A Carrascosa

Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (168)433.99 Total impact

  • Antonio Carrascosa
    Endocrinología y Nutrición 05/2014; 61(5):229-233.
  • Antonio Carrascosa
    Endocrinología y Nutrición 01/2014; 61(5):229–233.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of growth hormone (GH) treatment in a short child is to attain a fast catch-up growth toward the target height (TH) standard deviation score (SDS), followed by a maintenance phase, a proper pubertal height gain, and an adult height close to TH. The short-term response variable of GH treatment, first-year height velocity (HV) (cm/year or change in height SDS), can either be compared with GH response charts for diagnosis, age and gender, or with predicted HV based on prediction models. Three types of prediction models have been described: the Kabi International Growth Hormone Study models, the Gothenburg models and the Cologne model. With these models, 50-80% of the variance could be explained. When used prospectively, individualized dosing reduces the variation in growth response in comparison with a fixed dose per body weight. Insulin-like growth factor-I-based dose titration also led to a decrease in the variation. It is uncertain whether adding biochemical, genetic or proteomic markers may improve the accuracy of the prediction. Prediction models may lead to a more evidence-based approach to determine the GH dose regimen and may reduce the drug costs for GH treatment. There is a need for user-friendly software programs to make prediction models easily available in the clinic.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 05/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: PLOS2011 2
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    ABSTRACT: Background: GH release after stimuli classifies short children as severe idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IIGHD), mild IIGHD, dissociated GH release (DGHR) and normal GH release (NGHR) and anthropometric birth data as adequate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA). GH release after stimuli classifies AGA patients as IIGHD or as idiopathic short stature (ISS). Aim: To compare height gain induced by GH therapy (31.8 ± 3.5 µg/kg/day, 7.7 ± 1.6 years) started at prepubertal age and stopped at near adult-height age. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal multicenter study including 184 short patients classified as severe IIGHD n = 25, mild IIGHD n = 75, DGHR n = 55 and NGHR n = 29; or as IIGHD n = 78, ISS n = 57 and SGA n = 49. Height gain was evaluated throughout GH therapy and at adult-height age. Results: Height-SDS gain at adult-height age was similar among severe IIGHD (1.8 ± 0.8 SDS), mild IIGHD (1.6 ± 0.6 SDS), DGHR (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS) and NGHR (1.6 ± 0.7 SDS), or among IIGHD (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS), ISS (1.7 ± 0.6 SDS) and SGA (1.6 ± 0.8 SD). Conclusion: GH-release stimuli are of little help for deciding on GH therapy in the clinical management of prepubertal children with IIGHD, ISS or SGA.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 03/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • M A Guagnelli, D Yeste, M Clemente, A Carrascosa
    Anales de Pediatría 03/2013; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications.
    Minerva endocrinologica 03/2013; 38(1):1-16. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: IGF-I is essential for normal human growth and mediates its effects through the IGF1R. IGF1R mutations have been associated with varying degrees of intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. OBJECTIVE: To identify IGF1R gene mutations in a short-statured family with intrauterine growth retardation and microcephaly. METHODS: Direct DNA sequencing was used to identify IGF1R mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed for deletions and duplications of all IGF1R exons. Functional studies were conducted to assess mutation pathogenicity. RESULTS: A novel heterozygous IGF1R missense mutation in exon 7 (c.A1549T, p.Y487F) was identified in a short-statured girl with severe prenatal growth retardation and microcephaly. The same mutation was also identified in her mother, who presented prenatal and postnatal growth failure, and her short-statured maternal grandmother, both of whom exhibited microcephaly. The index case showed a partial response to rhGH. Functional studies performed in dermal fibroblasts from the index case and her mother showed normal IGF-I binding; however, IGF-I activation of intracellular signalling measured as AKT and ERK phosphorylation was markedly reduced, with patients's values being lower than those of her mother. IGF-I stimulation of DNA synthesis was significantly reduced compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Our results show a novel missense mutation in the IGF1R gene (c.A1549T, p.Y487F) associated with prenatal and postnatal growth failure and microcephaly in the context of familial short stature. The functional studies are in line with the inactivation of one copy of the IGF1R gene with variable expression within the same family. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Clinical Endocrinology 06/2012; · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Diego Yeste, Antonio Carrascosa
    Endocrinología y Nutrición 06/2012; 59(7):403-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1/NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adrenal and reproductive development and function. NR5A1 mutations have been detected in 46,XY individuals with disorders of sexual development (DSD) but apparently normal adrenal function and in 46,XX women with normal sexual development yet primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). A group of 100 46,XY DSD and two POI was studied for NR5A1 mutations and their impact. Clinical, biochemical, histological, genetic, and functional characteristics of the patients with NR5A1 mutations are reported. Patients were referred from different centers in Spain, Switzerland, and Turkey. Histological and genetic studies were performed in Barcelona, Spain. In vitro studies were performed in Bern, Switzerland. A total of 65 Spanish and 35 Turkish patients with 46,XY DSD and two Swiss 46,XX patients with POI were investigated. Ten novel heterozygote NR5A1 mutations were detected and characterized (five missense, one nonsense, three frameshift mutations, and one duplication). The novel NR5A1 mutations were tested in vitro by promoter transactivation assays showing grossly reduced activity for mutations in the DNA binding domain and variably reduced activity for other mutations. Dominant negative effect of the mutations was excluded. We found high variability and thus no apparent genotype-structure-function-phenotype correlation. Histological studies of testes revealed vacuolization of Leydig cells due to fat accumulation. SF-1/NR5A1 mutations are frequently found in 46,XY DSD individuals (9%) and manifest with a broad phenotype. Testes histology is characteristic for fat accumulation and degeneration over time, similar to findings observed in patients with lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (due to StAR mutations). Genotype-structure-function-phenotype correlation remains elusive.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2012; 97(7):E1294-306. · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • D Yeste, A Carrascosa
    Anales de Pediatría 04/2012; 77(2):71-4. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy is used in the long-term treatment of children with growth disorders, but there is considerable treatment response variability. The exon 3-deleted growth hormone receptor polymorphism (GHR(d3)) may account for some of this variability. The authors performed a systematic review (to April 2011), including investigator-only data, to quantify the effects of the GHR(fl-d3) and GHR(d3-d3) genotypes on rhGH therapy response and used a recently established Bayesian inheritance model-free approach to meta-analyze the data. The primary outcome was the 1-year change-in-height standard-deviation score for the 2 genotypes. Eighteen data sets from 12 studies (1,527 children) were included. After several prior assumptions were tested, the most appropriate inheritance model was codominant (posterior probability = 0.93). Compared with noncarriers, carriers had median differences in 1-year change-in-height standard-deviation score of 0.09 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.01, 0.17) for GHR(fl-d3) and of 0.14 (95% CrI: 0.02, 0.26) for GHR(d3-d3). However, the between-study standard deviation of 0.18 (95% CrI: 0.10, 0.33) was considerable. The authors tested by meta-regression for potential modifiers and found no substantial influence. They conclude that 1) the GHR(d3) polymorphism inheritance is codominant, contrasting with previous reports; 2) GHR(d3) genotypes account for modest increases in rhGH effects in children; and 3) considerable unexplained variability in responsiveness remains.
    American journal of epidemiology 04/2012; 175(9):867-77. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular causes of isolated severe growth hormone deficiency (ISGHD) in several genes have been established. The aim of this study was to analyse the contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) gene sequence variation to GH deficiency in a series of prepubertal ISGHD patients and to normal adult height. A systematic GHRHR gene sequence analysis was performed in 69 ISGHD patients and 60 normal adult height controls (NAHC). Four GHRHR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 248 additional NAHC. An analysis was performed on individual SNPs and combined genotype associations with diagnosis in ISGHD patients and with height-SDS in NAHC. Twenty-one SNPs were found. P3, P13, P15 and P20 had not been previously described. Patients and controls shared 12 SNPs (P1, P2, P4-P11, P16 and P21). Significantly different frequencies of the heterozygous genotype and alternate allele were detected in P9 (exon 4, rs4988498) and P12 (intron 6, rs35609199); P9 heterozygous genotype frequencies were similar in patients and the shortest control group (heights between -2 and -1 SDS) and significantly different in controls (heights between -1 and +2 SDS). GHRHR P9 together with 4 GH1 SNP genotypes contributed to 6·2% of height-SDS variation in the entire 308 NAHC. This study established the GHRHR gene sequence variation map in ISGHD patients and NAHC. No evidence of GHRHR mutation contribution to ISGHD was found in this population, although P9 and P12 SNP frequencies were significantly different between ISGHD and NAHC. Thus, the gene sequence may contribute to normal adult height, as demonstrated in NAHC.
    Clinical Endocrinology 04/2012; 77(4):564-74. · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Anales de Pediatría. 04/2012; 76(4):235.
  • Anales de Pediatría 01/2012; · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • Diego Yeste, Antonio Carrascosa
    Endocrinología y Nutrición 01/2012; 59(7):403–406.
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    Butlletí Epidemiològic de Catalunya. 09/2011; 32(9):113-118.
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to all clinical conditions involving an alteration of growth (height<-2 SD) of unknown cause, with preservation of proportionality among body segments, with the expectation of adult height < -2 SDS, and in which a diagnosis of constitutional delay of growth and development has been previously ruled out. ISS is an exclusion diagnostic which requires clinical, biochemical, hormonal and molecular studies in order to rule out all known causes of growth retardation and short stature. ISS is a frequent diagnosis among children with short stature. Despite its frequency, there is still controversy on the best diagnostic and therapeutic approach when treating patients with ISS. This consensus document contains updated information on the definition, diagnosis and treatment of ISS, and provides new data and recommendations that have not been addressed in previous documents.
    Anales de Pediatría 06/2011; 75(3):204.e1-11. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although numerous reports of mutations in GH1 and GHRHR (GHRH receptor) causing isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) have been published, mutations in GHRH itself have not been hitherto reported but are obvious candidates for GH deficiency. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in GHRH in a large cohort of patients with IGHD. DNA was isolated from 151 patients diagnosed with IGHD at national and international centers. Seventy-two patients fulfilled all the following criteria: severe short stature (height sd score ≤ -2.5), low peak GH after stimulation (peak ≤ 5 ng/ml), eutopic posterior pituitary lobe, and absence of mutations in GH1 and GHRHR and therefore were strong candidates for GHRH mutations. The coding sequence and splice sites of GHRH were amplified by PCR with intronic primers and sequenced. In five of 151 patients (four of 42 from Brazil), the GHRH c.223 C>T, p.L75F change was identified in heterozygosity. This variant has been previously reported as a polymorphism and is more frequent in African than European and Asian populations. Six allelic variants (five novel) that do not predict change of amino acids or splice sites were identified in five patients: c.147 C>T, p.S49S, IVS1 -70 G>A, IVS1 -74 T>C, IVS3 -47 del1, and IVS3 +7 G>A /IVS3+41 G>A. No functional mutations were found in this cohort. GHRH mutations were not identified in a selected cohort of patients with IGHD, suggesting that, if they exist, they may be an extremely rare cause of IGHD. Other, as-yet-unidentified genetic factors may be implicated in the genetic etiology of IGHD in our cohort.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2011; 96(9):E1457-60. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One hundred and forty-six index patients with 46,XY DSD in whom gonads were confirmed as testes were consecutively studied for a molecular diagnosis during the period 2002-2010. AR gene was analysed in all patients as the first candidate gene, yielding a mutation in 42.5% of cases and SRD5A2 gene was analysed as the second candidate gene, resulting in the characterization of 10 different mutations (p.Y91D, p.G115D, p.Q126R, p.R171S, p.Y188CfsX9, p.N193S, p.A207D, p.F219SfsX60, p.R227Q and p.R246W) in nine index patients (6.2% of the total number of 46,XY DSD patients). One of the mutations (p.Y188CfsX9) has never been reported. In addition, we genotyped SRD5A2 gene p.V89L and c.281+15T>C polymorphisms in 46,XY DSD and in 156 normal adult males and found that patients with SRD5A2 mutations or without a known molecular diagnosis presented a higher frequency of homozygous p.L89, homozygous TT and combined CCTT genotypes compared with controls. This result suggests that 46,XY DSD patient phenotypes may be influenced by SRD5A2 polymorphism genotypes. SRD5A2 gene mutations may not be as infrequent as previously considered in 46,XY DSD patients with variable degrees of external genitalia virilization at birth and normal T production and appears to be the second aetiology in our series.
    International Journal of Andrology 06/2011; 34(6 Pt 2):e526-35. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
433.99 Total Impact Points


  • 1992–2014
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Preventive Medicine
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • VHIR Vall d’Hebron Research Institute
      • Pediatrics Endocrinology Research Group
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1987–2013
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      • • Institut de Recerca
      • • Department of Endocrinology
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009–2012
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1984–2010
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007
    • Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1996–2004
    • Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999
    • Hospital Público Materno Infantil
      Colonia Sarmiento, Chubut, Argentina
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1990–1992
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      • Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain