[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A community-based, case-control study was carried out to investigate risk factors for scrub typhus in South Korea. Cases (n = 299) were defined as persons who were diagnosed serologically within the past two weeks. Two neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for sex, age, and occupation. Taking a rest directly on the grass, working in short sleeves, working with bare hands, and squatting to defecate or urinate posed the highest risks, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.7 (1.2-2.3), 1.6 (1.1-2.4), 1.7 (1.2-2.4), and 2.0 (1.4-2.9), respectively. Wearing a long-sleeved shirt while working, keeping work clothes off the grass, and always using a mat to rest outdoors showed protective associations, with aORs and 95% CIs of 0.5 (0.3-0.9), 0.6 (0.4-0.9), and 0.7 (0.5-0.9), respectively. These results might be useful in the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 04/2009; 80(3):442-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several genetic polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolizing enzymes have been associated with susceptibility to hematology malignancies. We conducted a Korean population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between the polymorphisms of folate-metabolizing enzymes and the risk of AML (acute myelogenous leukemia), CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia), MDS (myelodyspastic syndrome), and ALL (acute lymphoblastc leukemia). The MTHFR 677TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for ALL (odds ratios (OR)=1.77; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.02-3.09, p=.044). The MTRR 66 AG genotype was associated with an increased risk for MDS (OR=1.59; 1.06-2.38, p=.026) and the MTRR 66 GG genotype was associated with increased risk for AML (OR=1.51; 1.03-2.23, p=.037). The TYMS 2R3R genotype was associated with a decreased risk for AML (OR=0.76; 0.60-0.96, p=.022). The TYMS hap3 (2R-6bp) and hap4 (2R-0bp) were associated with decreased risk (OR=0.69; 0.53-0.90, p=.006) and increased risk (OR=1.65; 1.20-2.27, p=.002), respectively for AML. Hap C (677T-1298A) was associated with an increased risk (OR=1.40; 1.02-1.92, p=.04) for ALL. The risk for ALL appears to be associated with the MTHFR 677 polymorphism. The results are supportive of a risk modification by folate polymorphisms in several hematologic malignancies in Korea. The pattern of results suggests that MDS was associated with the DNA methylation status and the risk for AML was associated with both the DNA synthesis and DNA methylation status.
Leukemia Research 10/2008; 33(1):82-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolizing enzymes affect the risk of some forms of cancer. We investigated the association between these polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk in a population-based study (583 cases and 1700 controls). The MTHFR 677TT and CT genotypes were associated with reduced risk for NHL [odds ratios (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.65-0.98 for 677CT and 0.61; 0.45-0.82 for 677TT] and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (OR = 0.68; 0.51-0.88 for 677CT; OR = 0.56; 0.38-0.83 for 677TT). The MTHFR 1298CC genotype was associated with increased risk for NHL (OR = 1.71; 1.07-2.75) and T-cell lymphoma (OR = 3.05; 1.53-6.11). The MTRR 66GG genotype was associated with increased risk for DLBCL (OR = 1.56; 1.03-2.38) and the TYMS 2R2R genotype was associated with increased risk for T-cell lymphoma (OR = 2.83; 1.33-6.01). Using subjects with 3RG3RG as a reference group, TYMS 2R2R was associated with increased risk for T-cell lymphoma (OR = 2.46; 1.04-5.79). Interestingly, we observed a reduced association between the TYMS 2R3RG genotype and DLBCL (OR = 0.61; 0.38-0.99). These results suggest that MTHFR, MTRR and TYMS polymorphisms may play a significant role in the risk for NHL.
British Journal of Haematology 03/2008; 140(3):287-94. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to establish reference data for bone mineral density (BMD) at central skeletal sites using Lunar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to estimate the age-and sex-specific prevalence of osteoporosis in a Korean population. We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study. The subjects were 4148 (1810 men and 2338 women) Korean adults, aged 20-79 years. The BMD for central sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) were measured by DXA. The standardized prevalence of osteoporosis among individual aged 50-79 years in lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter was 40.1%, 12.4%, 28.4%, and 4.4% in women and 6.5%, 5.9%, 3.7%, and 1.6% in men, respectively. In women, peak BMD occurred in the age range 40-49 years for the femoral neck and trochanter, 30-39 years for the lumbar spine, and 20-29 years for Ward's triangle. In men, peak BMD values were observed at 20-29 years for all measured sites. This study establishes a normative database for BMD at central skeletal sites using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and provides more reliable information on the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 02/2008; 26(6):609-17. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folate and methionine metabolism plays an essential role in both DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymorphisms in the genes of the folate-dependent enzymes have been shown to affect disease susceptibility. We conducted a Korean population-based case-control study to evaluate whether genetic variation in folate metabolism may have a role in the risk of multiple myeloma (MM). The study subjects were 173 patients with MM and 1,700 population-based controls. The polymorphisms studied include methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C > T and 1298 A > C, methionine synthase (MS) 2756 A > G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A > G, thymidylate synthase (TS) 28-bp repeat (2R-->3R) and 6-bp deletion/insertion. MS 2756 AG genotypes were associated with a 1.5-fold lower risk of MM (OR = 0.66, 95%CI; 0.43-0.99, P = 0.047). There was no association between MTHFR C677T, A1298C, MTRR A66G, TS 2R-->3R and 6-bp deletion/insertion polymorphisms and MM. These results suggest that MTHFR C677T, A1298C, MTRR A66G, TS 2R-->3R, and 6-bp deletion/insertion do not significantly factor into the pathogenesis of MM in the Korean population, but that MS A2756G polymorphism may play an important role.
American Journal of Hematology 10/2007; 82(9):798-801. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the relative contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) at various sites in 1406 Korean rural men and women, aged 19-80 years, from July to August 2004. The BMD was measured at peripheral (distal forearm and calcaneus) and central (lumbar spine at L1-L4, femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In multivariate analyses, the linear regression models were adjusted for relevant covariates. In premenopausal women, only lean mass had a significant positive correlation with BMD at all sites. In postmenopausal women, fat mass was significantly positively correlated with BMD at all sites, except the Ward's triangle; fat mass was the only determinant of BMD at the lumbar, distal forearm, and calcaneus sites, whereas both lean and fat mass contributed to BMD at the hip, with the effect of lean mass being slightly greater than that of fat mass. In younger men, lean mass had a significant positive contribution to BMD at all sites, whereas fat mass appeared to contribute negatively to BMD at all sites, except the calcaneus. In older men, lean mass made a significant positive contribution to the BMD at all sites; fat mass also made a significant positive contribution to the BMD at the forearm and calcaneus. These data indicate that in the Korean rural population, lean mass may be an important determinant of the BMD, whereas fat mass may contribute positively to BMD only in postmenopausal women and older men.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 02/2007; 25(3):165-71. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to examine the association between the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque and cardiovascular risk factors according to gender and age.
The data used for this study were obtained from 1,507 subjects (691 men, 816 women), aged 20-74 years, who participated in 'Prevalence study of thyroid diseases' in two counties of Jeollanam-do Province during July and August of 2004. The body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated by anthropometry. The blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood sugar level were also measured. Ultrasonography was used to measure the carotid artery IMT and plaque. IMT measurements were performed at 6 sites, including both common carotid arteries, and the bulb and internal carotid arteries. The definition of the 'mean IMT' was mean value obtained from these 6 sites.
The mean+/- standard deviation IMT values were 0.65+/-0.14 and 0.60+/-0.13 mm in men and women (p<0.001), respectively. The data were analyzed according to gender and the 50 year age groups. In a multiple linear regression analysis, age and hypertension were positively associated with the mean IMT in both men and women, aged<50 years. Age, total cholesterol and smoking (current) were positively associated with the mean IMT in men (-50 years). Age was positively associated with the mean IMT in women (> or = 50 years), but the HDL cholesterol level was negatively associated. The prevalence of plaques was 44.2%(196/443) in men and 19.4%(89/459) in women, for those greater than 50 years of age. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.090, 95%CI=1.053-1.129), HDL cholesterol (OR=0.964, 95%CI=0.944-0.984), total cholesterol (OR=1.009, 95%CI=1.002-1.017)and BMI (OR=0.896, 95%CI=0.8180.983) were independently associated with plaques in men; whereas, age (OR=1.057, 95%CI=1.012-1.103), HDL cholesterol (OR=0.959, 95%CI=0.932-0.986), pulse pressure (OR=1.029, 95%CI=1.007-1.050) and triglycerides (OR=0.531, 95%Cl=0.300-0.941) were independently associated with plaques in women.
There were significant gender and aging differences in the association between the IMT, plaque and cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, for the prevention of atherosclerosis, selective approaches should be considered with regard to gender and age factors.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 12/2006; 39(6):477-84.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several previous studies have reported a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among commercial sex workers (CSWs), but the situation is often compounded by coexisting factors, such as intravenous drug use. We conducted a seroepidemiologic study of 1,527 female CSWs in South Korea. All participants tested negative for human immunodeficiency virus and were not illicit intravenous drug users (IDUs). Twenty-one participants (1.4%) were positive for antibodies to HCV. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a history of acupuncture and diabetes mellitus were associated with the seroprevalence of HCV, whereas time spent as a CSW showed only borderline significance. Sexual activity was not an independent predictor of increased risk for HCV infection in female CSWs who had never been illicit IDUs.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2006; 74(6):1117-21. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is conducted to identify the cancer incidence in Gwangju during the 5-year period from 1998 to 2002 and to assess the completeness and validity of the cancer registry data during this time period.
All cases that had a diagnosis of invasive cancer (ICD-10 sites C00-C97) during the study period were retrieved from the records of the Gwangju Cancer Registry (GCR), which theoretically includes all the cancer cases in Gwangju. All the cases during the study period were analyzed by gender, age group and cancer sites. The completeness (mortality/incidence ratio and age-specific incidence curve) and validity (histologic verification, primary site unknown, age unknown and death certificate only) of the cancer registry in Gwangju were analyzed by gender, age group and cancer sites for the 5-year period.
The overall cancer incidence was higher in the males than in the females (age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) 299.8 and 172.4 per 100,000, respectively). In males, the most common cancer was stomach (ASR: 65.8), followed by liver (ASR: 50.5), bronchus and lung (ASR: 50.5), colo-rectum (ASR: 26.7), oesophagus (ASR: 10.6), and bladder (ASR: 10.3) in descending order. In females, the most common cancer was stomach (ASR: 26.8), followed by thyroid (ASR: 20.7), breast (ASR: 20.4), cervix uteri (ASR: 14.3), bronchus and lung (ASR: 13.0), liver (ASR: 10.7) and colo-rectum (ASR: 17.2) in descending order. The overall quality (completeness and validity) of the cancer registry was at the in 'good' level.
These results will be useful in the overall context of planning and evaluating of cancer control activities in Gwangju.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 06/2006; 39(3):255-62.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish reference data for the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and for the bone mineral densities (BMD) of the calcaneus and distal forearm, and to evaluate the correlation between QUS parameters and BMD in a Korean population. We performed a cross-sectional study involving 3,053 subjects (1,225 men and 1,828 women). QUS was conducted on the calcaneus and was quantified as speed of sound (SOS, m/sec), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz), and stiffness index. The BMD of the calcaneus and distal forearm were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The peak mean values for the QUS parameters occurred in the 20 to 29-yr-old subjects of both sexes, with the exception of the BUA, which reached the highest values in women of 30-39 yr. For both sexes, the mean BMD of the calcaneus was highest in those 20-29 yr old and that of the distal forearm was highest in those 40-49 yr old. The correlations between the QUS and BMD results were found to be 0.41 to 0.73 in men and 0.51 to 0.76 in women. Theses data can serve as a reference values for both sexes in Korea.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 01/2006; 20(6):1011-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this population-based study were to investigate the potential association between bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipid profiles and to compare the effects of serum lipids on BMD at various skeletal sites in pre- and post-menopausal women. In July and August of 2004, BMD was measured at a variety of skeletal sites [lumbar spine (L1-4), femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle, shaft and proximal total hip] using the GE/Bravo Lunar DPX dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer in a South Korean population-based sample of 375 pre-menopausal and 355 post-menopausal rural women aged 19-80 years. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were inversely associated with BMD in both pre- and post-menopausal women. In the pre-menopausal women, correlations were shown only for lumbar 1-4 (TC: r=-0.12, P<0.05; LDL-C: r=-0.12, P<0.05), whereas in the post-menopausal women, no correlation was evident for the lumbar sites. In the post-menopausal subjects, the TC levels showed significant correlations with the BMD values at the trochanter (r=-0.15, P<0.01), shaft (r=-0.16, P<0.001) and proximal total hip (r=-0.15, P<0.01) sites, while the LDL-C levels showed significant correlations with the BMD values at the neck (r=-0.13, P<0.05), trochanter (r=-0.21, P<.001), shaft (r=-0.20, P<0.001) and proximal total hip (r=-0.20, P<0.001) sites. The levels of triglyceride (TG) were shown to have a significant positive correlation with BMD values at the trochanter site (r=0.11, P=0.05) in the post-menopausal women; by contrast, subjects in a higher quartile of TG levels show lower lumbar BMD values in the pre-menopausal women. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were not associated with BMD values at any of the sites in the pre- and post-menopausal subjects. Our data indicate a relationship between BMD values and serum lipid levels and suggest differences between pre- and post-menopausal women in terms of the effects of serum lipids on BMD at various skeletal sites.
Osteoporosis International 12/2005; 16(12):1975-81. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) on lipid levels in Korean adults and to investigate the interactions between these polymorphisms and environmental factors in determining lipid levels. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,900 subjects (668 men and 1,232 women; 45-74 yr old) in Namwon, Korea, in 2004. APOE polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis. Carriers of the APOE*E2 (E2) allele had significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations than did carriers of the APOE*E3 (E3) or APOE*E4 (E4) alleles, regardless of gender. The APOE allele type had significant effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride levels in women, but not in men. The effect of APOE allele type on HDL-C levels was modified by age in women. In addition, in men, the effect of APOE allele type on triglyceride levels was modified by smoking. These findings highlight the important effect of gene-environment interactions on lipid levels.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 07/2005; 20(3):361-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Doppler ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) is an objective and efficient tool that can be used to determine the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease in the lower extremities. The ABI value is inversely associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. To date, there have been no studies of the distribution of ABI in Korea. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,943 subjects (681 men and 1,262 women; 45-74 yr old) in Namwon, Korea. The prevalence of a low ABI (<0.90) was 2.2% in men and 1.8% in women, and a high ABI (>or=1.30) was prevalent in 3.1% of men and 0.8% of women. Age, smoking habits, waist circumference, hypertension, and blood pressure were associated with ABI values in both sexes. The presence of carotid plaques was associated with ABI values only in men, whereas pulse pressure was associated with ABI values only in women (p<0.05). Although the prevalence of a low ABI in the present study was lower than those reported previously for Western populations and Japanese men, our results suggest that the ABI might be used as an indicator of cardiovascular risk factors in adult Koreans.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 06/2005; 20(3):373-8. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the potential associations between PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in the first intron of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) gene and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population-based study of 174 postmenopausal Korean women. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), right femoral neck, right trochanter, and right Ward's triangle. ER-alpha gene polymorphisms were detected by PvuII and XbaI restriction endonuclease digestion of polymerase chain reaction products. Differences in BMD values between the ER-alpha genotypes were analyzed in a general linear model, with adjustments for age, height, weight, and smoking status. The following genotype frequencies were noted: PP, 14.9%; Pp, 46.0%; pp, 39.1%; XX, 3.5%; Xx, 29.3%; and xx, 67.2%. Both the femoral neck and Ward's triangle BMD values in women with the Pp genotype were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in women with the pp genotype. No significant effect of the XbaI genotype on BMD was found at any site. Carriers of the pX haplotype were more likely to have lower BMD values at the trochanter than noncarriers, after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Women with the pp genotype had more previous hip or spine fractures than those with other genotypes (P = 0.05). These results suggest that the PvuII polymorphism and the ER-alpha haplotype may be associated with the BMD at several femur sites in postmenopausal Korean women.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 02/2005; 23(1):84-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor