tmem) differentiation during a 60-day follow-up period were reduced in the absence of B-cell help. The expression of interleukin (IL)-2Rα, IL-7Rα, and IL-15Rα, which support/program CD8 Teff/Tmem expansion, differentiation, and survival, were selectively decreased in BKO hosts. Unlike in WT, in vivo cytotoxic activity analysis of alloreactive Tmem recall response has revealed decreased donor-type (B/c) but not third-party (C3H) cell lysis in sensitized BKO hosts. However, such impaired allo-Ag specific Tmem recall function was insufficient to markedly prolong cardiac allograft survival in sensitized BKO recipients. Indeed, despite quantitative and statistically significant differences between both animal groups, the biological impact of decreased CD8 Teff/Tmem activation and function in the sensitization phase was marginal. Indeed, cardiac allografts underwent fulminant rejection in sensitized BKO, albeit with somewhat delayed kinetics. Interestingly, unlike in naïve counterparts, the rejection cascade remained CD154 blockade-resistant, evidenced by comparable kinetics, and intra-graft cytokine gene profiles in MR1 monoclonal antibody-treated sensitized WT and BKO hosts.
Although B cells were important for optimal alloreactive CD8 Teff/Tmem function in the sensitization phase, the fulminant rejection of cardiac allografts was B-cell-independent, and CD154 blockade-resistant, as in WT hosts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether native macrophages overexpressing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) could protect rat orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) against cold ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Livers from Sprague-Dawley rats were stored at 4°C in University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hours, and then they were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that were transfected ex vivo with heme oxygenase 1 adenovirus (Ad-HO-1), β-galactosidase adenovirus (Ad-β-gal), or HO-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were infused directly into the OLT before reperfusion. Controls were OLT conditioned with unmodified or scrambled siRNA-transfected cells. The transfer of Ad-HO-1/BMMs increased the survival of OLT to 100% (versus 40%-50% for controls) and decreased serum alanine aminotransferase levels and histological features of hepatocellular damage. In contrast, an infusion of macrophages transfected with HO-1 siRNA/Ad-β-gal failed to affect IRI. Gene therapy-induced HO-1 suppressed toll-like receptor 4 expression, decreased expression of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, and attenuated endothelial intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression with resultant diminished OLT leukocyte sequestration. Although Ad-HO-1/BMMs decreased the frequency of apoptotic cells positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling and ameliorated caspase-3 activity, the expression of interleukin-10 and antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2/B cell lymphoma extra large increased in well-functioning OLT. Thus, the transfer of native macrophages transfected ex vivo with HO-1 can rescue rat iso-OLT from IRI. Our study validates a novel and clinically attractive concept: native macrophages transfected ex vivo with the antioxidant HO-1 can be applied at the time of transplantation to mitigate otherwise damaging antigen-independent liver inflammation and injury resulting from the peritransplant harvesting insult. If this new, refined strategy is proven to be effective in allo-OLT recipients, it should be considered in clinical settings to increase the supply of usable donor organs and ultimately improve the overall success of liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major factor leading to intestinal dysfunction or graft loss after intestinal surgery or transplantation. This study investigated the cytoprotective effects and putative mechanisms of interleukin (IL)-13 after intestinal I/R injury in the mouse.
Mouse warm intestinal I/R injury induced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 100 min with tissue analysis at 4 and 24 hr after reperfusion. Treated animals received intravenous recombinant murine IL-13 (rIL-13) and anti-IL-13 antibody, whereas controls received saline.
rIL-13 administration markedly prolonged animal survival (100% vs. 50% in saline controls) and resulted in near normal histopathological architecture. rIL-13 treatment also significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Mice conditioned with rIL-13 had a markedly depressed Toll-like receptor-4 expression and increased the expression of Stat6, antioxidant hemeoxygenase-1, and antiapoptotic A20, Bcl-2/Bcl-xl, compared with that of controls. Unlike in controls, the expression of mRNA coding for IL-2/interferon-γ, and interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 remained depressed, whereas that of IL-13/IL-4 reciprocally increased in the mice treated with rIL-13. Administration of anti-IL13 antibody alone or in combination with rIL-13 resulted in outcomes similar to that seen in controls.
This study demonstrates for the first time that IL-13 plays a protective role in intestinal warm I/R injury and a critical role in the regulation of Stat6 and Toll-like receptor-4 signaling. The administration of IL-13 exerts cytoprotective effects in this model by regulating innate and adaptive immunity while the removal of IL-13 using antibody therapy abrogates this effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The understanding of chronic rejection (transplant vascular sclerosis, or TVS) mechanisms is a major goal of transplantation. In this study we tested a cardiac transplant model for TVS development in connection with emerging T-regulatory cells (T-regs). We used 40-mer peptides derived from the donor MHC Class I alpha1 helix of the alpha1-domain to make recipients tolerant.
ACI recipients were transplanted with either RT1.A(u) (WF), RT1.A(l) (LEW), RT1.A(c) (PVG), or RT1.A(b) (BUF) cardiac grafts. The grafts were analyzed 120 days later for TVS and development of T-regs.
Donor MHC peptides were injected through the portal vein (0.1 mg) into ACI recipients of WF hearts in addition to sub-therapeutic cyclosporine (CsA, 10 mg/kg for 3 days post-operatively). Peptide treatment specifically prolonged graft survival for >100 days (n = 31). ACI recipients of WF or LEW hearts treated with PVG peptides promptly rejected the transplanted grafts (15 +/- 4 and 20 +/- 1 days, respectively). Presence of T-regs in tolerant recipients was confirmed by the adoptive transfer of T cells into a new cohort of syngeneic recipients (mean survival time [MST] >100 days, n = 3). CD4(+) and FoxP3(+) cells were detected in 70% of the chronically rejected grafts vs 38% (CD4) and 22% (FoxP3) in the well-preserved transplants. IgG and IgM deposits were found in only half of surviving cardiac grafts with a high level of TVS. Blood vessels in grafts with attenuated TVS were 80% IgG and IgM positive. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-2 were markedly down-regulated in the hearts with high TVS compared with well-preserved grafts. Long-term-surviving hearts demonstrated increased IL-10 expression. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was more evident in the grafts with a high TVS.
Donor MHC Class I peptides can specifically prolong transplant survival and generate T-regs. The level of intragraft T-regs correlates with severity of TVS and IL-2/IL-4 down-regulation.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 03/2010; 29(3):335-41. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2009.08.003 · 6.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a critical role in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI). However, macrophages that overexpress antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) may exert profound anti-inflammatory functions. This study explores the cytoprotective effects and mechanisms of ex vivo modified HO-1-expressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in well-defined mouse model of liver warm ischemia followed by reperfusion. Adoptive transfer of Ad-HO-1-transduced macrophages prevented IR-induced hepatocellular damage, as evidenced by depressed serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) levels and preserved liver histology (Suzuki scores), compared to Ad-beta-gal controls. This beneficial effect was reversed following concomitant treatment with HO-1 siRNA. Ad-HO-1-transfected macrophages significantly decreased local neutrophil accumulation, TNF-alpha/IL-1beta, IFN-gamma/E-selectin, and IP-10/MCP-1 expression, caspase-3 activity, and the frequency of apoptotic cells, as compared with controls. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1-transfected macrophages markedly increased hepatic expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xl and depressed caspase-3 activity. These results establish the precedent for a novel investigative tool and provide the rationale for a clinically attractive new strategy in which native macrophages can be transfected ex vivo with cytoprotective HO-1 and then infused, if needed, to prospective recipients exposed to hepatic IR-mediated local inflammation, such as during liver transplantation, resection, or trauma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) prevents the liver inflammation response leading to ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to explore the precise function and mechanism of HO-1 cytoprotection in liver IRI by employing a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that effectively suppresses HO-1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Using a partial lobar liver warm ischemia model, mice were injected with HO-1 siRNA/nonspecific control siRNA or Ad-HO-1/Ad-beta-gal. Those treated with HO-1 siRNA showed increased serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels, significant liver edema, sinusoidal congestion/cytoplasmic vacuolization, and severe hepatocellular necrosis. In contrast, Ad-HO-1-pretreated animals revealed only minimal sinusoidal congestion without edema/vacuolization or necrosis. Administration of HO-1 siRNA significantly increased local neutrophil accumulation and the frequency of apoptotic cells. Mice treated with HO-1 siRNA were characterized by increased caspase-3 activity and reduced HO-1 expression, whereas those given Ad-HO-1 showed decreased caspase-3 activity and increased HO-1/Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L), data confirmed by use of an in vitro cell culture system. Thus, by using an siRNA approach this study confirms that HO-1 provides potent cytoprotection against hepatic IRI and regulates liver apoptosis. Indeed, siRNA provides a powerful tool with which to study gene function in a wide range of liver diseases.
Human gene therapy 07/2009; 20(10):1133-42. DOI:10.1089/hum.2009.049 · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allograft tolerance of ACI (RT1(a)) recipients to WF (RT1(u)) hearts can be induced by allochimeric class I MHC molecules containing donor-type (RT1A(u)) immunogenic epitopes displayed on recipient-type (RT1A(a)) sequences. Here, we sought the mechanisms by which allochimeric sequences may affect responding T cells through T cell receptor (TCA) repertoire restriction.
The soluble [alpha(1h) (u)]-RT1.A(a) allochimeric molecule was delivered into ACI recipients of WF hearts in the presence of sub-therapeutic dose of cyclosporine (CsA). The TCR Vbeta spectrotyping of the splenocytes and cardiac allografts showed that the Vbeta gene families were differentially expressed within the TCR repertoire in allochimeric- or high-dose CsA-treated tolerant recipients at day +5 and +7 of post-transplantation. However, at day 30 of post-transplantation the allochimeric molecule-treated rats showed the restriction of TCR repertoire with altered dominant size peaks representing preferential clonal expansion of Vbeta7, Vbeta11, Vbeta13, Vbeta 14, and Vbeta15 genes. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the alteration of Vbeta profile, restriction of TCR repertoire, and the establishment of allograft tolerance.
Our findings indicate that presentation of allochimeric MHC class I sequences that partially mimic donor and recipient epitopes may induce unique tolerant state by selecting alloresponsive Vbeta genes.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(6):e6076. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0006076 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of dual endothelin (ET) receptor blockade in rat models of liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). Three models of IRI were used: (1) in vivo total hepatic warm ischemia with portal shunting for 60 minutes with control (saline) and treatment groups (15 mg/kg tezosentan intravenously prior to reperfusion), (2) ex vivo hepatic perfusion after 24 hours of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution with control and treatment groups (10 mg/kg tezosentan in the perfusate), and (3) syngeneic liver transplantation (LT) after 24 hours of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution with control and treatment groups (10 mg/kg tezosentan intravenously prior to reperfusion). Tezosentan treatment significantly improved serum transaminase and histology after IRI in all 3 models. This correlated with reduced vascular resistance, improved bile production, and an improved oxygen extraction ratio. Treatment led to a reduction in neutrophil infiltration and interleukin-1 beta and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 production. A reduction in endothelial cell injury as measured by purine nucleoside phosphorylase was seen. Survival after LT was significantly increased with tezosentan treatment (90% versus 50%). In conclusion, this is the first investigation to examine dual receptor ET blockade in 3 models of hepatic IRI and the first to use the parenterally administered agent tezosentan. The results demonstrate that in both warm and cold IRI tezosentan administration improves sinusoidal hemodynamics and is associated with improved tissue oxygenation and reduced endothelial cell damage. In addition, reduced tissue inflammation, injury, and leukocyte chemotactic signaling were seen. These results provide compelling data for the further investigation of the use of tezosentan in hepatic IRI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the complement cascade represents an important event during ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This work was designed to investigate the role of the membrane attack complex (MAC; C5b-9) in the pathogenesis of hepatic IRI. Livers from B&W/Stahl/rC6(+) and C6(-) rats were harvested, stored for 24 hours at 4 degrees C, and then transplanted [orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT)] to syngeneic recipients. There were 4 experimental groups: (1) C6(+)-->C6(+), (2) C6(+)-->C6(-), (3) C6(-)-->C6(+), and (4) C6(-)-->C6(-). At day +1, C6(-) OLTs showed decreased vascular congestion/necrosis, contrasting with extensive necrosis in C6(+) livers, that was independent of the recipient C6 status (Suzuki score: 7.2 +/- 0.9, 7.3 +/- 1.3, 4.5 +/- 0.6, and 4.8 +/- 0.4 for groups 1-4, respectively, P < 0.05). The liver function improved in recipients of C6(-) grafts (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase: 2573 +/- 488, 1808 +/- 302, 1170 +/- 111, and 1188 +/- 184 in groups 1-4, respectively, P < 0.05). Intragraft macrophage infiltration (ED-1 immunostaining) and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) were reduced in C6(-) grafts versus C6(+) grafts (P = 0.001); these data were confirmed by esterase staining (naphthol). The expression of proinflammatory interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor messenger RNA/protein was also reduced in C6(-) OLTs in comparison with C6(+) OLTs. Western blot-assisted expression of proapoptotic caspase-3 was decreased in C6(-) OLTs versus C6(+) OLTs (P = 0.006), whereas antiapoptotic Bcl-2/Bag-1 was enhanced in C6(-) OLTs compared with C6(+) OLTs (P = 0.001). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining of apoptotic cells was enhanced (P < 0.05) in C6(+) OLTs compared with C6(-) OLTs. Thus, the terminal products of the complement system are essential in the mechanism of hepatic IRI. This is the first report using a clinically relevant liver cold ischemia model to show that local MAC inhibition attenuates IRI cascade in OLT recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been demonstrated to play a key role in the induction of intrahepatic inflammation, leading to hepatocellular damage in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), the nature of TLR4 ligands generated during tissue injury remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that endogenous TLR4 ligands, rather than endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), are instrumental in the activation of liver TLR4 leading to local inflammation response that culminates in ultimate organ IRI.
By using the LPS-neutralizing agent, recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, we showed that the endotoxin blockade failed to protect mouse livers from warm IRI, as assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase levels, intrahepatic inflammatory gene induction profile, and liver pathology. The recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein did not cause any hepatocytoxicity by itself if injected into normal naive mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that liver perfusates, generated by isolated liver perfusion system, contained LPS-independent, heat-sensitive protein molecules that activated macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha through TLR4 but not TLR2 pathway.
This study provides a definitive evidence that endogenous TLR4 ligands are critical in the pathogenesis of liver IRI.