Sumio Goto

Kanagawa Prefectural Institute Of Public Health, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (95)99.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We used a high-volume air sampler in the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2008 at ten Japanese sites (Sapporo, Sendai, Maebashi, Tsukuba, Shinjuku, Sagamihara, Shizuoka, Touhaku, Kitakyushu, and Kagoshima) to collect total suspended particulate (TSP) and gaseous matter for evaluation. We evaluated the transformation frequency at the tumor promotion stage of these samples in a cell transformation assay using Bhas 42 cells, which were established from BALB/c 3T3 cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras oncogene. All samples collected from the gaseous matter were negative for transformed foci. There were several patterns of transformation frequency at the tumor promotion stage by area for the TSP samples. At Sapporo, the transformation frequency at the tumor promotion stage was remarkably higher in winter than in summer as well as in winter at the other sites. At six urban cities from Sendai to Shizuoka, the levels of transformed frequencies per μg of suspended particulates in winter were almost the same, and were higher than those of the remaining three sites. At three sites, Touhaku, Kitakyushu and Kagoshima, the transformation results in winter were judged as negative. The characteristics of the transformed frequencies of the compounds adsorbed on particulate matter at the sampling sites were significant in winter. We also studied the correlation between the transformation frequency at the tumor promotion stage of the TSP samples and the results of quantitative analysis of 16 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the ten sites. We found that the transformation frequency at the tumor promotion stage of airborne samples could not be predicted based on the quantitative results of the PAHs in those samples. These data suggest that direct risk assessment of air samples with a bioassay is more valuable than quantitative analysis of compounds such as PAHs for predicting carcinogenicity.
    Environmental science. Processes & impacts. 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The genotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were examined by using in vitro and in vivo assays. MWCNTs significantly induced micronuclei in A549 cells and enhanced the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in CHO AA8 cells. When ICR mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (0.05 or 0.2 mg/animal) of MWCNTs, DNA damage of the lungs, analysed by comet assay, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DNA oxidative damage, indicated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and heptanone etheno-deoxyribonucleosides, occurred in the lungs of MWCNT-exposed mice. The gpt mutation frequencies significantly increased in the lungs of MWCNT-treated gpt delta transgenic mice. Transversions were predominant, and G:C to C:G was clearly increased by MWCNTs. Moreover, many regions immunohistochemically stained for inducible NO synthase and nitrotyrosine were observed in the lungs of MWCNT-exposed mice. Overall, MWCNTs were shown to be genotoxic both in in vitro and in vivo tests; the mechanisms probably involve oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
    Nanotoxicology 03/2012; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, samples of treated effluent were collected at point of discharge to the environment from 39 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across Victoria, Australia grouped by treatment type. Sample genotoxicity was assessed with a high-throughput luminescent umu test method using Salmonella typhimurium TL210 strain, with and without addition of a commercially available metabolic activation system. Samples were also screened using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric mass-structure database recognition method. A genotoxic response was observed in half of the samples tested without metabolic activation system (<LOR - 0.19 μg/L 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide equivalents). On addition of metabolic activation system, 75% of samples elicited a genotoxic response, the majority of responses were stronger than without metabolic activation (<LOR - 2.97 μg/L benzo[a]pyrene equivalents). The type of WWTP had no effect on genotoxicity. A large number of chemicals were identified in the effluents, although none could be unambiguously tied to the genotoxicity observed. Chemicals observed in one or more effluents included food additives (e.g. dibenzylether), various alkyl phenols, tyre leachates (e.g. 2(3H)-benzothiazolone), antioxidants, flame retardants (e.g. tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate), insect repellents (e.g. diethyltoluamide), stimulants (e.g. caffeine) and anticonvulsants (e.g. carbamazepine). Of the 451 pesticides screened, carbamate insecticides (e.g. bendiocarb, propoxur), plant growth regulators (e.g. propham) and herbicides (e.g. atrazine, metolachlor, simazine) were amongst the compounds observed.
    Water Science & Technology 01/2012; 66(4):768-74. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study was initiated to provide the first information on the recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassay (hormonal) activity of freshwaters in Victoria. The project involved the collection of water samples from six stations on the main stem of the Yarra River in and upstream of the city of Melbourne, Australia in April 2008 and April 2009. Samples were prepared for measurement of sample toxicity using a modified photobacterium test, genotoxicity using a high-throughput luminescent umu test method, and human and medaka estrogen receptor (hERα and medERα), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thyroid receptor (TR) assay activity using the relevant yeast-based bioassays. Most samples were only weakly or moderately toxic, with no relationship observed to location along the river. The data for 2008 suggests that at that time the Yarra River samples contained few compounds that were, in and of themselves, genotoxic. No estrogenic or thyroid, and <1 ng/L retinoic acid receptor activity was observed. AhR activity increased with progressed downstream. AhR activity was higher in April 2009 than at the same time in 2008, perhaps as a result of extensive bush fires in the catchment in the months immediately prior to sampling. About 24% of the total AhR activity observed was associated with suspended solids.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 09/2011; 87(5):591-6. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    Advanced Topics in Environmental Health and Air Pollution Case Studies, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-525-9
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    ABSTRACT: There are many gaseous air pollutants found in indoor air. It is very important to precisely measure the concentration of these compounds in order to evaluate the risk to human health and to reduce their concentrations. A diffusive sampling device is suitable for measurement of indoor air, because these are small, light, and can be used without a power supply for the pump. In this study, representative gaseous air pollutants in winter indoor and outdoor air were measured using diffusive sampling devices. Furthermore, the relationship between gaseous air pollutants, secondary formation mechanism, and the outbreak source were examined. The indoor concentrations of aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia were higher than outdoor concentrations. By contrast, indoor concentrations of ozone were lower than outdoor concentrations. The indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in 43% houses exceeded the maximum limit stated by environmental law (60 ppb). It was suggested that the main emission sources of nitrogen dioxide are kerosene and gas stoves. In addition, it was suggested that carbonyl compounds are formed by interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone from outdoor air. Formic acid was estimated to be formed by the oxidation of formaldehyde with ozone, because a positive correlation between formaldehyde and formic acid, and an inverse correlation between formaldehyde and ozone, were observed in indoor air.
    Journal of UOEH 09/2010; 32(3):245-55.
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate human exposure to hazardous chemicals, it is important to measure the annual trends regarding the concentrations of these compounds in the environment. Airborne particulate samples were collected over the past 20 years (1980–2001) from ambient air using a quartz fiber filter with the help of a high-volume air sampler placed on the top of the National Institute of the Public Health building, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. In the present study, portions of these filter samples were analyzed to investigate the trends regarding the concentration of PAHs in urban air over the sampling period. The concentrations of various PAHs per unit air volume were determined. The concentrations of seven PAHs decreased within the sampling periods, especially in the late 1980s, and slowly decreased from the middle 1990s. The concentrations of seven PAHs were higher in autumn and winter than in the spring and summer.
    Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 08/2010; 2004(Vol. 24):635-646. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using an Andersen sampler equipped with a low-pressure impactor, samples of 12 size-classified (>0.13 μm to <12 μm) airborne particles and samples of gaseous components were taken from the air in Tokyo for continuous periods of 19 weeks in the summer of 2001 and 17 weeks in the winter of 2001–2. The sampling filters were changed weekly. The concentrations of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particulate and gas-phase samples were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Pyrene was detected in the gas phase in both summer and winter: 59% of the total pyrene detected was present in the gas phase in summer, but this fraction decreased to 40% in winter. In the particle fractions, the summer levels of benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (dBahA), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA) peaked in particles of diameter 1.25 μm, and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]chrysene (BbC), and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene (dBaeP) peaked in particles of diameter 0.76 μm. In winter, BkF, BghiP, BaA, BbC, and dBaeP levels peaked in particles of diameter 0.52 μm, whereas dBahA peaked in particles of diameter 0.76 μm.
    Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 08/2010; 2004(Vol. 24):647-656. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenic compounds were adsorbed on Blue Rayon (BR) to monitor the pollution level of the surface seawater of the East and South China Seas by continuous sampling of seawater along the ship lane of our research and training vessel Umitaka-Maru. Eluted PAHs from BR were quantitatively determined by HPLC and their total amount in each sample ranged between 30.40 and 120.29 ng per liter of seawater, showing a difference of about 4 times among 8 samples. Acenaphthylene, naphthalene, and benz(a)anthracene were the most common PAHs found in the East and South China Seas, however, no big difference was observed in the concentrations of PAHs distributed throughout those two closed seas. Mutagenicity was detected as pseudo-positive from three samples. Among them, one sample collected along the east edge of the East China Sea showed a strong direct cytotoxicity which interrupted the mutagenicity test.
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 01/2010; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the effect of indoor air pollutants on nerve growth factor (NGF) production in lung, male C3H/HeN mice were exposed to filtered air (control) or toluene at levels of 0.9 ppm, 9 ppm, or 90 ppm for 30 min via nose-only inhalation on days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. As an allergic mouse model, some mice (n=24) were immunized with ovalbumin. Lungs from each mouse were collected to determine NGF and related receptor expressions using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. NGF and TrkA mRNAs were increased in the lungs of the immunized mice following exposure to 9 ppm toluene (n=6) (P<0.05 ppm vs. 0 ppm). Remarkably increased NGF-positive bronchiolus and alveolar epithelium cells were observed in 9 ppm toluene-exposed, immunized mice. To determine NGF mediating signaling, we also examined mRNA expression of neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR)) and oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the lung. There is no difference in the expressions of p75(NTR) and HO-1 between toluene-exposed and control mice. The expression of CCL2 and CCL3 mRNAs was significantly elevated in 9 ppm toluene-exposed, immunized mice. These findings suggest that the exposure with volatile organic compounds enhanced NGF expression and airway inflammation stronger in allergic individuals than in healthy individuals.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2009; 191(2-3):240-5. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the behavior of mutagenic substances in the soil of forests or planted areas. Mutagenicity and concentration was examined for 16 types of PAHs in soil samples collected at a depth of 1 m in 10 forests in Iwate, Ibaraki, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Yamanashi and Shizuoka prefectures in Japan. Mutagenicity and PAHs were detected mostly in soil from the surface to a depth of 30 cm when strains TA100, TA98 and YG1024 were used. In addition, a significant correlation was not found between the concentration of BaP, and specific mutagenic activity (TA98 without S9mix, r = 0.285).
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 08/2009; 83(5):742-6. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The behavior of heavy metals in wood during its carbonization process was examined. Cadmium in wood samples was found to be volatile when the samples were carbonized at 600 degrees C or higher, which demonstrated that removal of cadmium was feasible. Meanwhile, lead was found to be barely volatile even if the wood samples were carbonized at 1,000 degrees C or higher, which demonstrated that lead was difficult to remove and recover. The possibility of removing/recovering lead contained in wood by energization was then examined. By examining the concentration of sulfuric acid used as an electrolyte as well as load voltage, approximately 10% of lead was found to be recoverable.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 03/2009; 82(5):621-6. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of CD4(+) T cells in neurotrophin production following toluene exposure, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control) or 9 ppm of toluene in a nose-only exposure chamber for 30 min on 3 consecutive days followed by weekly sessions for 4 weeks. All the mice were immunized with ovalbumin and some groups of mice were treated with anti-CD4 antibody. BDNF content in BAL fluid and NGF content in plasma were significantly increased in toluene-exposed mice. However, treatment with anti-CD4 mAb completely abrogated these effects. These findings suggest that the CD4(+) T cells may be involved in the toluene-induced modulation of neurotrophin production.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 02/2009; 31(1):146-9. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based upon the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) ha sr ecommended that health authorities disclose toxicological properties of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) obtained not only according to US Federal Trade Commission (FTC)/International Organization for Standardization (ISO) conditions but also by more intense conditions such as the Health Canada Intense (HCI) condition. This is because smokers are believed to smoke more intensely than machine smoking under the ISO regimen. Because there are no previous reports on the toxicological properties of MSS of Japanese cigarettes under the HCI condition, we determined nicotine and water contents by gas chromatography (GC-MS and GC/Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)) for three product lots each of the ten bestselling brands of Japanese cigarettes following the WHO protocol. One of the three lots of each MSS condensate was also resolved in dimethylsulfoxide and investigated by Ames preincubation assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA98, and YG1024 strains with and without metabolic activation (rat liver S9 mix). Nicotine and tar yields with the HCI regimen were higher than those with ISO, the latter being very close to the values described on the packages of each cigarette brand. Mutagenicity was mainly observed in TA98 and YG1024 with metabolic activation. Mutagenic activity of MSS with the HCI regimen was 1.4-9 times higher than that with the ISO regimen. Based on YG1024 with activation, high activities were observed in several "low yield" brands. The activity of "low-yield" brands with the HCI regimen was not always lower than that of regular-yield brands with the ISO regimen. These results suggest that "low yield" cigarettes do not result in reduced exposure or reduced risk to humans.
    Journal of Health Science - J HEALTH SCI. 01/2009; 55(3):421-427.
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    ABSTRACT: 3,6-Dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (3,6-DNBeP) is an extremely strong bacterial mutagen, and was recently identi-fied in highly mutagenic surface soil samples. In a previous study, a sensitive analytical method was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection. In this study, we analyzed 3,6-DNBeP in surface soil, airborne particles, diesel particles, and incinerator dusts using this analytical method to reveal the distribution of 3,6-DNBeP in the environment. 3,6-DNBeP was detected in all surface soil samples, and the mutagenic contribution ratio of 3,6-DNBeP to the mutagenicity of the soil extracts toward Salmonella (S.) typhimurium TA98 was 17.3% on average. A positive correlation was observed between the mutagenicity of sur-face soil and the amount of 3,6-DNBeP (r = 0.8653). 3,6-DNBeP was detected in airborne particles in the range of 19–76 fg/m 3 . The particle-size-distribution ratios of 3,6-DNBeP in <1.1, 1.1–2.0, 2.0–3.3, 3.3–7, and >7 µm of airborne particles were 13.1%, 13.8%, 37.0%, 19.1%, and 17.0%, respectively. 3,6-DNBeP was detected in diesel particles from general automobiles and industrial forklifts, and incinerator dusts. These results suggested that 3,6-DNBeP was a major mutagen in surface soil, and diesel engines and incinerators were possible sources of 3,6-DNBeP distributed in surface soil and air. This is the first report on the detection of 3,6-DNBeP in diesel particles and incinerator dusts.
    Journal of Health Science Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute. 01/2009; 55:567-577.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatopancreases were washed four times with 2% acetic acid solution. In both the washed hepatopancreases and the supernatant of the washing solution, the residual cadmium (Cd) concentration was in accordance with the required standard for organic fertilizers. Hepatopancreases do not naturally contain high levels of nitrogen, but they do contain several amino acids which are useful for cultivation, and these were retained during the washing process. Although the condensed precipitate of the washing solution contained a considerable amount of Cd, Cd elution levels at the time of final disposal met judgment standard for special management industrial waste as a result of kneading and immobilizing with chelating adsorbent for treatment of contaminated soil. The volume of the precipitate of the washing solution was one-fifth of the original hepatopancreas, and the solid waste was suitable for burial at a final disposal site without further treatment.
    Fisheries Science 01/2008; 74(1):187 - 192. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sand of sandboxes in 51 parks in Japan. We inspected the following 10 kinds of PAHs: fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1, 2, 3,-cd]pyrene, benzo [ghi]perylene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. The PAHs that showed relatively high concentrations were fluoranthene and pyrene, at 17.2 ng/g sand and 14.9 ng/g sand, respectively, on average. While the total concentration of PAHs in most samples ranged from 1 to 120 ng/g sand, some samples showed concentrations of 400, 600, and even nearly 1500 ng/g sand. The composition ratios of PAHs of most samples were comparable, but some samples had distinctive composition ratios, suggesting that various sources of pollution existed. The main problem is that the infants playing in sandboxes cannot distinguish between sandboxes polluted by PAH levels of several hundred ng/g sand or a thousand ng/g sand. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the causes of the pollution of PAH and to take countermeasures.
    Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 01/2008; 28:451-461. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of demolition wood and a small amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film (the Cl content of which ranged from 0.5% to 6% by weight) in an N2 atmosphere at elevated temperatures of up to 600°C was measured using a laboratory-scale cylindrical batch reactor. In the pyrolysis experiments, HCl emission was reduced by the presence of wood. The effect of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) on HCl emission was investigated by not only measuring HCl emission and Cl distribution to various phases during the co-pyrolysis of each constituent with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. This investigation first revealed that hemicellulose significantly reduced HCl emission by fixing most of the Cl molecules in a sample into pyrolyzed residue.
    Fuel. 01/2008; 87(13):3155-3157.
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    ABSTRACT: The function of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamatergic receptors is known to be antagonized by toluene, a well-characterized neurotoxic chemical known to impair memory functions. Recently, peripheral T cells have been clearly shown to play an important role in cognitive and behavioral functions. In the present study, we investigated the role of peripheral T cells in the hippocampal mRNA expression of memory-related genes induced by low levels of toluene exposure in mice. BALB/c wild-type (WT) and nude mice were exposed to 9ppm of toluene or filtered air (0ppm toluene; control groups) in a nose-only exposure chamber for 30min on 3 consecutive days followed by weekly sessions for 4 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, the hippocampi were collected and the inducibility of memory-related genes was examined using a real-time quantitative PCR method. NMDA NR2A, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), and BDNF were significantly up-regulated in the hippocampi of WT mice exposed to 9ppm of toluene, compared to the expressions observed in WT mice exposed to filtered air, but similar results were not observed in nude mice. To investigate the possible involvement of peripheral T cells in the toluene-induced up-regulation of memory-related genes in WT mice, we examined the mRNA expression of Thy-1 (a pan T cell-specific marker) and quantified the number of cells that were immunoreactive to a T cell antigen receptor, CD3 (CD3-ir). Both the expression of Thy-1 mRNA and the number of CD3-ir cells were significantly higher in the hippocampi of the WT mice exposed to 9ppm of toluene, compared with that in WT mice exposed to filtered air; similar results were not observed in nude mice. We also examined the expression of chemokine genes like CCL2 and CCL3. The expression of CCL3 mRNA was significantly up-regulated only in the toluene-exposed WT mice. Although other differences unrelated to immune function may exist between WT and nude mice from the same background, the findings of the present study strongly suggest that the recruitment of peripheral T cells in the hippocampi of BALB/c WT mice exposed to low levels of toluene may be involved in the toluene-induced up-regulation of memory-related genes at the mRNA level.
    NeuroToxicology 10/2007; 28(5):957-64. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the status of carbonaceous aerosols in Tokyo before and after the implementation of a diesel vehicle regulation intended to reduce the quantity of particulate carbon from diesel engines in one of the largest scale ever attempts at vehicle exhaust control. Radiocarbon (14C) in elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) were analyzed to identify fossil fuel carbonaceous particles emitted from diesel-powered vehicles. One-sided paired-month t-tests showed no distinct difference in the absolute concentrations of particles in terms of total mass (19.5 to 18.0 microg m(-3); p = 0.321), EC (3.6 to 3.3 microg m(-3); p = 0.272), and TC (6.3 to 6.2 microg m(-3); p = 0.418) for the finest particles (d(a) < 1.1 microm) after the implementation of the regulation. The ratios of the concentrations of the chemical constituents were, however, altered after the regulation. EC/TC was significantly decreased from 56.7% to 50.2% (p = 0.039). Although it was not statistically significant, the percentage of fossil carbon in EC also decreased (67.8% to 63.8%; p = 0.104). Since EC is predominantly of combustion origin, the observed decrease was likely due to the decrease in fossil EC emissions from diesel-powered vehicles. The decrease in EC/TC after the implementation of the regulation was also likely to have resulted from attachment to diesel vehicle exhaust systems of particulate filters as required as part of the regulation by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The EC/TC of fossil carbon of the finest particles decreased from 66.2% to 55.2% (p = 0.066), but EC/TC of biomass carbon did not decrease but rose slightly from 43.6% to 44.5% (p > 0.5). Thus, the relative ratios of components of carbonaceous aerosol particles, such as 14C, could provide a better understanding of the atmospheric pollution status, despite short-term fluctuations, than do measurements of absolute concentrations.
    Environmental Science and Technology 09/2007; 41(18):6357-62. · 5.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

229 Citations
99.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2013
    • Kanagawa Prefectural Institute Of Public Health
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    • Centre for Health Research and Development
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2004–2011
    • Azabu University
      • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2002–2010
    • National Institute for Environmental Studies
      • Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
    • Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1991–2001
    • National Institute of Public Health
      Saitama, Saitama, Japan
  • 1999
    • Tokyo University of Fisheries
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1992
    • University of Shizuoka
      • Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences
      Shizuoka-shi, Shizuoka-ken, Japan