Ranjit Mohan Anjana

Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India

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Publications (61)105.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: This study estimated the levels of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in urban and rural areas of four regions in India. Research Design and Methods: Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) Study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Jharkhand) and one Union Territory (Chandigarh) and covering a population of 213 million people. Using a stratified multistage sampling design, individuals ≥20 years of age were recruited. Glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes was assessed by measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), estimated by the Variant™ II Turbo method (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Results: Among the 14,277 participants in Phase I of INDIAB, there were 480 subjects with self-reported diabetes (254 urban and 226 rural). The mean HbA1c levels were highest in Chandigarh (9.1±2.3%), followed by Tamil Nadu (8.2±2.0%), Jharkhand (8.2±2.4%), and Maharashtra (8.0±2.1%). Good glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was observed only in 31.1% of urban and 30.8% of rural subjects. Only 22.4% of urban and 15.4% of rural subjects had reported having checked their HbA1c in the past year. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed younger age, duration of diabetes, insulin use, and high triglyceride levels to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusions: The level of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in India is poor. Urgent action is needed to remedy the situation.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 08/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To estimate the prevalence and clinical profile of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) among young type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients at a tertiary care diabetes centre in India.Methods: Electronic medical records of T1DM patients (age at first diagnosis of T1DM ≤25years) registered from January 1992 to May 2013, who had undergone ultrasonography and who denied history of any alcohol intake (n=736) were reviewed. NAFLD was diagnosed if there was any degree of fatty liver. Retinopathy was assessed initially by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and later by retinal photography, Nephropathy was diagnosed if urine protein excretion was >500 mg/day and neuropathy, if vibration perception threshold on biothesiometry was≥20 V.Results: A total of 204/736 (27.7%) T1DM patients had NAFLD. When compared to T1DM subjects without NAFLD, body mass index (18.9±4.2vs 20.2±4.7 kg/m2;p<0.001), waist circumference (67.9±13.2vs 71.9±13.3 cms;p<0.05), systolic blood pressure (110±15vs 116±18 mmHg;p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (72±9vs 74±10 mmHg;p<0.05) were higher, while fasting blood glucose (201±101vs 183±101mg/dl;p<0.05) and alkaline phosphatase (419 (12.5) vs 315 (15.8);p<0.001) were lower among T1DM with NAFLD. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between NAFLD and retinopathy [OR:2.01;CI:1.13-3.43;p=0.017, after adjusting for gender, duration of diabetes, overweight/obesity, hypertension, fasting plasma glucose and nephropathy and with nephropathy [OR:1.89;CI:1.02-3.50;p=0.042), after adjusting for gender and fasting plasma glucose.Conclusions: This study suggests that NAFLD is also seen among T1DM patients and that it has an independent and significant association with retinopathy and nephropathy.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors in urban and rural India. In Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study, individuals aged ⩾20 years were surveyed using a stratified multistage sampling design, in three states (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand) and one union territory (Chandigarh) of India. Blood pressure was measured in all study subjects (n=14 059). HTN was defined as systolic blood pressure ⩾140 mm Hg, and/or DBP ⩾90 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive drugs. Overall age-standardized prevalence of HTN was 26.3% (self-reported: 5.5%; newly detected: 20.8%). Urban residents of Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chandigarh and Maharashtra (31.5, 28.9, 30.7 and 28.1%) had significantly higher prevalence of HTN compared with rural residents (26.2, 21.7, 19.8 and 24.0%, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, male gender, urban residence, generalized obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with HTN. Salt intake ⩾6.5 g per day, showed significantly higher risk for HTN (odds ratio: 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.9, P=0.042) even after adjusting for confounding variables. In conclusion, prevalence of undiagnosed HTN is high in India and this calls for regular screening.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 31 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.57.
    Journal of human hypertension. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points.
    Indian pediatrics. 07/2014; 51(7):544-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the conversion rates to diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seen at a tertiary care diabetes center in urban south India.
    Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 05/2014; 18(3):400-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Representative data on knowledge and awareness about diabetes is scarce in India and is extremely important to plan public health policies aimed at preventing and controlling diabetes.
    Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 05/2014; 18(3):379-85.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and its association with preclinical atherosclerotic markers [intima-media thickness (IMT)] and arterial stiffness among 1755 urban south Indian type 2 diabetic subjects recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). Doppler studies were performed, and PVD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) of ≤0.9. IMT of the common carotid artery was determined using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography, and augmentation index (AGI) was measured using the Sphygmocor apparatus. The overall prevalence of PVD was 8.3% (age-standardized 6.5%). The prevalence of PVD was higher among known diabetic subjects (n = 1401) compared to newly detected diabetic subjects (n = 354) (8.6% vs 6.8%, p = 0.250). The mean IMT and AGI in subjects with PVD were significantly higher compared to subjects without PVD (IMT: 0.99 ± 0.26 mm vs 0.83 ± 0.19 mm; AGI: 28.1 ± 9.6% vs 25.7 ± 9.8%, respectively). IMT was independently associated with PVD even after adjusting for age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9 (1.2-6.7), p = 0.016 for second tertile and OR = 3.9 (1.7-9.3), p = 0.002 for third tertile compared to first tertile]. AGI was also associated with PVD in the unadjusted model [OR = 1.8 (1.1-3.1), p = 0.027 for second tertile compared to first tertile]. However, when adjusted for age, the significance was lost. In conclusion, among urban south Indian type 2 diabetic subjects, the prevalence of PVD is 8.3% and IMT is more strongly associated with PVD than AGI.
    Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 03/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rising prevalence of diabetes and obesity in India can be attributed, at least in part, to increasing levels of physical inactivity. However, there has been no nationwide survey in India on physical activity levels involving both the urban and rural areas in whole states of India. The aim of the present study was to assess physical activity patterns across India - as part of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Phase 1 of the ICMR-INDIAB study was conducted in four regions of India (Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Chandigarh representing the south, west, east and north of India respectively) with a combined population of 213 million people. Physical activity was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in 14227 individuals aged >= 20 years [urban- 4,173; rural- 10,054], selected from the above regions using a stratified multistage design. Of the 14227 individuals studied, 54.4% (n = 7737) were inactive (males: 41.7%), while 31.9% (n = 4537) (males: 58.3%) were active and 13.7% (n = 1953) (males: 61.3%) were highly active. Subjects were more inactive in urban, compared to rural, areas (65.0% vs. 50.0%; p < 0.001). Males were significantly more active than females (p < 0.001). Subjects in all four regions spent more active minutes at work than in the commuting and recreation domains. Absence of recreational activity was reported by 88.4%, 94.8%, 91.3% and 93.1% of the subjects in Chandigarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Tamilnadu respectively. The percentage of individuals with no recreational activity increased with age (Trend chi2: 199.1, p < 0.001). The study shows that a large percentage of people in India are inactive with fewer than 10% engaging in recreational physical activity. Therefore, urgent steps need to be initiated to promote physical activity to stem the twin epidemics of diabetes and obesity in India.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 02/2014; 11(1):26. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been demonstrated to be a better risk factor than total white blood cell count in the prediction of adverse outcomes in various medical conditions. This study analyzed the association of NLR with different grades of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in Asian Indians. Subjects and Methods: Study subjects were recruited from Phase 3 of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). For this cross-sectional analysis, subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=237), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n=63), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=286) were selected. The hemogram was done in all subjects using a five-part hematology analyzer (model SF-3000; Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). The NLR was calculated as the ratio between counts for neutrophils and total lymphocytes. Fasting insulin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results: Subjects with DM showed a significantly higher NLR (2.2±1.12) compared with IGT subjects (1.82±0.63), who in turn had a higher ratio than NGT subjects (1.5±0.41) (P<0.01). Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation of NLR with glycated hemoglobin (r=0.411), fasting plasma glucose (r=0.378), and HOMA-IR (r=0.233) (P<0.001). Regression analysis showed a linear increase in NLR with increasing severity of glucose intolerance even after adjusting for age, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, and smoking. Conclusions: This is the first report on the correlation of NLR with different grades of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. NLR can be used as an adjuvant prognostic marker for macro- and microvascular complications in patients with glucose intolerance.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Improving the carbohydrate quality of the diet by replacing the common cereal staple white rice (WR) with brown rice (BR) could have beneficial effects on reducing the risk for diabetes and related complications. Hence we aimed to compare the effects of BR, WR, and BR with legumes (BRL) diets on 24-h glycemic and insulinemic responses among overweight Asian Indians. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen overweight (body mass index, ≥23 kg/m(2)) Asian Indians without diabetes who were 25-45 years old participated in a randomized crossover study. Test meals (nonisocaloric, ad libitum) were identical except for the type of rice and the addition of legumes (50 g/day) and were provided for 5 consecutive days. Glucose profiles were assessed using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring device. The mean positive change from baseline glucose concentration was calculated as the daily incremental area under the curve (IAUC) on each test day for 5 days and averaged. Fasting serum insulin was measured prior to and at the end of each test diet. Results: The percentage difference in 5-day average IAUC was 19.8% lower in the BR group than in the WR group (P=0.004). BRL further decreased the glycemic response (22.9% lower compared with WR (P=0.02). The 5-day percentage change in fasting insulin was 57% lower (P=0.0001) for the BR group and 54% lower for the BRL group compared with the 5-day percentage change observed in the WR group. The glycemic and insulinemic responses to the BR and BRL diets were not significantly different. Conclusions: Consumption of BR in place of WR can help reduce 24-h glucose and fasting insulin responses among overweight Asian Indians.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the prevalence, incidence, etiology and factors related to progression of peripheral arterial disease [PAD] in Asian Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), with multiple doppler studies done between 2001-2011 at a tertiary diabetes center in south India, were included. Baseline clinical and biochemical characteristics and Ankle Brachial Index [ABI] measurements were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Results 2512 T2DM patients were followed for an average of 7 years. 7.6% of the study population had PAD in 2001 [women-11.8%, men- 5.1%] with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.09 [Confidence Interval (CI):1.9- 4.9] for women. Prevalent PAD was associated with increased mortality [Hazards ratio (HR) 3.3, CI:1.4-7.7]. 280 new patients of PAD were identified- crude incidence, 17/1000 patient years with higher rates in females [HR 1.94, CI:1.4-2.7]. Age and duration of diabetes were the other predictors of incident PAD. Progression of PAD was seen in 16.5% of patients, with age (p = 0.002) and HbA1c (p = 0.022) being the predictors. Conclusions Women had a higher prevalence of PAD. Older age, female gender and duration of diabetes were related to an increased incidence of PAD. An elevated HbA1c being associated with progression of PAD stresses the need for strict control of diabetes.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 01/2014;
  • Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 01/2014;
  • Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
    Diabetes 01/2014; 63(1):53-5. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To assess the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy(DR) in people with young onset type 1 (T1DM-Y) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM-Y). Methods T1DM-Y(n = 150) and T2DM-Y(n = 150) participants, age between 10 and 25 years at diagnosis, had a complete clinical evaluation, biochemical assessment, and four field digital retinal colour photography. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading system was used to grade DR. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic macular edema(DME) were considered as sight threatening DR. Results The prevalence of any DR was 53.3%[95%CI 45.3–61.3] in T1DM-Y (duration of diabetes:12.4 ± 7.4years) and 52.7%[44.7–60.7] in T2DM-Y (11.8 ± 8.3 years). The age and gender adjusted prevalence of DR, DME and PDR prevalence were 62.5%, 10% and 7.3% in T1DM-Y,whereas 65.8%,12.7% and 9.3% in T2DM-Y respectively. In multivariable logistic regression, diabetes duration[Odds ratio(OR) 1.99per5yrs;CI1.42-2.79], waist circumference [1.28per5cm;1.05-1.56] and microalbuminuria [2.39per50μg;1.07-5.31] were associated with DR in T1DM-Y, and diabetes duration [2.18per5yrs;1.59-2.97], diastolic blood pressure [1.51per5mmHg;1.151.98], Glycated hemoglobin[1.37per%;1.07-1.75] and lower stimulated C-peptide[1.61per0.5pmol/ml;1.19-2.16;] were associated with DR in T2DM-Y. Conclusion Over half of the people with young-onset diabetes, regardless of type, have retinopathy within 10–12 years of diabetes duration, emphasizing the need for regular eye screening and aggressive control of glucose and blood pressure to prevent DR.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 01/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the pattern and prevalence of dyslipidemia in a large representative sample of four selected regions in India. Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India [Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Jharkhand] and one Union Territory [Chandigarh], and covered a population of 213 million people using stratified multistage sampling design to recruit individuals ≥20 years of age. All the study subjects (n = 16,607) underwent anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were done using capillary blood (except in self-reported diabetes). In addition, in every 5th subject (n = 2042), a fasting venous sample was collected and assayed for lipids. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) guidelines. Of the subjects studied, 13.9% had hypercholesterolemia, 29.5% had hypertriglyceridemia, 72.3% had low HDL-C, 11.8% had high LDL-C levels and 79% had abnormalities in one of the lipid parameters. Regional disparity exists with the highest rates of hypercholesterolemia observed in Tamilnadu (18.3%), highest rates of hypertriglyceridemia in Chandigarh (38.6%), highest rates of low HDL-C in Jharkhand (76.8%) and highest rates of high LDL-C in Tamilnadu (15.8%). Except for low HDL-C and in the state of Maharashtra, in all other states, urban residents had the highest prevalence of lipid abnormalities compared to rural residents. Low HDL-C was the most common lipid abnormality (72.3%) in all the four regions studied; in 44.9% of subjects, it was present as an isolated abnormality. Common significant risk factors for dyslipidemia included obesity, diabetes, and dysglycemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is very high in India, which calls for urgent lifestyle intervention strategies to prevent and manage this important cardiovascular risk factor.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96808. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: This study compared metabolic profiles of Asian Indians with normal waist circumference (WC) and dysglycemia versus those with high WC without dysglycemia. Subjects and Methods: In 2,350 subjects ≥20 years of age from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study with full anthropometric and biochemical characterization, high WC was defined as ≥90 cm in males and ≥80 cm in females. Dysglycemia was defined as prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL and/or 2-h plasma glucose ≥140 mg/dL) or diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or treatment for diagnosed diabetes). Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as known myocardial infarction or Q waves on electrocardiography. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with CAD. Results: Of the subjects, 260 (11.1%) had dysglycemia with normal WC, and 679 (28.9%), had high WC without dysglycemia. Compared with subjects with high WC without dysglycemia, those with dysglycemia/normal WC, adjusted for age, were more likely to be males (P<0.001) and have higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.05), higher serum triglycerides (P<0.001), higher tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05), and higher prevalence of CAD (6.3% vs. 2.0%; odds ratio 3.25 [95% confidence interval 1.52-6.94]; P=0.002). Conclusions: Dysglycemia is associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile than central obesity alone.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 11/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000) intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000`) and high (Rs. 5000-20000). The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.
    Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 11/2013; 17(6):1084-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: This study was designed to compare the characteristics of nonobese and overweight/obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in an urban South Indian population. Subjects and Methods: The study group comprises 541 subjects drawn from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), which was carried out on a representative sample of Chennai city in southern India. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Subjects with NAFLD were classified as nonobese (body mass index of ≤22.9 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (body mass index of ≥23 kg/m(2)) based on World Health Organization Asia Pacific guidelines. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed by a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram that was Minnesota-coded. Insulin resistance was assessed by using the homeostasis assessment model (HOMA-IR) using the following formula: fasting insulin (μIU/mL)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5. Results: In total, 173 of 541 (32%) subjects had NAFLD, of whom 48 (27.7%) had nonobese NAFLD and 125 (72.3%) had overweight/obese NAFLD. Compared with overweight/obese NAFLD patients, fasting blood glucose (104±29 vs. 119±45 mg/dL; P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (2.1±1.8 vs. 2.9±1.8; P<0.001) were lower and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43±9 vs. 39±8 mg/dL; P<0.001) was higher among nonobese NAFLD subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between nonobese NAFLD and CAD (P=0.013) even after adjusting for age, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, HOMA-IR, and hypertension. Conclusions: This study suggests that even nonobese NAFLD subjects have an association with CAD.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess recovery, cell death, and cell composition of post-thaw cultured human islets. Cryopreserved islets were provided by the Clinical Islet Transplant Program, Edmonton, Canada. Islets were processed using media prepared in accordance with Pre-Edmonton and Edmonton protocols. Cryopreserved islets were rapidly thawed and cultured for 24 h, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d, following which they were processed for histology. Islet quantification, integrity, morphology and tissue turnover were studied via hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Ultrastructure was studied by electron microscopy and endocrine cell composition by immunohistochemistry. Using the Pre-Edmonton protocol, islet recovery was 50.1% and islet survival was 50% at 24 h while for the Edmonton protocol, the islet recovery was 69.4% (p<0.001) and islet survival, 50% at ≈2.5 d. With an increasing culture duration although the physical integrity was retained there was an increasing loss of cohesivity both at light microscopic and at ultrastructure level regardless of the protocols used. Percentage islet survival and tissue turnover correlated negatively with culture duration in both protocols. The Edmonton protocol appears to preserve the islets better. However, culture duration adversely affects islet survival and quality, indicating the need for more optimal cryopreservation and culture techniques.
    Islets 09/2013; 5(5):188-95. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This study assessed whether serum adiponectin could be used as a biochemical marker to differentiate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among young Asian Indians. Research Design and Methods: We recruited age- and sex-matched individuals with physician-diagnosed T1DM (n=70) and T2DM (n=72). All were 12-27 years of age with a duration of diabetes of >2 years, at a large tertiary-care diabetes center in Chennai, southern India. Age- and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=68) were selected from an ongoing population study. NGT was defined using World Health Organization criteria. Serum total adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify adiponectin cut points for discriminating T1DM from T2DM. Results: Adiponectin levels were higher in T1DM and lower in T2DM compared with the NGT group (9.89, 3.88, and 6.84 μg/mL, respectively; P<0.001). In standardized polytomous regression models, adiponectin was associated with T1DM (odds ratio [OR]=1.131 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025-1.249) and T2DM (OR=0.628 per SD; 95% CI, 0.504-0.721) controlled for age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, family history of T2DM, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Using ROC analysis, an adiponectin cut point of 5.1 μg/mL had a C statistic of 0.886 (95% CI, 0.836-0.953), sensitivity of 80.6%, and specificity of 80.6% to differentiate T1DM from T2DM. Using the 5.1 μg/mL cut point, 80.6% of T1DM and 81.8% of T2DM would be correctly classified. Conclusions: Serum adiponectin is a useful biochemical marker for differentiating T1DM and T2DM among young Asian Indians.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor