Ping Tsui

Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (15)45.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fab antibody display on filamentous phage is widely applied to de novo antibody discovery and engineering. Here we describe a phagemid system for the efficient display and affinity selection of Fabs through linkage to the minor coat protein pIX. Display was successful by fusion of either Fd or Lc through a short linker to the amino terminus of pIX and co-expression of the counter Lc or Fd as a secreted, soluble fragment. Assembly of functional Fab was confirmed by demonstration of antigen-specific binding using antibodies of known specificity. Phage displaying a Fab specific for RSV-F protein with Fd linked to pIX showed efficient, antigen-specific enrichment when mixed with phage displaying a different specificity. The functionality of this system for antibody engineering was evaluated in an optimization study. A RSV-F protein specific antibody with an affinity of about 2nM was randomized at 4 positions in light chain CDR1. Three rounds of selection with decreasing antigen concentration yielded Fabs with an affinity improvement up to 70-fold and showed a general correlation between enrichment frequency and affinity. We conclude that the pIX coat protein complements other display systems in filamentous phage as an efficient vehicle for low copy display and selection of Fab proteins.
    Journal of immunological methods 08/2010; 360(1-2):39-46. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Filamentous phage was the first display platform employed to isolate antibodies in vitro and is still the most broadly used. The success of phage display is due to its robustness, ease of use, and comprehensive technology development, as well as a broad range of selection methods developed during the last two decades. We report here the first combinatorial synthetic Fab libraries displayed on pIX, a fusion partner different from the widely used pIII. The libraries were constructed on four V(L) and three V(H) domains encoded by IGV and IGJ germ-line genes frequently used in human antibodies, which were diversified to mirror the variability observed in the germ-line genes and antibodies isolated from natural sources. Two sets of libraries were built, one with diversity focused on V(H) by keeping V(L) in the germ-line gene configuration and the other with diversity in both V domains. After selection on a diverse panel of proteins, numerous specific Fabs with affinities ranging from 0.2 nM to 20 nM were isolated. V(H) diversity was sufficient for isolating Fabs to most antigens, whereas variability in V(L) was required for isolation of antibodies to some targets. After the application of an integrated maturation process consisting of reshuffling V(L) diversity, the affinity of selected antibodies was improved up to 100-fold to the low picomolar range, suitable for in vivo studies. The results demonstrate the feasibility of displaying complex Fab libraries as pIX fusion proteins for antibody discovery and optimization and lay the foundation for studies on the structure-function relationships of antibodies.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2010; 397(2):385-96. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the hallmarks of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with a usual interstitial pneumonia histological pathology (IPF/UIP) is excess collagen deposition, due to enhanced fibroblast extracellular matrix synthetic activity. Studies using murine models of lung fibrosis have elucidated a pro-fibrotic pathway involving IL-13 driving CCL2, which in turn drives TGFbeta1 in lung fibroblasts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether this pathway exists in the human fibrotic setting by evaluating human IPF/UIP fibroblasts. IPF/UIP fibroblasts have an increased baseline fibrotic phenotype compared to non-fibrotic fibroblasts. Interestingly, non-fibrotic fibroblasts responded in a pro-fibrotic manner to TGFbeta1 but were relatively non-responsive to IL-13 or CCL2, whereas, IPF/UIP cells were hyper-responsive to TGFbeta1, IL-13 and CCL2. Interestingly, TGFbeta1, CCL2 and IL-13 all upregulated TGFbeta receptor and IL-13 receptor expression, suggesting an ability of the mediators to modulate the function of each other. Furthermore, in vivo, neutralization of both JE and MCP5, the two functional orthologs of CCL2, during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis significantly reduced collagen deposition as well as JE and CCR2 expression. Also in the bleomycin model, CTGF, which is highly induced following TGFbeta stimulation, was attenuated with anti-JE/anti-MCP5 treatment. Overall this study demonstrates an interplay between TGFbeta1, IL-13 and CCL2 in IPF/UIP, where these three mediators feedback on each other, promoting the fibrotic response.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 03/2008; 40(10):2174-82. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical development of therapeutic proteins requires assays that measure the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of, and the potential immune response (IR) to, the protein agent. Each assay requires reagents that are highly specific for the therapeutic protein. For therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, anti-CDR-specific, or anti-idiotypic (anti-id), antibodies are an ideal class of reagents suitable for these assays because of their high specificity and affinity to the drug antibody. We generated anti-ids to two human antibodies by antibody phage display using the MorphoSys HuCAL GOLD Fab library. To selectively target the CDR regions, serum and a framework-matched mAb were included as competitors during the phage selection process. Panels of CDR-specific Fabs, with low to sub-nM affinities, were isolated against both targets. The CDR specificity of these Fabs was shown by their lack of binding to a framework-matched control mAb and by competition of this binding with the soluble antigens of the respective therapeutic mAb targets. The candidate anti-id Fabs were able to detect both immobilized and soluble target Ab without being affected by serum, a requirement for both PK assay and the IR bridging assay format. Combinations of the Fabs for PK detection assays were identified by pairwise binding studies, although the pair for one target mAb lacks the desired sensitivity for PK assays. To evaluate their potential as anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), the best Fabs for one of the targets were converted and produced as the required bivalent human mAbs. In comparison to rodent mAbs and primate polyclonal serum, the phage display derived human mAbs were equally effective as reference standards. Our results demonstrate that competition-based phage selection can be an effective method for the isolation of anti-idiotypic antibodies for PK and IR assay development, and in this latter case, overcome limitations of current methods using rodent derived anti-ids.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 01/2008; 328(1-2):34-44. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chimeric 101F (ch101F) is a mouse-human chimeric anti-human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralizing antibody that recognizes residues within antigenic site IV, V, VI of the fusion (F) glycoprotein. The binding of ch101F to a series of peptides overlapping aa 422-438 spanning antigenic site IV, V, VI was analysed. Residues 423-436 comprise the minimal peptide sequence for ch101F binding. Substitution analysis revealed that R429 and K433 are critical for ch101F binding, whilst K427 makes a minor contribution. Binding of ch101F to a series of single mutations at positions 427, 429 and 433 in the F protein expressed recombinantly on the cell surface confirmed the peptide results. Sequence analysis of viruses selected for resistance to neutralization by ch101F indicated that a single change (K433T) in the F protein allowed ch101F escape. The results confirm that ch101F and palivizumab have different epitope specificity and define key residues for ch101F recognition.
    Journal of General Virology 11/2007; 88(Pt 10):2719-23. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human CCL2 chemokine is implicated in many chronic inflammatory conditions. In the mouse, there are two CCL2 homologues, CCL2 (MCP-1/JE) and CCL12 (MCP-5). Both are potent monocyte chemoattractants and bind to and activate the same receptor, CCR2. The overlapping activities of these chemokines complicate the design of mouse model studies that are intended to mimic human disease. To study the roles of CCL2 and CCL12, we generated neutralizing antibodies specific to each chemokine. Consistent with binding and affinity analyses, the antibodies specifically inhibited CCL2- or CCL12- mediated Ca(2+) mobilization in THP-1 cells. When tested in nude mice bearing human PANC-1 pancreatic tumor cells in Matrigel plugs, CCL2 and CCL12 antibodies potently inhibited tumor angiogenesis, indicating that both CCL2 and CCL12 may contribute to tumor angiogenesis.
    Human antibodies 02/2007; 16(3-4):117-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Human monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2) is a 8.6-kDa protein that has been implicated in a number of diseases including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. As part of a program to identify antibodies against MCP-1, we synthesized site-specific, biotinylated human MCP-1 analogs to be used for panning of an antibody phage display library. In contrast to material obtained from random biotinylation, the site-specific biotinylated analogs were homogeneous and retained full activity.
    Journal of Peptide Science 06/2006; 12(5):354-60. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel analogs of human monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were designed, synthesized and characterized to be used as tools to generate monoclonal antibodies as potential human therapeutics. MCP-1 and three analogs were synthesized by step-wise Fmoc solid phase synthesis. After oxidation to form the two-disulfide bonds, affinity chromatography using an immobilized mouse anti-human MCP-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was utilized for a simple and highly effective purification procedure for the proteins. The final products were extensively characterized and compared with recombinant human MCP-1 (rhMCP-1). All proteins showed identical binding with mouse anti-human MCP-1 mAbs as measured by surface plasmon resonance. Synthetic MCP-1 and the analogs were comparable to recombinant MCP-1 in competition radio-ligand binding to CCR2 receptors on THP-1 cells, and MCP-1-induced, calcium mobilization and chemotaxis assays.
    Journal of Peptide Science 02/2006; 12(1):25-32. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epitope-blocked panning is an approach to mining antigen-specific diversity from phage display antibody libraries. Previously, we developed and used this method to recover a neutralizing antibody to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by blocking a dominant response to a nonneutralizing epitope on a recombinant derivative of the viral F antigen. We have extended this approach to the blocking of multiple epitopes simultaneously, which led to the recovery of new antibodies of different specificity, including one new neutralizing activity. A phage display Fab library was selected on recombinant F antigen in the presence of three representative antibodies recovered in the unblocked and subsequent single-blocked panning procedures. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of 13 F+ clones revealed seven unique Fabs. DNA sequence analysis of five of these clones revealed five new light chains in combination with different heavy chains, three of which were very similar or identical to Fabs previously isolated from this library. The blocking antibodies did not compete with the new Fabs, demonstrating effective masking of their binding sites in the panning procedure. Conversely, these Fabs did show variable inhibition of two of the blocking antibodies suggesting a close proximity or interdependence of their epitopes. One of the antibodies did inhibit virus infection, albeit with modest potency. These results demonstrate that epitope-blocked panning is a self-progressing approach to retrieving diverse antibodies from phage libraries.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 06/2002; 263(1-2):123-32. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies describing the induction of apoptosis for CD4 mAbs do not delineate between epitope-dependent and Fc-driven epitope cross-linking induced cell death. Keliximab and clenoliximab are two CD4 mAbs that differ only in their heavy chain isotypes, being an IgG1 and a modified IgG4, respectively. These antibodies suppress CD4 T cell responses in vitro and in vivo and have been in human clinical trials for the treatment of RA and asthma. Here we compared the apoptotic activity of these mAbs to differentiate between the contributions of epitope-dependent vs. Fc-driven epitope cross-linking induced cell death in vitro as a link to differential CD4 cell depletion in vivo. We developed a simple flow cytometry procedure that measures apoptosis within intact and compromised subpopulations of PBMCs within a few hours of culture. Attractors software was used to quantitate the percentage of apoptotic CD4 T cells, which generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), express external phosphatidyl serine (PS) and cleaved fluorescein diacetate (FDA), within the intact and compromised lymphocyte populations. Treatment of freshly isolated PBMCs with keliximab resulted in the appearance of characteristic apoptotic condensed CD4 T cells that contained reactive oxygen species, were annexin V positive and had intact esterase activity. Apoptosis was evident within 3 h and continued throughout the 72-h culture period. In contrast, clenoliximab alone did not induce apoptosis. The use of multiparameter flow cytometry and Attractors to analyze subpopulations based on scatter properties and biochemical processes during apoptosis provides a sensitive assay in which to quantitate and characterize the induction of cell death. Depletion of CD4 T cells in vivo by keliximab may reflect, in part, antibody-mediated apoptosis of these cells that is dependent on Fcgamma receptors.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2001; 257(1-2):71-82. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several CD4 mAbs have entered the clinic for the treatment of autoimmune diseases or transplant rejection. Most of these mAbs caused CD4 cell depletion, and some were murine mAbs which were further hampered by human anti-mouse Ab responses. To obviate these concerns, a primatized CD4 mAb, clenoliximab, was generated by fusing the V domains of a cynomolgus macaque mAb to human constant regions. The heavy chain constant region is a modified IgG4 containing two single residue substitutions designed to ablate residual Fc receptor binding activity and to stabilize heavy chain dimer formation. This study compares and contrasts the in vitro properties of clenoliximab with its matched IgG1 derivative, keliximab, which shares the same variable regions. Both mAbs show potent inhibition of in vitro T cell responses, lack of binding to complement component C1q, and inability to mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity. However, clenoliximab shows markedly reduced binding to Fc receptors and therefore does not mediate Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or modulation/loss of CD4 from the surface of T cells, except in the presence of rheumatoid factor or activated monocytes. Thus, clenoliximab retains the key immunomodulatory attributes of keliximab without the liability of strong Fcgamma receptor binding. In initial clinical trials, these properties have translated to a reduced incidence of CD4+ T cell depletion.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2000; 164(4):1925-33. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We isolated a large panel of human Abs directed against the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Ag from combinatorial phage display libraries. Following initial differentiation of the Fabs by BstNI restriction patterns, DNA sequence analysis revealed 10 different classes of VH paired with more than 35 different VL genes. All the Fabs bound with high affinity to the F Ag. However, most Fabs competed with the binding of a representative member of this group, suggesting that the Fabs recognized a common epitope on the F Ag, and none of them neutralized virus in vitro. To suppress repetitive isolation of these non-neutralizing Abs, a representative Fab was included during panning to block this common epitope on the F Ag. By this "epitope-blocked panning" approach, two novel Fabs, encoded by unique VH and VL genes, were isolated from a previously screened library. Competition binding analysis confirmed that the Fabs recognized epitopes distinct from that of the previously isolated Fabs. One of these Fabs, 516, neutralized RSV in cell culture. These activities of Fab-516 were retained upon its genetic conversion to a mAb (IgG1) and expression in mammalian cells. Our results suggest that the RSV F glycoprotein presents a dominant, non-neutralizing epitope to the human immune system, which may serve in evasion of host defenses. However, less prevalent, fusion-inhibiting Abs were revealed by blockade of this epitope during the panning process.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/1996; 157(2):772-80. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A panel of mAbs against the activated complement component C5a was obtained from a filamentous phage M13-Fab display library generated from mice immunized with human rC5a. Fabs isolated from the library after iterative selection vs rC5a bound to both rC5a and purified C5. To isolate Fabs specific for neoepitopes expressed on C5a but not on the native complement component C5 the library was rescreened in a competitive manner. The phage Fab library was first incubated with immobilized C5 to deplete C5 reactive Fabs. The C5 nonadherent phage were then incubated with immobilized rC5a in the presence of soluble C5. Bound phage were eluted and subjected to two additional cycles of subtraction with immobilized C5 and selection with immobilized rC5a in the presence of soluble C5. After three cycles of this competitive biopanning four Fabs reactive with rC5a were isolated. Two bound preferentially with and neutralized C5a. Competitive biopanning of phage display libraries may increase the probability of identification of Abs of the desired specificity.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/1994; 152(9):4572-81. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A lambda phage expression methodology was adapted to dissect protein/ligand interactions efficiently through the creation and rapid screening of large numbers of mutants. Here we describe the method and its specific application to the interaction between the external envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), gp120, and the human cell surface protein CD4. Random substitutions were introduced throughout the gp120 binding region (amino acids 38-62) in the amino-terminal domain of CD4 by oligonucleotide mutagenesis. These mutations were expressed within phage plaques and directly screened for their effect on binding of gp120 using a modified phage plaque lift procedure. Plaques showing increased, decreased, and no effect on binding were identified and mutations were verified by sequence analysis. In this manner, 25 unique mutations were identified that altered CD4 binding to gp120. A new site was identified at which mutations reduced binding to gp120 and several novel amino acid substitutions were defined at sites previously implicated in binding. Of particular interest, this in vitro genetic approach identified a mutation which significantly increased binding to gp120. The phenotypes of several of these mutants were further characterized by quantitative measurement of their binding affinity. The results confirmed the accuracy of the phenotypic selection and demonstrated that the sensitivity of the system allowed detection of a 3-4-fold increase or decrease in affinity. In the context of the recently determined atomic structure of CD4, these results further implicate residues in the CDR2-like region and in an adjacent loop in recognition of gp120. This methodology should be generally applicable to other high affinity protein/ligand interactions that are compatible with expression in Escherichia coli.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1992; 267(13):9361-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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