Amy D. Otto

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

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Publications (51)81.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Little is known about limitations in physical function across BMI categories in middle aged women using both self-report and performance-based measures. Furthermore, the impact of BMI on the measurement of function has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to assess physical function in adult women across BMI categories using self-report and performance-based measures and determine the influence of BMI on the relationship between the measures. Methods: Fifty sedentary females (10 in each BMI category: normal weight, overweight, obese class I, II, and III) aged 51.2 ± 5.4 years participated. Assessments included demographics, past medical history, physical activity level, BMI, and self-report (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument) and performance-based measures of physical function (6-Minute Walk Test, timed chair rise, gait speed). Physical function was compared between BMI categories using analysis of variance. The influence of BMI on the relationship of self-report and performance-based measures was analyzed using linear regression. Results: Compared to those that were normal weight or overweight, individuals with obesity scored lower on the self-report measure of physical function (LLFDI) for capability in participating in life tasks and ability to perform discrete functional activities. On the performance-based measures, the individuals with obesity had slower gait speed compared to the normal and overweight weight groups. For the 6-Minute Walk Test and timed chair stands, individuals with obesity had poorer performance compared to those who were normal weight. Linear regression analyses revealed that BMI attenuated the relationship between the self-report and performance-based measures by approximately 50%. Conclusions: While those with severe obesity were most impaired, adult women with less severe obesity also demonstrated significant decrements in physical function.
    Cardiopulmonary physical therapy journal. 09/2011; 22(3):11-20.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare a technology-based system, an in-person behavioral weight loss intervention, and a combination of both over a 6-month period in overweight adults. Fifty-one subjects (age: 44.2 ± 8.7 years, BMI: 33.7 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program and were randomized to one of three groups: standard behavioral weight loss (SBWL), SBWL plus technology-based system (SBWL+TECH), or technology-based system only (TECH). All groups reduced caloric intake and progressively increased moderate intensity physical activity. SBWL and SBWL+TECH attended weekly meetings. SBWL+TECH also received a TECH that included an energy monitoring armband and website to monitor energy intake and expenditure. TECH used the technology system and received monthly telephone calls. Body weight and physical activity were assessed at 0 and 6 months. Retention at 6 months was significantly different (P = 0.005) between groups (SBWL: 53%, SBWL+TECH: 100%, and TECH: 77%). Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis revealed significant weight losses at 6 months in SBWL+TECH (-8.8 ± 5.0 kg, -8.7 ± 4.7%), SBWL (-3.7 ± 5.7 kg, -4.1 ± 6.3%), and TECH (-5.8 ± 6.6 kg, -6.3 ± 7.1%) (P < 0.001). Self-report physical activity increased significantly in SBWL (473.9 ± 800.7 kcal/week), SBWL+TECH (713.9 ± 1,278.8 kcal/week), and TECH (1,066.2 ± 1,371 kcal/week) (P < 0.001), with no differences between groups (P = 0.25). The TECH used in conjunction with monthly telephone calls, produced similar, if not greater weight losses and changes in physical activity than the standard in-person behavioral program at 6 months. The use of this technology may provide an effective short-term clinical alternative to standard in-person behavioral weight loss interventions, with the longer term effects warranting investigation.
    Obesity 02/2011; 20(2):356-63. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have been conducted that have examined the long-term effect of different doses of physical activity (PA) on weight change in overweight adults without a prescribed reduction in energy intake. This study examined the effect of different prescribed doses of PA on weight change, body composition, fitness, and PA in overweight adults. Two hundred seventy-eight overweight adults (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m²; age: 18-55 years) with no contraindications to PA were randomized to one of three intervention groups for a period of 18 months. MOD-PA was prescribed 150 min/week and HIGH-PA 300 min/week of PA. Self-help group (SELF) was provided a self-help intervention to increase PA. There was no recommendation to reduce energy intake. MOD-PA and HIGH-PA were delivered in a combination of in-person and telephone contacts across 18 months. 18-month percent weight change was -0.7 ± 4.6% in SELF, -0.9 ± 4.7% in MOD-PA, and -1.2 ± 5.6% in HIGH-PA. Subjects were retrospectively grouped as remaining within ±3% of baseline weight (WT-STABLE), losing >3% of baseline weight (WT-LOSS), or gaining >3% of baseline weight (WT-GAIN) for secondary analyses. 18-month weight change was 0.0 ± 1.3% for WT-STABLE, +5.4 ± 2.6% for WT-GAIN, and -7.4 ± 3.6% for WT-LOSS. 18-month change in PA was 78.2 ± 162.6 min/week for WT-STABLE, 74.7 ± 274.3 for WT-GAIN, and 161.9 ± 252.6 min/week for WT-LOSS. The weight change observed in WT-LOSS was a result of higher PA combined with improved scores on the Eating Behavior Inventory (EBI), reflecting the adoption of eating behaviors to facilitate weight loss. Strategies to facilitate the maintenance of these behaviors are needed to optimize weight control.
    Obesity 01/2011; 19(1):100-9. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A better understanding of the physical activity behavior of individuals who undergo bariatric surgery will enable the development of effective post-surgical exercise guidelines and interventions to enhance weight loss outcomes. This study characterized the physical activity profile and physical function of 40 subjects 2-5 years post-bariatric surgery and examined the association between physical activity, physical function, and weight loss after surgery. Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with the BodyMedia SenseWear® Pro (SWPro) armband, and physical function (PF) was measured using the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (SF-36(PF)). Height and weight were measured. Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was associated with MVPA (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and PF (r = 0.38, p = 0.02); MVPA was not associated with PF (r = 0.24, p = 0.14). Regression analysis demonstrated that MVPA was associated with %EWL (β = 0.38, t = 2.43, p = 0.02). Subjects who participated in ≥150 min/week of MVPA had a greater %EWL (68.2 ± 19, p = 0.01) than those who participated in <150 min/week (52.5 ± 17.4). Results suggest that subjects are capable of performing most mobility activities. However, the lack of an association between PF and MVPA suggests that a higher level of PF does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of MVPA participation. Thus, the barriers to adoption of a more physically active lifestyle may not be fully explained by the subjects' physical limitations. Further understanding of this relationship is needed for the development of post-surgical weight loss guidelines and interventions.
    Obesity Surgery 12/2010; 21(8):1243-9. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the acute effect of a bout of walking on hunger, energy intake, and appetite-regulating hormones [acylated ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)] in 19 overweight/obese women (BMI: 32.5 ± 4.3 kg/m²). Subjects underwent two experimental testing sessions in a counterbalanced order: exercise and rest. Subjects walked at a moderate-intensity for approximately 40 min or rested for a similar duration. Subjective feelings of hunger were assessed and blood was drawn at 5-time points (pre-, post-, 30-, 60-, 120-min post-testing). Ad libitum energy intake consumed 1-2h post-exercise/rest was assessed and similar between conditions (mean ± standard deviation; exercise: 551.5 ± 245.1 kcal [2.31 ± 1.0 MJ] vs. rest: 548.7 ± 286.9 kcal [2.29 ± 1.2 MJ]). However, when considering the energy cost of exercise, relative energy intake was significantly lower following exercise (197.8 ± 256.5 kcal [0.83 ± 1.1 MJ]) compared to rest (504.3 ± 290.1 kcal [2.11 ± 1.2 MJ]). GLP-1 was lower in the exercise vs. resting condition while acylated ghrelin and hunger were unaltered by exercise. None of these variables were associated with energy intake. In conclusion, hunger and energy intake were unaltered by a bout of walking suggesting that overweight/obese individuals do not acutely compensate for the energy cost of the exercise bout through increased caloric consumption. This allows for an energy deficit to persist post-exercise, having potentially favorable implications for weight control.
    Appetite 12/2010; 55(3):413-9. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of severe obesity is increasing markedly, as is prevalence of comorbid conditions such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, apart from bariatric surgery and pharmacotherapy, few clinical trials have evaluated the treatment of severe obesity. To determine the efficacy of a weight loss and physical activity intervention on the adverse health risks of severe obesity. Single-blind randomized trial conducted from February 2007 through April 2010 at the University of Pittsburgh. Participants were 130 (37% African American) severely obese (class II or III) adult participants without diabetes recruited from the community. One-year intensive lifestyle intervention consisting of diet and physical activity. One group (initial physical activity) was randomized to diet and physical activity for the entire 12 months; the other group (delayed physical activity) had the identical dietary intervention but with physical activity delayed for 6 months. Changes in weight. Secondary outcomes were additional components comprising cardiometabolic risk, including waist circumference, abdominal adipose tissue, and hepatic fat content. Of 130 participants randomized, 101 (78%) completed the 12-month follow-up assessments. Although both intervention groups lost a significant amount of weight at 6 months, the initial-activity group lost significantly more weight in the first 6 months compared with the delayed-activity group (10.9 kg [95% confidence interval {CI}, 9.1-12.7] vs 8.2 kg [95% CI, 6.4-9.9], P = .02 for group × time interaction). Weight loss at 12 months, however, was similar in the 2 groups (12.1 kg [95% CI, 10.0-14.2] vs 9.9 kg [95% CI, 8.0-11.7], P = .25 for group × time interaction). Waist circumference, visceral abdominal fat, hepatic fat content, blood pressure, and insulin resistance were all reduced in both groups. The addition of physical activity promoted greater reductions in waist circumference and hepatic fat content. Among patients with severe obesity, a lifestyle intervention involving diet combined with initial or delayed initiation of physical activity resulted in clinically significant weight loss and favorable changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00712127.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2010; 304(16):1795-802. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) tends to decrease from adolescence to young adulthood, and factors that have been proposed to contribute to this decrease are life transitions. The focus of this study is to examine life transitions, such as marriage and parenthood, and the impact they may have on the physical activity levels of young adults. This 2-year prospective analysis assessed physical activity (hrs/wk) and sociodemographics in young adults (n = 638, 48% male, 15% nonwhite, 24 ± 1.1 years old) via questionnaire. PA data were normalized through log transformations and examined using ANCOVAs, controlling for appropriate covariates. ANCOVA results showed that becoming married did not significantly change PA compared with individuals who stayed single [F(1,338) = 0.38, P = .54, d = 0.06]. Conversely, PA was significantly lower [F(1,517) = 6.7, P = .01, d = 0.41] after having a child, compared with individuals who stayed childless. These results suggest that marriage does not impact PA in young adults, but having a child significantly decreases PA in parents, and may offer an optimal period of intervention.
    Journal of physical activity & health 09/2010; 7(5):577-83. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Amy D Otto
    Current Diabetes Reports 06/2010; 10(3):170-2. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2010; 42:101-102.
  • Amy D Otto
    Current Diabetes Reports 10/2009; 9(5):329-30. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41:125-126.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, possibly because of more severe insulin resistance. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is characteristic of bipolar disorder. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was performed in 18 women with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder, and results were compared to those of 17 matched controls. Other risk factors were compared, including blood pressure, blood lipids, and abdominal obesity by computed tomography (CT). Additionally, substrate utilization was measured by indirect calorimetry, and free-living energy expenditure was estimated using wearable activity monitors. All data were collected between February 2006 and December 2007. Patients with bipolar disorder were no more insulin resistant than controls after accounting for generalized obesity (mean +/- SEM HOMA-IR = 2.7 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.7, for patients and controls, respectively; p = .79). Although blood lipid profiles were generally similar in patients and controls, obese patients had higher blood pressure than controls. Obese patients had more mean +/- SEM total abdominal fat (718.1 +/- 35.1 cm² vs. 607.4 +/- 33.6 cm²; p = .04), and tended (p = .06) to have more visceral abdominal fat. Patients oxidized 13% less fat during resting conditions, although their resting metabolic rate was similar to that of controls. Women with bipolar I disorder were no more insulin resistant than matched controls after accounting for their level of obesity. However, they were more hypertensive, had higher amounts of abdominal obesity, and had reduced rates of fat oxidation. Therefore, women with bipolar I disorder may be at a heightened risk for future weight gain and concomitant risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12/2008; 69(12):1892-900. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intensive lifestyle intervention of the DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) showed weight loss to be a dominant predictor of reduced diabetes incidence for those at high risk for the disease. The intensive lifestyle intervention of Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) has also shown that weight loss is associated with improved diabetes control and cardiovascular risk factors and reduced medicine for those with the disease. DPP and Look AHEAD implemented the use of motivational incentives and campaigns to assist participants in their commitment to lifestyle change. Other studies have also used incentives as effective strategies to engage individuals in weight loss and in making positive physical activity and dietary changes. Special consideration should be given to implementing various incentive strategies to assist overweight and obese individuals with weight loss. Using these motivational incentive strategies can be an effective means to help individuals succeed with their weight loss efforts.
    Current Diabetes Reports 11/2008; 8(5):407-12. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2008; 40.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2008; 40.

Publication Stats

388 Citations
81.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Disability and Human Development
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center
      • • Department of Health and Physical Activity
      • • Sports Medicine and Nutrition
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2008
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Nursing
      Tucson, AZ, United States