Peter F Landrum

Concordia University–Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (146)311.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A major issue with characterizing sediment-associated hydrophobic contaminants is the difficulty in assessing the total amount of compound that is available for chemical exchange with an organism. To address this point, contaminant concentrations have been normalized for specific sediment characteristics, including organic carbon content, or the chemical activity has been estimated using passive samplers. Another approach to assess compound availability is to determine the extent of readily desorbed compound using resin extractions of sediment slurries. The current paper reviews the literature using Tenax TA, a p-2,6-diphenylphyleneoxide polymer as an extraction tool for measuring bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediment. The extent of desorption has been assessed with sequential extractions to characterize the maximum rate and pool sizes for different desorbing fractions of bound contaminant. The rapidly desorbing fraction has been well correlated with the extent of degradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of hydrophobic contaminants. A shortcut to measuring the full desorption curve for determining the rapidly desorbing compound is to use a single-point extraction, with 6 or 24 h extractions being most common. The Tenax extraction has been shown to be effective with laboratory-spiked sediments, field-collected sediments, laboratory-exposed organisms, field-collected organisms and studies among laboratories, and a literature-based model has been developed that described the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls from independently measured field-collected sediments. Despite the success of this approach, application of the Tenax method for management of contaminated sediments is limited by the absence of a standard set of conditions for performing the extractions and standard methods for using field sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 11/2014;
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    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 01/2014; 20(3). · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent literature has shown that bioavailability-based techniques, such as Tenax extraction, can estimate sediment exposure to benthos. In a previous study by the authors, Tenax extraction was used to create and validate a literature-based Tenax model to predict oligochaete bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediment; however, its ability to assess sediment remediation was unknown. The present study further tested the Tenax model by examining the impacts of remediation on surface sediment concentrations, Tenax extractable concentrations, and tissue concentrations of laboratory-exposed Lumbriculus variegatus. Tenax extractable concentration was an effective exposure metric to evaluate changes in Lumbriculus exposure preremediation and postremediation, with 75% of the postremediation data corresponding to the Tenax model. At nondredged sites, bioaccumulation was better predicted by the Tenax model, with 86% of the data falling within the 95% confidence intervals, than at dredged sites, for which only 64% of the data fit the Tenax model. In both pre- and postdredge conditions, when the model failed, it was conservative, predicting higher PCB concentrations than observed in the oligochaetes, particularly for the postdredge data. The present study advances understanding of the applicability of the Tenax model for use when examining systems that may have undergone significant disturbances. The Tenax model provides a unique tool for quickly quantifying potential exposure to benthic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:XX–XX. © 2013 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12/2013; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This manuscript surveys the literature on passive sampler methods (PSMs) used in contaminated sediments to assess the chemical activity of organic contaminants. The chemical activity in turn dictates the reactivity and bioavailability of contaminants in sediment. Approaches to measure specific binding of compounds to sediment components, e.g., amorphous carbon or specific types of reduced carbon, and the associated partition coefficients are difficult to determine particularly for native sediment. Thus, the development of PSMs that represent the chemical activity of complex compound/sediment interactions, expressed as the freely dissolved contaminant concentration in pore water (Cfree ), offer a better proxy for endpoints of concern, such as reactivity, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Passive sampling methods have estimated Cfree using both kinetic and equilibrium operating modes and used various polymers as the sorbing phase, e.g., polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, and polyoxymethylene in various configurations, e.g., sheets, coated fibers, or vials containing thin films. These PSMs have been applied in laboratory exposures and field deployments covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A wide range of calibration conditions exist in the literature to estimate Cfree , but consensus values have not been established. The most critical criteria are the partition coefficient between water and the polymer phase and the equilibrium status of the sampler. In addition, the PSM must not appreciably deplete Cfree in the pore water. Some of the future challenges include establishing a standard approach for PSM measurements, correcting for non-equilibrium conditions, establishing guidance for selection and implementation of PSMs, and translating and applying data collected by PSMs. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2013 SETAC.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 11/2013;
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    Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy, Brian J Eadie
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2013; 32(6):1209-11. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the dietary uptake kinetics and sublethal toxicity of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in Antarctic krill. The uptake rate constant (characterised by the seawater volume stripped of contaminant sorbed to algae) of 200 ± 0.32 mL g(-1) wet weight h(-1), average absorption efficiency of 86 ± 13% and very low elimination rate constant of 5 × 10(-6) ± 0.0031 h(-1) demonstrate the importance of feeding for p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in Antarctic krill. Faecal egestion of unabsorbed p,p'-DDE of 8.1 ± 2.7% indicates that this pathway contributes considerably to p,p'-DDE sinking fluxes. A median internal effective concentration (IEC50) of 15 mmol/kg lipid weight for complete immobility indicates baseline toxicity and that Antarctic krill exhibit comparable toxicological sensitivity as temperate species under similar 10 d exposure conditions. These findings support the critical body residue approach and provide insight to the role of Antarctic krill in the biogeochemical cycling of p,p'-DDE in the Southern Ocean.
    Environmental Pollution 01/2013; 175C:92-99. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reanalyzes data from an earlier study that used effluents from oiled-gravel columns to assess the toxicity of aqueous fractions of weathered crude oil to Pacific herring embryos and larvae. This reanalysis has implications for future similar investigations, including the observance of two distinct dose-response curves for lethal and sublethal endpoints for different exposures in the same experiment, and the need to consider both potency and slope of dose-response curves for components of a toxicant mixture that shows potentially different toxicity mechanisms/causation. Contrary to conclusions of the original study, the aqueous concentration data cannot support the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the sole cause of toxicity and that oil toxicity increased with weathering. Confounding issues associated with the oiled gravel columns include changes in the concentration and composition of chemicals in exposure water, which interfere with the production of reliable and reproducible results relevant to the field.
    Marine pollution bulletin 01/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This theoretical and case-study review of dynamic exposures of aquatic organisms to organic contaminants examines variables important for interpreting exposure and therefore toxicity. The timing and magnitude of the absorbed dose change when the dynamics of exposure change. Thus, the dose metric for interpreting toxic responses observed during such exposure conditions is generally limited to the specific experiment and cannot be extrapolated to either other experiments with different exposure dynamics or to field exposures where exposure dynamics usually are different. This is particularly true for mixture exposures, for which the concentration and composition and, therefore, the timing and magnitude of exposure to individual components of different potency and potentially different mechanisms of action can vary. Aquatic toxicology needs studies that develop temporal thresholds for absorbed toxicant doses to allow for better extrapolation between conditions of dynamic exposure. Improved experimental designs are required that include high-quality temporal measures of both the exposure and the absorbed dose to allow better interpretation of data. For the short term, initial water concentration can be considered a conservative measure of exposure, although the extent to which this is true cannot be estimated specifically unless the dynamics of exposure as well as the toxicokinetics of the chemicals in the exposure scenario for the organism of interest are known. A better, but still limited, metric for interpreting the exposure and, therefore, toxicity is the peak absorbed dose, although this neglects toxicodynamics, requires appropriate temporal measures of accumulated dose to determine the peak concentration, and requires temporal thresholds for critical body residue for each component of the mixture. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2012 SETAC.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of pyrethroids in both urban and agricultural sediments at levels lethal to invertebrates has been well documented. However, variations in bioavailability among sediments make accurate predictions of toxicity based on whole sediment concentrations difficult. A proposed solution to this problem is the use of bioavailability-based estimates, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and Tenax beads. This study compared three methods to assess the bioavailability and ultimately toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides including field-deployed SPME fibers, laboratory-exposed SPME fibers, and a 24-h Tenax extraction. The objective of the current study was to compare the ability of these methods to quantify the bioavailable fraction of pyrethroids in contaminated field sediments that were toxic to benthic invertebrates. In general, Tenax proved a more sensitive method than SPME fibers and a correlation between Tenax extractable concentrations and mortality was observed.
    Environmental Pollution 11/2012; 173C:47-51. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Summary of a SETAC Technical Workshop, Costa Mesa, California, USA; 11/2012
  • Yuping Ding, Peter F Landrum, Jing You, Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME) was evaluated as a surrogate for the absorbed dose in organisms to estimate bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in laboratory-spiked sediment. Sediments were incubated for 7, 28, and 90 days at room temperature to characterize the effect of aging on bioavailability and toxicity. Sediment toxicity was assessed using two freshwater invertebrates, the midge Chironomus dilutus and amphipod Hyalella azteca. Disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers were used to estimate the absorbed dose in organisms and to examine bioavailability and toxicity. The equilibrium fiber concentrations substantially decreased with an increase in sediment aging time, indicating a reduction in bioavailability. Based on median lethal fiber concentrations (fiber LC50), toxicity of permethrin was not significantly different among the different aging times. Due to the substantial degradation of DDT to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in sediment, sediment toxicity to C. dilutus increased, while it decreased for H. azteca with extended aging times. A toxic unit-based fiber LC50 value represented the DDT mixture (DDT and DDD) toxicity for both species. Significant linear relationships were found between organism body residues and the equilibrium fiber concentrations for each compound, across aging times. The study suggested that the matrix-SPME fibers mimicked bioaccumulation in the organisms, and enabled estimation of body residues, and could potentially be used in environmental risk assessment across matrices (e.g. sediment and water) to measure bioavailability and toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides.
    Ecotoxicology 10/2012; · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Amanda D Harwood, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have determined that techniques, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and Tenax beads, can predict bioaccumulation and potentially could predict toxicity for several compounds and species. Toxicity of bifenthrin was determined using two standard sediment toxicity tests with the benthic species Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus in three reference sediments with different characteristics. The objectives of the current study were to establish bioavailability-based median lethal concentrations (LC50) and median effect concentrations (EC50) of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, compare their ability to assess toxicity to the use of whole sediment concentrations, as well as to make comparisons of the concentrations derived using each method in order to make assessments of accuracy and extrapolation potential. Four metrics were compared including SPME fiber concentration, pore water concentration derived using SPMEs, 6h Tenax extractable concentration, and 24h Tenax extractable concentration. The variation among the LC50s and EC50s in each sediment derived using bioavailability-based methods was comparable to variation among organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations, but improved over whole sediment concentrations. There was a significant linear relationship between SPME or Tenax and organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the SPME and Tenax concentrations across sediments. The significant linear relationship between SPME and Tenax concentrations further demonstrates that these bioavailability-based endpoints are interrelated. This study derived bioavailability-based benchmarks that may prove to be more accurate than sediment-based ones in predicting toxicity across sediment types.
    Chemosphere 10/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioavailability has been estimated in the past using equilibrium partitioning-based biota-sediment accumulation factors. These values are not always reliable using field-collected sediments, however, likely due to varying amounts of different organic carbons, particularly black carbon, in sediments. Therefore, improving approaches to better evaluate contaminant bioavailability in sediment are needed. In the present study, a literature-based model was constructed that relied on both laboratory-exposed and field-collected oligochaete bioaccumulation data. The model system used 24-h Tenax extraction data paired with bioaccumulation tests using oligochaetes to establish the ability and utility of the biomimetic extraction. The model was then tested to confirm its utility and reliability to estimate bioavailability of oligochaetes exposed to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments from the Ottawa River in Ohio, USA. The model correctly identified the bioaccumulation of PCBs for 94.9% of the data and 97% of the dioxin-like congeners. The mono- and di-substituted chlorinated biphenyls were the least well described, but the estimates were conservative, for example, the model overpredicted bioaccumulation. Thus, the Tenax model was robust and reliable across a wide range of sediment characteristics for estimating PCB bioaccumulation in oligochaetes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2210-2216. © 2012 SETAC.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 07/2012; 31(10):2210-6. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the companion paper, solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber concentrations were used as a dose metric to evaluate the toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides, and concentration-response relationships were found for the hydrophobic pesticides tested in the two test species. The present study extends the use of fiber concentrations to organism body residues to specifically address biotransformation and provide the link to toxic response. Test compounds included the organochlorines p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE); two pyrethroids, permethrin and bifenthrin; and an organophosphate, chlorpyrifos. Toxicity, body residues, and biotransformation of the target compounds were determined for the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Significant regression relationships were found without regard to chemical, extent of biotransformation, or whether the chemical reached steady state in the organisms. The equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations correlated with the parent compound concentration in the biota; however, the regressions were duration specific. Furthermore, the SPME fiber-based toxicity values yielded species-specific regressions with the parent compound-based toxicity values linking the use of SPME fiber as a dose metric with tissue residues to estimate toxic response.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 07/2012; 31(9):2168-74. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers as a dose metric for toxicity testing was evaluated for hydrophobic pesticides to the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test compounds included p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), permethrin, bifenthrin, tefluthrin, and chlorpyrifos. Acute water toxicity tests were determined for 4- and 10-d exposures in both species. Median lethal and sublethal concentrations were expressed both on a water concentration (LC50 and EC50) and on an equilibrium SPME fiber concentration (LC50(fiber) and EC50(fiber)) basis. A significant log dose-response relationship was found between log fiber concentration and organism mortality. It has been shown in the literature that equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations reflect the bioavailable concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, so these fiber concentrations should be a useful metric for assessing toxic effects from the bioavailable contaminant providing a framework to expand the use of SPME fibers beyond estimation of bioaccumulation.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 07/2012; 31(9):2159-67. · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 03/2012; 31(3):473-5. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents a critical review of two groups of studies that reported adverse effects to salmon and herring eggs and fry from exposure to 1 μg/L or less of aqueous total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH), as weathered oil, and a more toxic aqueous extract of "very weathered oil." Exposure media were prepared by continuously flowing water up through vertical columns containing gravel oiled at different concentrations of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Uncontrolled variables associated with the use of the oiled gravel columns included time- and treatment-dependent variations in the PAH concentration and composition in the exposure water, unexplored toxicity from other oil constituents/degradation products, potential toxicity from bacterial and fungal activity, oil droplets as a potential contaminant source, inherent differences between control and exposed embryo populations, and water flow rate differences. Based on a review of the evidence from published project reports, peer-reviewed publications, chemistry data in a public database, and unpublished reports and laboratory records, the reviewed studies did not establish consistent dose (concentration) response or causality and thus do not demonstrate that dissolved PAH alone from the weathered oil resulted in the claimed effects on fish embryos at low μg/L TPAH concentrations. Accordingly, these studies should not be relied on for management decision-making, when assessing the risk of very low-level PAH exposures to early life stages of fish.
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 03/2012; 18(2):229-260. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Amanda D Harwood, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies recognize the ability of chemical techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and Tenax extraction to predict bioavailability more effectively than exhaustive chemical extractions for sediment-associated organic contaminants. While the majority of research using these techniques studied legacy compounds such as PCBs and PAHs, there is great potential for these methods to work well for highly toxic, rapidly biotransformed compounds such as pyrethroid insecticides. The current study compared the ability of the two techniques to predict the bioavailability of permethrin and bifenthrin to two benthic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus and Hexagenia sp.). In addition, variations in the application of the two techniques, specifically duration and conditions of exposure of the SPME fibers and duration of extraction with Tenax, were explored. The SPME fiber concentrations correlated strongly to both 6 and 24 h Tenax concentrations. The SPME fiber concentrations and 6 h and 24 h Tenax extractable concentrations correlated with both the parent permethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in the tissues of both species at steady state. Parent compound tissue concentrations for both species could be predicted with a single relationship for individual pyrethroids. This demonstrated the potential value of these methods to predict the bioavailability of compounds subject to biotransformation and application to multiple species.
    Environmental Science & Technology 02/2012; 46(4):2413-9. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fish consumption is a potential route of human exposure to the hepatotoxic microcystins, especially in lakes and reservoirs that routinely experience significant toxic Microcystis blooms. Understanding the rates of uptake and elimination for microcystins as well as the transfer efficiency into tissues of consumers are important for determining the potential for microcystins to be transferred up the food web and for predicting potential human health impacts. The main objective of this work was to conduct laboratory experiments to investigate the kinetics of toxin accumulation in fish tissue. An oral route of exposure was employed in this study, in which juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were given a single oral dose of 5 or 20 μg of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) via food and accumulation in the muscle, liver, and tank water were measured over 24 h. Peak concentrations of the water soluble fraction of microcystin were generally observed 8-10 h after dosing in the liver and after 12-16 h in the muscle, with a rapid decline in both tissues by 24 h. Up to 99% of the total recoverable (i.e., unbound) microcystin was measured in the tank water by 16 h after exposure. The relatively rapid uptake and elimination of the unbound fraction of microcystin in the liver and muscle of juvenile yellow perch within 24 h of exposure indicates that fish consumption may not be a major route of human exposure to microcystin, particularly in the Great Lakes.
    Marine Drugs 12/2011; 9(12):2553-71. · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Amanda D Harwood, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of polydimethlysiloxane coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to predict bioavailability has been documented for a number of species and compounds. There are also a variety of established methods for establishing SPME-based bioavailability estimates; however, factors such as time until equilibrium and exposure regimen could affect fiber concentrations and have not yet been thoroughly tested. Exposure time may influence SPME fiber concentrations at equilibrium. Co-exposure of the fibers with different animals or the invertebrate species used could yield different estimates than those acquired using a shaker table system to achieve equilibrium between the sediment and SPME fibers. The current study examined the effects of time and exposure method (shaker table versus co-exposure with test species) on SPME fiber concentrations for two hydrophobic compounds: permethrin and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). An additional experiment with permethrin determined whether animal densities or fiber number influenced fiber concentrations. There were significant differences between the time required for SPME fibers to reach equilibrium when co-exposed with different species or separately, but fiber concentrations at equilibrium among treatments for both compounds were similar. Furthermore, among the 12 variations in species and fiber densities, there were no significant differences among treatments indicating that neither the route of exposure, animal density, nor fiber volume influenced SPME fiber estimates. This demonstrated that SPME fiber concentrations at equilibrium were not affected by exposure conditions, increasing their versatility in environmental assessments.
    Chemosphere 11/2011; 86(5):506-11. · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
311.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • United States Geological Survey
      Reston, Virginia, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Bowdoin College
      Brunswick, Maine, United States
    • National Institute of Standards and Technology
      • Material Measurement Laboratory (MML)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Southern Illinois University Carbondale
      • Department of Zoology
      Carbondale, IL, United States
  • 1988–2011
    • Great Lakes Laboratories
      Valparaiso, Indiana, United States
  • 2009
    • Louisiana Tech University
      Louisiana, United States
  • 1992–2009
    • University of Michigan
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Cooperative Institute For Limnology And Ecosystems Research (CILER)
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      • Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1994–2004
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Entomology
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • Wichita State University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Wichita, KS, United States
  • 2002
    • Seoul National University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–1996
    • University of Joensuu
      • Department of Biology
      Joensuu, Province of Eastern Finland, Finland