[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypocretin (Hcrt) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus (LHT) that plays a key role in maintaining arousal state. In Parkinson's disease (PD), a narcolepsy-like syndrome is commonly seen, and a previous study showed substantial Hcrt neuronal loss in accordance with PD severity. In the present study, we quantitatively examined Hcrt immunoreactivity and α-synuclein and tau pathologies in the LHT and locus coeruleus (LC) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n=15), Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=14), and controls (n=7). In the LHT, substantial Hcrt-positive neurons were detected in controls. In contrast, in DLB and AD, the numbers of both total neurons and Hcrt-positive neurons were significantly reduced. The reduction of the latter was significantly severer in DLB than in AD. In the LC of controls, many Hcrt-positive axonal terminals were found. In contrast, the amount of Hcrt immunoreactivity was significantly reduced both in DLB and AD. In DLB, some Lewy body (LB)-bearing neurons were detected in the LHT, but the Hcrt-positive neurons did not have any LBs. Meanwhile, some tau-positive neurofibrillary tangle (NFT)-bearing neurons were detected in the LHT, and Hcrt-positive neurons occasionally contained NFTs. We observed a significant negative correlation between the number of Hcrt-positive neurons in the LHT and the neurofibrillary stage (r=-0.67, p=0.0067), whereas no significant correlation was found between the number of Hcrt-positive neurons and the Lewy stage (r=-0.47, p=0.077). This is the first report clarifying the substantial loss of Hcrt neurons in the LHT and of Hcrt axonal terminals in the LC in DLB and the correlation between the severity of Hcrt neuronal loss and progression of neurofibrillary pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here an autopsy case of concurrent Huntington's disease (HD) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease. The patient was a Japanese woman with a significant hereditary burden: seven of her family members within four generations were affected by either NF1 or concurrent HD and NF1. She was diagnosed as having NF1 at age 24. At age 40, she showed signs of irritability, aggressive and childish behaviour, which became progressively worse. At age 48, rigidity and spastic gait were observed. One year later, choreoathetoid involuntary movements became apparent. Diagnosis of HD was made by identification of the abnormally expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats in the Huntington's disease gene. Her condition deteriorated gradually to an apallic state and she died at age 60. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive brain atrophy, which was particularly severe in the frontal and temporal cortices and the striatum. The degree of neurodegenerative change seemed to correspond to grade IV. Polyglutamine positive inclusions were seen frequently in all layers of the cerebral cortex and in the amygdala and hippocampus. Inclusions were also present in the striatum, but there were fewer than in the cortex. Remarkably, neuronal intranuclear inclusions were present in the cerebellum, although they are usually not seen in HD. Features associated with the central nervous system involvement of NF1 were not found in the brain, but HD pathology might have been accelerated by the concurrence of NF1. This is the third report of a case with concurrent HD and NF1 in the world, and the first study in which occurrence of polyglutamine inclusions was confirmed on post-mortem examination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequentiy exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSLE). In case of mild NPSLE such as mood disturbance or anxiety without
abnormalities of cerebrospinalfluid (CSF), brain magnetic resonanceimaging (MRI) or electroencephalogram(EEG), diagnosis and evaluation of NPSLE are often difficult. Measurement of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose(CMRglc) with [18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is being increasingly used to support diagnosis and evaluation of several neurologic diseases. There are few reports on relationship between CMRglc and NPSLE. We report two cases of mild NPSLE that responded to immunotherapy and exhibited improvement of brain 18F-FDG-PET. We
obtained signed consent for publication from both the patients.
Case one is a 25-year-oId woman who was diagnosed with SLE at the age of nineteen. She visited the department of psychiaty in our hospital with severe depressive symptoms such as depressive mood and suicide ideation. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and psychotherapy were initiated at first, but she did not respond to them. Organic causes of the symptoms were investigated. She had no neurological symptoms. Serological markers did not indicate high activityin SLE. Brain MRI and EEG were normal. In her CSF, there were no abnormalities except slight increase of IgG index. 18F-FDG-PET revealed hypometabolisms in her bilateral frontal and left temporal realm. Because NPSLE was suspected, she was administered intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP)
and cyclophosphamide (IVCY). After sixmonths, the depressive symptoms were decreased moderately, and the hypometabolisms were also improved. Case two is a 38-year-old woman who was admitted to the department of rheumatology in our hospital due to fever and pain of the joints. She was diagnosed with SLE. She had had depressive mood and anxiety since then. She had no neurological symptoms. Brain MRI, CSF and EEG were normal. 18F-FDG-PET revealed hypometabolisms in her bilateral frontal and left temporal realm. After oral prednisolone and IVMP were administered, she began to exhibit hypomanic symptoms. She was referred to the department of psychiatry. She exhibited mild euphoria and talkativeness, but they did not disturb her daily life. Low dose antipsychotics and mood stabilizers were initiated, but the hypomanic symptoms persisted. In order to treat lupus nephritis, IVCY were administered every month, and prednisolone was tapered. As the nephritis was improved, the hypomanic symptoms
were also remitted. 18F-FDG-PET showed almost normalization of CMRglc after six months. In both of the cases, patients exhibited mild NP symptoms. Clinical examinations except 18F-FDG-PET did not show obvious abnormalities, so the diagnosis of NPSLE was difficult. 18F-FDG-PET revealed hypometabolisms in the brain, which were improved according to recovery of NP symptoms after immunotherapy. Therefore, both the cases were thought as NPSLE. 18F-FDG-PET might be a potential tool to diagnose and/or evaluate mild NPSLE.
Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research 01/2014; 20(1):21. · 0.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAs) present various kinds of psychiatric conditions. When these psychiatric patients with ATAs (PPATs) show responsiveness to immunotherapy, they are frequently diagnosed with a diffuse progressive type of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE). Anti-glutamate receptor ɛ2 subunit (GluRɛ2) antibodies have previously been reported in HE patients. However, it is unclear whether there is any relationship between PPATs, including HE patients, and anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies. We investigated anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 PPATs, and we compared the results with those of 11 patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), an anti-glutamate receptor antibody-related disease. We then compared the neuropsychiatric symptoms between the PPATs with and without anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies. The prevalence of anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies was significantly higher in the CSF than in the serum of PPATs (41.7% versus 6.7%; p=0.040). The prevalence of anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies was slightly higher in the CSF of PPATs than NPSLE patients. PPAT-GluR(+)s showed a significantly higher prevalence of emotional instability (100% versus 33.3%; p=0.03) and also showed a significantly lower prevalence of delusions (0% versus 100%; p=0.001) and hallucinations (17% versus 83%; p=0.038) than PPAT-GluR(-)s. Our results suggest that anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies may be associated with the neuropsychiatric manifestation of PPATs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene are linked to a form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ALS6. The FUS protein is a major component of the ubiquitin-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in both ALS6 and some rare forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The latter are now collectively referred to as FTLD-FUS. In the present study, we investigated the localization of FUS in human and mouse brains. FUS was detected by western blot as an approximately 72 kDa protein in both human and mouse brains. Immunohistochemistry using lightly fixed tissue sections of human and mouse brains revealed FUS-positive granular staining in the neuropil, in addition to nuclear staining. Such granules are abundant in the gray matter of the brainstem and spinal cord. They are not frequent in the telencephalon. At the light microscopic level, FUS-positive granules are often co-localized with synaptophysin and present in association with microtubule-associated protein 2-positive dendrites. In the synaptosomal fraction of mouse brain, FUS is detected mainly in the post-synaptic density fraction. Thus, while FUS is primarily a nuclear protein, it may also play a role in dendrites. In the brains of patients with FTLD with TDP-43 deposition (FTLD-TDP), the number of FUS-positive granules in the cortex is increased compared with control cases. The increase in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is less remarkable but still significant. The dendritic localization of FUS and its increase in FTLD-TDP and AD may have some implication for the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a quantitative neuropathological examination of the hypometabolic regions on FDG PET in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control cases. When the DLB cases were divided into two groups according to concomitant AD pathology (ADP), neuronal loss in the temporo-parietal association area was milder in the DLB groups than in the AD group, although there were no differences between the two DLB groups. Tau and Aβ immunoreactivities were observed in the AD group and the DLB group with ADP, but were rare in the DLB group without ADP. Tau and Aβ immunoreactivities as well as numbers of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuritic plaques (NPs) were more common in the AD group than in the DLB group with ADP. There was no difference in neuronal loss in the occipital area among the three groups. α-Synuclein immunoreactivity was observed in the DLB groups but not in the AD group. There were no differences in α-synuclein immunoreactivity and number of Lewy bodies (LBs) between the two DLB groups. These findings indicate that the neuropathological bases of the hypometabolic regions in the temporo-parietal association and occipital area in DLB may be AD pathology and Lewy pathology, respectively.
Journal of the neurological sciences 03/2012; 314(1-2):111-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) is a clinical subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FTLD with tau accumulation (FTLD-tau) and FTLD with TDP-43 accumulation (FTLD-TDP) both cause PNFA. We reviewed clinical records of 29 FTLD-TDP cases in the brain archive of our institute and found only one case of PNFA. The patient was an 81-year-old male at death. There was no family history of dementia or aphasia. He presented with slow, labored and nonfluent speech at age 75. Behavioral abnormality and movement disorders were absent. MRI at age 76 demonstrated atrophy of the perisylvian regions, including the inferior frontal gyrus, insular gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. The atrophy was more severe in the left hemisphere than the right. On post mortem examinations, neuronal loss was evident in these regions as well as in the substantia nigra. There were abundant TDP-43-immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and round or irregular-shaped structures in the affected cerebral cortices. A few dystrophic neurites and neuronal intranuclear inclusions were also seen. FTLD-TDP showing PNFA seems to be rare but does exist in Japan, similar to that in other countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is emerging evidence implicating a role for the autophagy-lysosome pathway in the pathogenesis of Lewy body disease. We investigated potential neuropathologic and biochemical alterations of autophagy-lysosome pathway-related proteins in the brains of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer disease (AD), and control subjects using antibodies against Ras-related protein Rab-7B (Rab7B), lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 (LC3). In DLB, but not in control brains, there were large Rab7B-immunoreactive endosomal granules. LC3 immunoreactivity was increased in vulnerable areas of DLB brains relative to that in control brains; computerized cell counting analysis revealed that LC3 levels were greater in the entorhinal cortex and amygdala of DLB brains than in controls. Rab7B levels were increased, and LAMP2 levels were decreased in the entorhinal cortex of DLB brains. In contrast, only a decrease in LAMP2 levels versus controls was found in AD brains. LC3 widely colocalized with several types of Lewy pathology; LAMP2 localized to the periphery or outside of brainstem-type Lewy bodies; Rab7B did not colocalize with Lewy pathology. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated specific accumulation of the autophagosomal LC3-II isoform in detergent-insoluble fractions from DLB brains. These results support apotential role for the autophagy-lysosome pathway in the pathogenesis of DLB.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 03/2011; 70(4):264-80. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are clinically distinguished based only on the duration of parkinsonism prior to dementia. It is known that there is considerable pathological overlap between these two conditions, but the pathological difference between them remains unknown. We evaluated Alzheimer-type pathology in 30 brains of patients with Lewy body dementia using standardized methods based on those of the Brain-Net Europe (BNE) Consortium. Only 2 of 13 PDD cases (15%) showed Aβ-immunoreactive pathology in the midbrain (amyloid phase IV). In contrast, 12 of 17 DLB cases (71%) exhibited midbrain involvement. Four of the DLB cases (24%) but none of the PDD cases exhibited Aβ-immunoreactive pathology in the cerebellum (amyloid phase V). The ratio of cases with subtentorial involvement of amyloid deposition was significantly higher in DLB than in PDD. The median of amyloid phases was significantly greater in DLB than in PDD, but there was no difference in neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) Braak stages or in Lewy body scores. When patients were classified according to whether dementia or parkinsonism had occurred first, the rate of dementia having occurred first was significantly greater in amyloid phase IV and V than in phase 0-I, with phase III in the middle, though there was no significant difference in median NFT Braak stage or mean Lewy body score associated with amyloid phase. These results suggest that amyloid deposition may contribute to the timing of the onset of dementia relative to that of parkinsonism in Lewy body dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasu-Hakola disease is an autosomal recessively inherited disease characterized by lipomembranous polycystic osteodysplasia and sclerosing leukoencephalopathy. While white matter lesions prominent in the brain have been reported in the literature, gray matter lesions have not received particular attention. In this study, we examined three autopsy cases of Nasu-Hakola disease in order to focus specifically on gray matter lesions. The ages at onset of the three cases were 20, 23 and 29 years, and the disease durations were 29, 19 and 8 years, respectively. In addition to characteristic degeneration in the cerebral white matter, such as demyelination with conspicuous fibrillary gliosis and axonal changes, all three cases showed overt pathology in the gray matter. Neuronal loss with gliosis in the thalamus (particularly in the dorsomedial nucleus and anterior nucleus), caudate nucleus, putamen and substantia nigra was prominent in all cases, and the severity corresponded to the disease duration. The cerebral cortices were relatively preserved in all cases. One case showed neuronal loss and gliosis in the gray matter of the hippocampus, possibly due to repeated episodes of epileptic convulsions. These gray matter pathologies are considered to be responsible for some of the clinical manifestations of the disease, including extrapyramidal symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Missense mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common causes of both familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson disease and are also associated with diverse pathological alterations. The mechanisms whereby LRRK2 mutations cause these pathological phenotypes are unknown. We used immunohistochemistry with 3 distinct anti-LRRK2 antibodies to characterize the expression of LRRK2 in the brains of 21 subjects with various neurodegenerative disorders and 7 controls. The immunoreactivity of LRRK2 was localized in a subset of brainstem-type Lewy bodies (LBs) but not in cortical-type LBs, tau-positive inclusions, or TAR-DNA-binding protein-43-positive inclusions. The immunoreactivity of LRRK2 frequently appeared as enlarged granules or vacuoles within neurons of affected brain regions, including the substantia nigra, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex in patients with Parkinson disease or dementia with LBs. The volumes of LRRK2-positive granular structures in neurons of the entorhinal cortex were significantly increased in dementia with LBs brains compared with age-matched control brains (p < 0.05). Double immunolabeling demonstrated that these LRRK2-positive granular structures frequently colocalized with the late-endosomal marker Rab7B and occasionally with the lysosomal marker, the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2. These results suggest that LRRK2 normally localizes to the endosomal-lysosomal compartment within morphologically altered neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in the brains of patients with LB diseases.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 09/2009; 68(9):994-1005. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semantic dementia is a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, of which an initial symptom is semantic aphasia. Semantic dementia pathologically corresponds to atypical Pick's disease (aPiD), showing ubiq- uitin-positive inclusions similar to those in dementia with motor neuron disease (D-MND). Previous studies have not clarified the regions responsible for semantic aphasia in aPiD, and there have been no reported neuropathological studies concerning its pathomechanism.
We neuropathologically investigated aPiD and D-MND cases with and without semantic aphasia.
We determined that the regions involved in the early stage of the disease course of semantic dementia were more restricted to the anterior and inferior portion of the temporal lobe on the side of the dominant hemisphere.
Degeneration of the temporal pole is most likely to participate in the pathomechanism of SA in semantic dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adherence to antipsychotic treatment is particularly important in the long-term management of schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders since poor adherence to medication is associated with poor health outcomes. Although the patients' subjective satisfaction with the medication is crucial for adherence to medication, few studies have examined the relationship between subjective satisfaction with antipsychotics and adherence. In this study, we investigated subjective satisfaction with antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia by using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), a self-reporting instrument to assess the major dimensions of patients' satisfaction with their medication. The subjects included 121 clinically stabilized outpatients who met the following criteria: 1) patients between 20 and 65 years of age, diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders as defined by DSM-IV, 2) patients undergoing oral antipsychotic monotherapy or taking only an antiparkinsonian agent as an adjuvant remedy, and 3) patients who had received a stable dose of an antipsychotic for more than four weeks. Patients were asked to answer the TSQM questions, and their clinical symptoms were also evaluated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Satisfaction with regard to side-effects (p=0.015) and global satisfaction (p=0.035) were significantly higher in patients taking second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs, n=111) than those taking first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs, n=10), whereas no significant difference was found between the two groups in clinical symptoms according to BPRS (p=0.637) or the Drug-induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS, p=0.209). In addition, correlations were not significant between the subjective satisfactions and clinician-rated objective measures of the symptoms. These findings suggest that SGAs have more favorable subjective satisfaction profiles than FGAs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Since it is often difficult to detect the difference by a traditional objective assessment of the patients, it is desirable that physicians pay attention to the patients' subjective satisfaction in conjunction with their own objective clinical assessment.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 05/2008; 32(3):755-60. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAR-DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major component protein of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in brains from patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To obtain the precise prevalence of TDP-43 pathology in neurodegenerative disorders, we examined brains from patients with tauopathies and synucleinopathies as well as FTLD-U using immunohistochemical analysis. Consequently, TDP-43-positive inclusions within neurons and oligodendroglia were found in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in addition to FTLD-U, but not with Parkinson's disease, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration or FTDP-17. The amygdala and hippocampus that were vulnerable to tau or alpha-synuclein pathology demonstrated more severe TDP-43 pathology in AD and DLB cases than in FTLD-U cases. In contrast, in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia that were vulnerable to TDP-43 pathology in FTLD-U, TDP-43 pathology was not observed in AD and DLB cases. Thus, the neuroanatomical distribution of TDP-43 pathology in AD and DLB cases was obviously different from that in FTLD-U cases. Furthermore, a subset of TDP-43-positive inclusions co-existed with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) or Lewy bodies (LBs) in the same neurons. Upon double-immunofluorescent labeling analysis, TDP-43 was hardly superimposed with tau, while TDP-43 was partially superimposed with alpha-synuclein, suggesting that neither NFTs nor LBs themselves show TDP-43 immunoreactivity and that TDP-43 pathology found in this study may be related in some way to AD and LB pathology. This study will provide a more in-depth understanding of the various pathogenic pathways leading to neurodegenerative disorders.
Brain Research 01/2008; 1184:284-94. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of the lysosomal storage diseases that have now been characterized are associated with intra-lysosomal accumulation of lipids, caused by defective lysosomal enzymes. We have previously reported neuronal accumulation of both alpha- and beta-synucleins in brain tissue of a GM2 gangliosidosis mouse model. Although alpha-synuclein has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, its functions remain largely unclear. In our present study, we have examined a cohort of human lipidosis cases, including Sandhoff disease, Tay-Sachs disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, beta-galactosialidosis and adrenoleukodystrophy, for the expression of alpha- and beta-synucleins and the associated lipid storage levels. The accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in brain tissue in not only cases of lysosomal storage diseases, but also in instances of adrenoleukodystrophy, which is a peroxisomal disease. alpha-synuclein was detected in both neurons and glial cells of patients with these two disorders, although its distribution was found to be disease-dependent. In addition, alpha-synuclein-positive neurons were also found to be NeuN-positive, whereas NeuN-negative neurons did not show any accumulation of this protein. By comparison, the accumulation of beta-synuclein was detectable only in the pons of Sandhoff disease cases. This differential accumulation of alpha- and beta-synucleins in human lipidoses may be related to functional differences between these two proteins. In addition, the accumulation of alpha-synuclein may also be a condition that is common to lysosomal storage diseases and adrenoleukodystrophies that show an enhanced expression of this protein upon the elevation of stored lipids.