Gaël P Hammer

Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

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Publications (41)93.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human evidence of carcinogenicity concerning shift work is inconsistent. This industry-based cohort study aimed to examine the relationship between working in a rotating shift and cancer incidence.
    Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Possible health effects of low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are relevant for persons who are exposed to an occupational context like nuclear industry workers. A historical cohort study was therefore conducted to examine mortality risks following occupational radiation exposure among 4,844 German nuclear power plant workers. This cohort included workers from ten nuclear power plants with an observational period from 1991 until 1997. The results of an enlarged cohort with 8,972 workers from all 17 nuclear power plants in West Germany are now available. During the extended follow-up period from 1991 to 2008, a total of 310 deaths among men were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from all causes of deaths was estimated at 0.50 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.56]. A total of 126 deaths due to cancer occurred (SMR = 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82) and seven deaths due to leukemia (SMR = 1.23; 95 % CI 0.42-2.84). Overall, a reduced mortality compared to the general population of West Germany was observed indicating a healthy worker effect. In the dose-response analysis, no statistically significant risk due to ionizing radiation was seen. The hazard ratio (HR/mSv) for leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia was estimated at 1.004 (95 % CI 0.997-1.011). In conclusion, the cohort is small and made up of young workers, most of whom were still employed at the end of the observational period in 2008. Results of the external analysis are difficult to interpret as influenced by a healthy worker effect. In the internal analysis, no excess of risk due to radiation was detected.
    Biophysik 02/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commercial airline crew is one of the occupational groups with the highest exposures to ionising radiation. Crew members are also exposed to other physical risk factors and subject to potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study analyses mortality in a pooled cohort of 93 771 crew members from 10 countries. The cohort was followed for a mean of 21.7 years (2.0 million person-years), during which 5508 deaths occurred. The overall mortality was strongly reduced in male cockpit (SMR 0.56) and female cabin crews (SMR 0.73). The mortality from radiation-related cancers was also reduced in male cockpit crew (SMR 0.73), but not in female or male cabin crews (SMR 1.01 and 1.00, respectively). The mortality from female breast cancer (SMR 1.06), leukaemia and brain cancer was similar to that of the general population. The mortality from malignant melanoma was elevated, and significantly so in male cockpit crew (SMR 1.57). The mortality from cardiovascular diseases was strongly reduced (SMR 0.46). On the other hand, the mortality from aircraft accidents was exceedingly high (SMR 33.9), as was that from AIDS in male cabin crew (SMR 14.0). This large study with highly complete follow-up shows a reduced overall mortality in male cockpit and female cabin crews, an increased mortality of aircraft accidents and an increased mortality in malignant skin melanoma in cockpit crew. Further analysis after longer follow-up is recommended.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 01/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1984, Newell and coworkers were the first to suggest that testicular cancer might have a viral etiology since it showed similar characteristics to Hodgkin's lymphoma. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate a possible association between viral infections (EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, HPV, and HIV) and testicular cancer. Articles published from 1985 through June 2010 were located from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, 21 articles were finally included in the review. For infection with EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, and HIV the pooled OR were 4.80 (95% CI 0.98-23.54), 1.85 (95% CI 0.92-3.70), 2.86 (95% CI 0.35-23.17), and 1.79 (95% CI 1.45-2.21) respectively. No pooling was possible for HPV infection studies due to small numbers. The results support a possible association, but more epidemiological studies with better viral identification and localization methods are needed to verify these findings. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 08/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation is a well-known but little understood risk factor for lens opacities. Until recently, cataract development was considered to be a deterministic effect occurring at lens doses exceeding a threshold of 5-8 Gy. Substantial uncertainty about the level and the existence of a threshold subsists. The International Commission on Radiation Protection recently revised it to 0.5 Gy. Based on a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies on exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and the occurrence of lens opacities, a list of criteria for new epidemiological studies was compiled, and a list of potential study populations was reviewed. Among 24 publications finally identified, six report analyses of acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors and Chernobyl liquidators, and the others report analyses of protracted exposures in occupationally, medically or accidentally exposed populations. Three studies investigated a dose threshold: in atomic bomb survivors, the best estimates were 1 Sv (95 % CI <0-0.8 Sv) regarding lensectomies; in survivors exposed as children, 0.6 Sv (90 % CI <0.0-1.2 Sv) for cortical cataract prevalence and 0.7 Sv (90 % CI 0.0-2.8 Sv) for posterior subcapsular cataract; and in Chernobyl liquidators, 0.34 Sv (95 % CI 0.19-0.68 Sv) for stage 1 cataract. Current studies are heterogeneous and inconclusive regarding the dose-response relationship. Protracted exposures and high lens doses occur in several occupational groups, for instance, in physicians performing fluoroscopy-guided interventional procedures, and in accidentally exposed populations. New studies with a good retrospective exposure assessment are feasible and should be initiated.
    Biophysik 06/2013; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Testicular cancer affects mainly men below the age of 50. An association with occupation and social status has been suggested but risk factors are not well understood. A registry-based case-control study focusing on occupation was performed in Germany. Methods: All 348 testicular cancer cases with available gainful occupational information registered between 2000 and 2005; as well as 564 suitable controls (from a pool of other cancers) were drawn from the Cancer Registry of Rhineland-Palatinate. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Slightly elevated OR were observed for technicians and related professionals (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00-2.63) and for clerical support workers (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14-2.56). This increase was highest in the age group 20-50 for technicians (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.23-3.33) and clerks (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.30-3.09), respectively. An association with testicular cancer was observed for no other occupation. Conclusion: An increased risk of testicular cancer was observed for technicians and related professionals and clerical support workers. This could be related to socioeconomic status or sedentary life style, two factors that were identified in previous studies. While the feasibility of a purely registry-based study was shown, missing occupational data and the choice of cancer controls represent challenges to the validity of this approach.
    German medical science : GMS e-journal 01/2013; 11:Doc16.
  • Gaël Paul Hammer, Maria Blettner, Ingo Langner, Hajo Zeeb
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    ABSTRACT: Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 06/2012; 27(6):419-29. · 5.12 Impact Factor
  • Hajo Zeeb, Gaël P Hammer, Maria Blettner
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    ABSTRACT: Aircrew and passengers are exposed to low-level cosmic ionising radiation. Annual effective doses for flight crew have been estimated to be in the order of 2-5 mSv and can attain 75 mSv at career end. Epidemiological studies in this occupational group have been conducted over the last 15-20 years, usually with a focus on radiation-associated cancer. These studies are summarised in this note. Overall cancer risk was not elevated in most studies and subpopulations analysed, while malignant melanoma, other skin cancers and breast cancer in female aircrew have shown elevated incidence, with lesser risk elevations in terms of mortality. In some studies, including the large German cohort, brain cancer risk appears elevated. Cardiovascular mortality risks were generally very low. Dose information for pilots was usually derived from calculation procedures based on routine licence information, types of aircraft and routes/hours flown, but not on direct measurements. However, dose estimates have shown high validity when compared with measured values. No clear-cut dose-response patterns pointing to a higher risk for those with higher cumulative doses were found. Studies on other health outcomes have shown mixed results. Overall, aircrew are a highly selected group with many specific characteristics and exposures that might also influence cancers or other health outcomes. Radiation-associated health effects have not been clearly established in the studies available so far.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 03/2012; 32(1):N15-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is a major source of ionizing radiation exposure in medical diagnostic. Compared to adults, children are supposed to be more susceptible to health risks related to radiation. The purpose of a cross-sectional survey among office-based physicians in Germany was the assessment of medical practice in paediatric CT referrals and to investigate physicians' knowledge of radiation doses and potential health risks of radiation exposure from CT in children. A standardized questionnaire was distributed to all paediatricians and surgeons in two defined study areas. Furthermore, the study population included a random sample of general practitioners in the two areas. The questionnaire covered the frequency of referrals for paediatric CT examinations, the medical diagnoses leading to paediatric CT referrals, physicians' knowledge of radiation doses and potential health risks of radiation exposure from CT in children. A total of 295 (36.4%) physicians responded. 59% of the doctors had not referred a child to CT in the past year, and approximately 30% referred only 1-5 children annually. The most frequent indications for a CT examination in children were trauma or a suspected cancer. 42% of the referrals were related to minor diagnoses or unspecific symptoms. The participants underestimated the radiation exposure due to CT and they overestimated the radiation exposure due to conventional X-ray examinations. In Germany, the frequency of referrals of children to computed tomography is moderate. The knowledge on the risks from radiation exposure among office-based physicians in our sample varied, but there was a tendency to underestimate potential CT risks. Advanced radiological training might lead to considerable amendments in terms of knowledge and practice of CT referral.
    BMC Health Services Research 02/2012; 12:47. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation protection is a topic of great public concern and of many scientific investigations, because ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for leukaemia and many solid tumours. Exposure of the public to ionizing radiation includes exposure to background radiation, as well as medical and occupational exposures. A large fraction of the exposure from diagnostic procedures comes from medical imaging. Computed tomography (CT) is the major single contributor of diagnostic radiation exposure. An increase in the use of CTs has been reported over the last decades in many countries. Children have smaller bodies and lower shielding capacities, factors that affect the individual organ doses due to medical imaging. Several risk models have been applied to estimate the cancer burden caused by ionizing radiation from CT. All models predict higher risks for cancer among children exposed to CT as compared to adults. However, the cancer risk associated with CT has not been assessed directly in epidemiological studies. Here, plans are described to conduct an historical cohort study to investigate the cancer incidence in paediatric patients exposed to CT before the age of 15 in Germany. Patients will be recruited from radiology departments of several hospitals. Their individual exposure will be recorded, and time-dependent cumulative organ doses will be calculated. Follow-up for cancer incidence via the German Childhood Cancer Registry will allow computation of standardized incidence ratios using population-based incidence rates for childhood cancer. Dose-response modelling and analyses for subgroups of children based on the indication for and the result of the CT will be performed.
    Biophysik 02/2012; 51(2):103-11. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking and heavy alcohol use predicts suicidal behaviour. Whether the simultaneous presentation of both conditions induces an amplified effect on risk prediction has not been investigated so far. In a community-based cohort study, a total of 12,888 subjects (6,456 men, 6,432 women; age range of 25-74 years at assessment) from three independent population-based cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted in 1984/85, 1989/90, and 1994/95), representative for the Southern German population, was followed up until 31 December 2002. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for deaths from suicide using German population rates were calculated for smoking and high alcohol consumption. After a mean follow-up time of 12.0 (SD 4.4) years and 154,275 person-years at risk, a total of 1,449 persons had died from all causes and 38 of them from suicide. Compared to the general population, mortality from suicide was increased for risky alcohol consumption (SMR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.14-4.37) and for smoking (SMR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.36-3.63). A substantial increase in suicide mortality (SMR = 4.80; 95% CI 2.07-9.46) was observed for smokers with risky alcohol consumption. The approximately fourfold increased relative risk for completed suicide in subjects with smoking and risky alcohol consumption indicates a synergistic effect which deserves an increased alertness.
    Social Psychiatry 11/2011; 46(11):1127-32. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the long-term effects of exposure to diagnostic ionizing radiation in childhood. Current estimates are made with models derived mainly from studies of atomic bomb survivors, a population that differs from today's patients in many respects. We analyzed the cancer incidence among children who underwent diagnostic x-ray exposures between 1976 and 2003 in a large German university hospital. We reconstructed individual radiation doses for each examination and sorted results by groups of referral criteria for all cancers combined, solid tumors, and leukemia and lymphoma combined. A total of 68 incidence cancer cases between 1980 and 2006 were identified in a 78,527-patient cohort in the German childhood cancer registry: 28 leukemia, nine lymphoma, six tumors of the CNS, and 25 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio for all cancers was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.75-1.23). Dose-response relations were analyzed by multivariable Poisson regression. Although the cancer incidence risk differed by initial referral criterion for radiographic examination, a positive dose-response relation was observed in five patients with endocrine or metabolic disease. Overall, we observed no increase in cancer risk among children and youths with very low radiation doses from diagnostic radiation, which is compatible with model calculations. The growing use of CT warrants further studies to assess associated cancer risk. Our work is an early contribution of epidemiologic data for quantifying these risks among young patients.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 07/2011; 197(1):217-23. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequent use of computed tomography is a major cause of the increasing medical radiation exposure of the general population. Consequently, dose reduction and radiation protection is a topic of scientific and public concern. We evaluated the available literature on physicians' knowledge regarding radiation dosages and risks due to computed tomography. A systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane and PRISMA statements was performed using eight databases. 3091 references were found. Only primary studies assessing physicians' knowledge about computed tomography were included. 14 relevant articles were identified, all focussing on dose estimations for CT. Overall, the surveys showed moderate to low knowledge among physicians concerning radiation doses and the involved health risks. However, the surveys varied considerably in conduct and quality. For some countries, more than one survey was available. There was no general trend in knowledge in any country except a slight improvement of knowledge on health risks and radiation doses in two consecutive local German surveys. Knowledge gaps concerning radiation doses and associated health risks among physicians are evident from published research. However, knowledge on radiation doses cannot be interpreted as reliable indicator for good medical practice.
    European journal of radiology 10/2010; 76(1):36-41. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 09/2010; 30(3):389-406. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is well known, knowledge gaps persist on the health effects of low-dose radiation, especially in children. The cancer incidence rate in a cohort of 92,957 children diagnosed using X-rays in the years 1976 - 2003 in the radiology department of a large university clinic was studied. Individual radiation doses per examination were reconstructed using an algorithm taking into account the dose area product and other exposure parameters together with conversion factors computed specifically for the equipment and protocols used in the radiology department. Incident cancer cases in the period 1980 - 2006 were identified via record linkage to the German Childhood Cancer Registry using pseudonymized data. A total of 87 cancers occurred in the cohort between 1980 and 2006: 33 leukemia, 13 lymphoma, 10 brain tumors, and 31 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.79 1.22). A dose-response relationship was not observed for all cancers, leukemia and lymphoma or solid tumors. The cancer risks for boys and girls did not differ. No increase in the cancer incidence risk in relation to very low doses of diagnostic ionizing radiation was observed in this study. However, the results are compatible with a broad range of risk estimates.
    RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R 03/2010; 182(5):404-14. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possible confounding effect of smoking on radon-associated risk for lung cancer mortality was investigated in a case-control study nested in the cohort of German uranium miners. The study included 704 miners who died of lung cancer and 1,398 controls matched individually for birth year and attained age. Smoking status was reconstructed from questionnaires and records from the mining company's health archives for 421 cases and 620 controls. Data on radon exposure were taken from a job-exposure matrix. Smoking adjusted odds ratios for lung cancer in relation to cumulative radon exposure have been calculated with conditional logistic regression. The increase in risk per Working Level Month (WLM) was assessed with a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model taking smoking into account as a multiplicative factor. In addition, the potential impact of temporal factors on the ERR per WLM was examined. Lung cancer mortality risk increased with increasing radon exposure, yielding a crude ERR per WLM of 0.25% (95% CI: 0.13-0.46%). Adjustment for smoking led only to marginal changes of the radon-associated lung cancer risks. The adjusted ERR per WLM was very similar (0.23%, 95%-CI: 0.11-0.46%) to the crude risk and to the risk found in the Wismut cohort study. This stability of the radon-related lung cancer risks with and without adjustment for smoking suggests that smoking does not act as a major confounder in this study and presumably also not in the cohort study.
    Health physics 01/2010; 98(1):20-8. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many questions in human health research can only be answered with observational studies. In contrast to controlled experiments or well-planned, experimental randomized clinical trials, observational studies are subject to a number of potential problems that may bias their results. Some of the more important problems affecting observational studies are described and illustrated by examples. Additional information is provided with reference to a selection of the literature. Factors that may bias the results of observational studies can be broadly categorized as: selection bias resulting from the way study subjects are recruited or from differing rates of study participation depending on the subjects' cultural background, age, or socioeconomic status, information bias, measurement error, confounders, and further factors. Observational studies make an important contribution to medical knowledge. The main methodological problems can be avoided by careful study planning. An understanding of the potential pitfalls is important in order to critically assess relevant publications.
    Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 10/2009; 106(41):664-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aircrew members are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors. In a previous analysis of a large cohort of German aircrew, no increase in cancer mortality or dose-related effects was observed. In the present study, the follow-up of this cohort of 6,017 cockpit and 20,757 cabin crew members was extended by 6 years to 2003. Among male cockpit crew, the resulting all-cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (n = 127) is 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.8), while for brain tumors it is 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-3.9). The cancer risk is significantly raised (RR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1) among cockpit crew members employed 30 years or more compared to those employed less than 10 years. Among both female and male cabin crew, the all-cancer SMR and that for most individual cancers are close to 1. The SMR for breast cancer among female crew is 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.8). Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma among male cabin crew is increased (SMR 4.2; 95% CI 1.3-10.8). However, cancers associated with radiation exposure are not raised in the cohort. It is concluded that among cockpit crew cancer mortality is low, particularly for lung cancer. The positive trend of all cancer with duration of employment persists. The increased brain cancer SMR among cockpit crew requires replication in other cohorts. For cabin crew, cancer mortality is generally close to population rates. Cosmic radiation dose estimates will allow more detailed assessments, as will a pooling of updated aircrew studies currently in planning.
    Biophysik 10/2009; 49(2):187-94. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Gaël P Hammer, Maria Blettner, Hajo Zeeb
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 08/2009; 136(4):232-9. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiation Workers study. For each (LDRMD) study we calculated the risk for the same types of cancer among the atomic bomb survivors with the same gender proportion and matched quantities for dose, mean age attained and mean age at exposure. A combined estimator of the ratio of the excess relative risk per dose from the LDRMD study to the corresponding value for the atomic bomb survivors was 1.21 (90% CI 0.51 to 1.90). The present analysis does not confirm that the cancer risk per dose for LDRMD exposures is lower than for the atomic bomb survivors. This result challenges the cancer risk values currently assumed for occupational exposures.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 07/2009; 66(12):789-96. · 3.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

446 Citations
93.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • • Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI)
      • • Division of Medical Biometry I
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
  • 2012
    • Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Computer Science
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
    • Universität Bremen
      • Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social Medicine (BIPS)
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 2009
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      Freiburg an der Elbe, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2003–2006
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Public Health
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2001
    • Bielefeld University
      • Faculty of Health Science
      Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany