Lothar Dunsch

Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena, Thuringia, Germany

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Publications (408)1527.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The first intermediates of electrochemical reduction of nitro compounds in nonaqueous DMF are stable radical anions. In the series of mono-, di-, tri- and tetranitro calix[4]arenes each nitro group represents a reduction center, therefore the question about the spin state of intermediary anions arises. In this communication, the voltammetric and coulometric investigation of these compounds is performed together with the spectral measurements (ESR and UV-vis). The in-situ spectroelectrochemical approach proved that during reduction, in all polynitro radicalic intermediates the electrons remain unpaired and thus relatively stable mono-, di-, tri- and tetraradical mono-, di-, tri- and tetraanions, respectively, can be electrochemically generated in aprotic DMF from polynitrocalix[4]arenes. This finding confirms that the nitrophenyl units in polynitrocalix[4]arenes are completely independent and no mutual electronic communication takes place among them.
    Electrochimica Acta 09/2014; 140:572-578. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The low-temperature magnetic properties of the endohedral metallofullerene HoSc2N@C80 have been studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements reveal that this molecule exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization in a small applied field with timescales in the order of milliseconds. The equilibrium magnetic properties of HoSc2N@C80 indicate strong magnetic anisotropy. The large differences in magnetization relaxation times between the present compound and the previously investigated DySc2N@C80 are discussed.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 08/2014; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-temperature x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on the endohedral single-molecule magnet DySc2N@C80 at the Dy M4,5 edges reveal a shrinking of the opening of the observed hysteresis with increasing x-ray flux. Time-dependent measurements show that the exposure of the molecules to x-rays resonant with the Dy M5 edge accelerates the relaxation of magnetization more than off-resonant x-rays. The results cannot be explained by a homogeneous temperature rise due to x-ray absorption. Moreover, the observed large demagnetization cross sections indicate that the resonant absorption of one x-ray photon induces the demagnetization of many molecules.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2014; 105(3):032411-032411-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Electrochimica Acta 05/2014; 122:57-65. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In all metallofullerenes known before this work, metal atoms form single highly polar bonds with non-metal atoms in endohedral cluster. This is rather surprising for titanium taking into account the diversity of organotitanium compounds. Here we show that the arc-discharge synthesis of mixed titanium-lutetium metallofullerenes in the presence of ammonia, melamine or methane unexpectedly results in the formation of TiLu2C@Ih-C80 with an icosahedral Ih(7) carbon cage. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies of the compound reveal an unprecedented endohedral cluster with a μ3-carbido ligand and Ti-C double bond. The Ti(IV) in TiLu2C@Ih-C80 can be reversibly reduced to the Ti(III) state. The Ti=C bonding and Ti-localized lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in TiLu2C@Ih-C80 bear a certain resemblance to titanium alkylidenes. TiLu2C@Ih-C80 is the first metallofullerene with a multiple bond between a metal and the central, non-metal atom of the endohedral cluster.
    Nature Communications 04/2014; 5:3568. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic properties of nitride clusterfullerenes GdxSc3-xN@C80 (x = 1-3) are studied as a function of the number of Gd atoms in the cluster. The intracluster interaction of the Gd ions in Gd2ScN@C80 and Gd3N@C80 is ferromagnetic with exchange constants of -1.2 K ± 0.1 K and -0.6 K ± 0.1 K, respectively. At 2 K, the magnetization curves exhibit noticeable deviations from the Heisenberg model pointing to a non-negligible anisotropy.
    Dalton Transactions 03/2014; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The typical design of chiral electroactive materials, hinging on attaching chiral pendants to an electroactive polyconjugated backbone, generally results in modest chirality manifestations. We propose electroactive chiral polyheterocycles, where chirality is not external to the electroactive backbone but inherent to it, resulting from a tailored torsion generated by the periodical presence of atropisomeric, conjugatively active biheteroaromatic scaffolds, e.g. 3,3’-bithianaphthene. As the stereogenic element coincides with the electroactive site, films of impressive chiroptical activity and outstanding enantiodiscrimination properties are obtained. Moreover, chirality manifestations can be finely and reversibly tuned by the electric potential, as progressive injection of holes forces the two thianaphthene rings to co-planarize to favour delocalization. Such deformations, revealed by CD spectroelectrochemistry, are elastic and reversible, suggesting the image of a breathing system.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 03/2014; · 13.45 Impact Factor
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    Yang Zhang, Alexey A Popov, Lothar Dunsch
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    ABSTRACT: Redox behavior of endohedral metallofullerenes, in particular their oxidation process, can be classified as a fullerene-based or endohedral species-based process according to the mechanism of the electron transfer. Here we report on the phenomenon of the strain-driven electrochemical behavior achieved by encapsulating the cerium-containing clusters into a series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88. The Ce-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes CexM3-xN@C2n (x = 1, 2; M = Sc or Y; 2n = 78-88) were synthesized and characterized. The magnitude of the inherent strain caused by the limited inner space of the carbon cage for the relatively large nitride clusters can be varied by choosing different scaffold metals (Sc, Lu, or Y) to tailor the size of the encaged CexM3-xN cluster and by matching the nitride cluster with different fullerene cages in the size range from C78 to C88. The redox properties of CexM3-xN@C2n were investigated by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of Ce-based mixed metal nitride clusterfullerenes, in particular whether the fullerene-based oxidation or the Ce(III) → Ce(IV) process is observed, is found to be dependent on the scaffold metal and the size of the fullerene cage. The endohedral oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) was observed for a number of compounds as revealed by the negative shift of their oxidation potentials with respect to the values measured for the non-Ce analogues. Experimental studies are supported by DFT calculations. We conclude that the prerequisites for the Ce-based endohedral oxidation process are suitable inherent cluster-cage strain and sufficiently high oxidation potential of the fullerene cage.
    Nanoscale 01/2014; 4:1038-1048. · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of various thienyl derivatives of pyrene were synthesized by Stille cross-coupling procedure. Their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and elemental analysis. The spectroscopic characteristics were investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. Based on quantum chemical calculations, the energy levels of investigated molecules with respect to the pyrene molecule were also discussed.
    Journal of Fluorescence 01/2014; 24(1):153-160. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(2-methoxynaphthalene) (P2MN) belongs to the category of fused ring organic semiconductors that due to their planar structure have very interesting optical and electrical properties like a reduced band gap and easiness of undergoing both oxidation and reduction. Here, we present a spectroelectrochemical study by means of simultaneous recording of electron spin resonance–UV–vis–near infrared spectra (ESR–UV–vis–NIR) to probe the nature of the charge carriers in both p- and n-doped P2MN. As shown earlier P2MN is both p- and n-dopable, however, further information of the nature of both types of charge carriers is needed. In this work we demonstrate that the dominant charge carrier in p- and n-doped P2MN is positive and negative polarons, respectively. The material under study constitutes an example of an ambipolar organic conjugated polymer capable to conduct both holes and electrons. This is a unique property worthy to be further studied since only a few organic conducting polymers can reversibly be both p- and n-doped.
    Electrochimica Acta 01/2014; 115:10–15. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infrared spectra of La2@C80 and a series of Ce-based endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), including Ce@C82, Ce2@C72, Ce2@C78, and Ce2@C80 are reported. DFT calculations are used for their thorough analysis and assignment. The vibrations of the fullerene cages in all studied EMFs differ from those of their empty, charged cage analogues. Furthermore, EMFs with the same carbon cage but different type of encapsulated species also show significant differences in their cage vibrational patterns. These phenomena are explained by a different coupling of the vibrational modes as well as by the different charge distributions in EMFs and empty, isostructural fullerene anions.
    Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures 12/2013; 22(1-3):202-214. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A single molecule magnet (SMM) can maintain its magnetization direction over a long period of time [1,2]. It consists in a low number of atoms that facilitates the understanding and control of the ground state, which is essential in future applications such as high-density information storage or quantum computers [3,4]. Endohedral fullerenes realize robust, nanometer sized, and chemically protected magnetic clusters that are not found as free species in nature. Here we demonstrate how adding one, two, or three dysprosium atoms to the carbon cage results in three distinct magnetic ground states. The significantly different hysteresis curves demonstrate the decisive influence of the number of magnetic moments and their interactions. At zero field the comparison relates tunneling of the magnetization, with remanence, and frustration. The ground state of the tridysprosium species turns out to be one of the simplest realizations of a frustrated, ferromagnetically coupled magnetic system.
    Physical Review B 10/2013; 89(6). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Review: synthesis, structure, properties and potential applications; 992 refs.
    ChemInform 10/2013; 44(40).
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    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical and NMR spectroscopic studies prove the endohedral oxidation of CeIII in nitride clusterfullerenes CeM2N@C80 (M = Sc, Y, Lu). The redox potential of the endohedral CeIV/CeIII couple systematically varies with the ionic radius of the second cluster metal. DFT computations show that this metal dependence is caused by the release of strain when CeIV with a small ionic radius is formed. In particular, after endohedral oxidation the pyramidal CeY2N cluster becomes planar in the [CeM2N@C80]+ cation.
    Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 07/2013; 4(15):2404–2409. · 6.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in situ spectroelectrochemical and electron spin resonance (ESR) behavior of the recently prepared N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl)-thiophene-2,5-diamine 11 is presented. The results are compared to the ones of the parent 2,5-bis-diphenylamino-thiophene 41 as well as to the corresponding high-molar third dendrimer generation 8 containing the same thiophene-2,5-diamine core. The dendritic compound 11 can be reversibly oxidised in three separated steps to yield the corresponding stable monocation 11.+, dication 112+ and tetracation 114+. A well resolved ESR spectrum of the corresponding cation radical 11.+ with dominating splittings from two nitrogen atoms and two hydrogen atoms was observed at the first oxidation peak similar to 41.+. The shape of the SOMOs orbitals very well correlates with the proposed distribution of the unpaired electron mainly on the thiophene center and neighboring nitrogen atoms. The spin delocalisation on the central thiophene moiety in the monocations for all three model compounds 41.+, 11.+, and 8.+ was confirmed. The computed SOMO for trication 11.3+ is completely different compared to the SOMO of the corresponding monocation 11.+ and it confirms a largely delocalized unpaired spin density. Dominating diamagnetic product was determined at the third oxidation peak, confirming the formation of a tetracation by a two electron oxidation of ESR silent dication. The positive charge is fully delocalized over the lateral parts of the molecule leading to the high stability of tetracation 114+. The estimated theoretical limit energy of the lowest optical transition S0→S1 is 4.90 eV and it can be achieved for the 3D dendrimer generation.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 07/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactions of 5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-3-methylsulfanylbenzaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone and 5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylbenzaldehyde S-methylisothiosemicarbazone with pentane-2,4-dione (Hacac) and triethyl orthoformate in the presence of M(acac)2 as template source at 107 °C afforded metal complexes of the type M(II)L(1) and M(II)L(2), where M = Ni and Cu, with a new Schiff base ligand with thiomethyl (H2L(1)) and/or thiophenyl (H2L(2)) group in the ortho position of the phenolic moiety. Demetalation of NiL(1) in CHCl3 with HCl(g) afforded H2L(1). The latter reacts with Zn(OAc)2·2H2O with formation of ZnL(1). The effect of -SR groups and metal ion identity on stabilization of phenoxyl radicals generated electrochemically was studied in detail. A marked stabilization of phenoxyl radical was observed in one-electron-oxidized complexes [ML(2)](+) (M = Ni, Cu) at room temperature, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, EPR spectroscopy, and UV-vis-NIR measurements. In solution, the oxidized CuL(2) and NiL(2) display intense low-energy NIR transitions consistent with their classification as metal-delocalized phenoxyl radical species. While the CuL(2) complex shows reversible reduction, reduction of NiL(2), CuL(1), and NiL(1) is irreversible. EPR measurements in conjunction with density functional theory calculations provided insights into the extent of electron delocalization as well as spin density in different redox states. The experimental room temperature spectroelectrochemical data can be reliably interpreted with the (3)[CuL(2)](+) and (2)[NiL(2)](+) oxidation ground states. The catalytic activity of synthesized complexes in the selective oxidations of alcohols has been studied as well. The remarkable efficiency is evident from the high yields of carbonyl products when employing both the CuL(2)/air/TEMPO and the CuL(2)/TBHP/MW(microwave-assisted) oxidation systems.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All-carbon single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were successfully synthesized, nucleated using a fullerene derivative. A systematic investigation into the initial preparation of C60 fullerenes as growth nucleators for the SWCNTs was conducted. Enhancement in the yield of the produced SWCNT has been achieved with exploring different dispersing media for the fullerenes, the period, and environment of the initial thermal treatment of the fullerenes in addition to the use of different fullerene-based structures. The systematic studies significantly advance our understanding of the growth of the all-carbon catalyst-free single-walled carbon nanotubes. Field-effect transistors were fabricated using the catalyst-free SWCNT and then electrically characterized, showing current capacity as high as the well-studied catalyst-assisted nanotubes.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 06/2013; 8(1):265. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Lothar Dunsch, Alexey A. Popov
    223th ECS Meeting; 05/2013
  • Alexey A Popov, Shangfeng Yang, Lothar Dunsch
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Introduction 2. Synthesis of Endohedral Fullerenes 2.1. Synthesis of the Conventional Endohedral Metallofullerenes (EMFs) 2.2. Synthesis of Nitride Clusterfullerenes (NCFs) 2.2.1. The Trimetallic Nitride Template (TNT) Process 2.2.2. The Reactive Gas Atmosphere Route 2.2.3. The Solid Nitrogen Source 2.2.4. Chemically Adjusting Plasma Temperature, Energy, and Reactivity (CAPTEAR) Method 2.3. Ion Bombardment 2.4. High Pressure Method 2.5. Other Methods 3. Solubility, Extraction, and Separation of Endohedral Fullerenes 3.1. Solubility and Extraction of Endohedral Fullerenes 3.2. Separation by Sublimation 3.3. Chromatographic Separation 3.4. Extended Separation by Recycling HPLC 3.5. Separation by Chemical and Electrochemical Methods 4. Molecular Structures of EMFs 4.1. Introductory Notes 4.2. Classical EMFs 4.2.1. Monometallofullerenes 4.2.2. Dimetallofullerenes 4.2.3. Trimetallofullerenes 4.3. Clusterfullerenes 4.3.1. Nitride Clusterfullerenes (NCFs) 4.3.2. Carbide Clusterfullerenes 4.3.3. Methano-clusterfullerene 4.3.4. Oxide Clusterfullerenes 4.3.5. Sulfide Clusterfullerenes 4.3.6. Cyano-clusterfullerenes 4.4. Noble Gas and Nonmetal Endohedral Fullerenes 5. Theoretical Studies of Electronic and Molecular Structure of EMFs 5.1. Chemical Bonding in EMFs 5.1.1. Metal-Cage Bonding 5.1.2. Intracluster Interactions in Clusterfullerenes 5.1.3. Metal–Metal Bonding in EMFs 5.2. Isomerism in Endohedral Metallofullerenes: Stability of the Charged Carbon Cage 5.3. Violation of the Isolated Pentagon Rule (IPR) in Endohedral Fullerenes 5.4. Cage Form Factor 5.5. Gibbs Energy Considerations 6. Spectroscopic Properties and Electronic Structure of EMFs 6.1. NMR Spectroscopy 6.1.1. 13C NMR Spectroscopy 6.1.2. Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy 6.2. ESR Spectroscopy 6.2.1. Monometallofullerenes M@C82 (M = Sc, Y, La) 6.2.2. Nonlanthanide Monometallofullerenes with Other Cages 6.2.3. Rare-Earth Monometallofullerenes 6.2.4. Carbide Clusterfullerenes Sc3C2@C80 and M2C2@C82 (M = Sc, Y) 6.2.5. Dimetallofullerenes 6.2.6. Dimetallic Endohedral Heterofullerenes M2@C79N 6.2.7. Nitride Clusterfullerenes (NCFs) 6.2.8. Radical Ions of Oxide Clusterfullerene Sc4O2@C80 6.3. Vibrational Spectroscopy 6.3.1. Mono- and Dimetallofullerenes 6.3.2. Nitride Clusterfullerenes (NCFs) 6.3.3. Carbide Clusterfullerenes 6.3.4. Other Clusterfullerenes 6.4. UV–vis-NIR Absorption Spectroscopy 6.4.1. Carbon Cage Isomerism and Charge State 6.4.2. Influence of the Metal 6.4.3. Optical Gaps 6.4.4. Molar Absorptivity 6.5. Photophysical Properties of Endohedral Fullerenes 6.5.1. Luminescence Spectroscopy of Endohedral Er Fullerenes 6.5.2. Photoexcited Charge and Energy Transfer in EMF-Based Donor–Acceptor Systems 6.5.3. Charge Carrier Mobility in Solid EMFs 6.5.4. Nonlinear Optic Properties, Singlet Oxygen Generation, and Plasmon Excitations 6.6. High-Energy Spectroscopy 6.6.1. Lanthanide-Based M@C82 6.6.2. Nonlanthanide M@C82 6.6.3. Monometallofullerenes M@C60 6.6.4. Dimetallofullerenes 6.6.5. Nitride Clusterfullerenes (NCFs) 6.6.6. Carbide Clusterfullerenes 6.7. Electron Microscopy of Endohedral Fullerenes 6.7.1. STM/STS and Related Techniques 6.7.2. HRTEM Studies of EMFs 7. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Endohedral Fullerenes 7.1. Monometallofullerenes 7.1.1. Pristine Monometallofullerenes 7.1.2. Derivatives of Monometallofullerenes 7.2. Dimetallofullerenes 7.2.1. Pristine Dimetallofullerenes 7.2.2. Derivatives of Dimetallofullerenes 7.3. Nitride Clusterfullerenes (NCFs) 7.3.1. M3N@C80 7.3.2. NCFs with Other Carbon Cages 7.3.3. Derivatives of NCFs 7.3.4. Irreversibility of the Reduction of NCFs 7.4. Carbide Clusterfullerenes 7.5. Sulfide, Oxide, and Cyano Clusterfullerenes 7.6. Endohedral Electrochemistry 7.7. Gas-Phase Electron Affinity of EMFs 8. Chemical Properties of Endohedral Fullerenes 8.1. Conventional Endohedral Fullerenes 8.1.1. Photochemical Disilylation and Carbene Addition Reactions 8.1.2. Cycloaddition Reactions 8.1.3. Radical Addition Reactions 8.1.4. Water-Soluble Derivatives 8.1.5. Supramolecular Complexes of EMFs with Macrocyclic Compounds 8.2. Heterofullerenes M2@C79N (M = Y, Gd) 8.3. Clusterfullerenes 8.3.1. Diels–Alder Reactions 8.3.2. Prato Reactions 8.3.3. Bingel–Hirsch Reactions 8.3.4. Radical Addition Reactions 8.3.5. [2 + 2] Cycloaddition Reactions 8.3.6. Photochemical Reactions 8.3.7. Azide Addition to Sc3N@C80 8.3.8. Organometallic Complexation of Sc2C2@C82 8.3.9. Water-Soluble Derivatives 8.3.10. Supramolecular Complexes of Nitride Cluster Fullerenes 9. Magnetic Properties of Endohedral Fullerenes 9.1. SQUID Studies of Conventional Metallofullerenes 9.2. XMCD Studies of Conventional Metallofullerenes 9.3. Nitride Clusterfullerenes 9.4. Single Molecular Magnetism in Endohedral Fullerenes 10. Potential Applications of Endohedral Fullerenes 10.1. Biomedical Applications 10.1.1. MRI Contrast Agents 10.1.2. X-ray Contrast Agents 10.1.3. Radiotracers and Radiopharmaceuticals 10.1.4. Antitumor Activity of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n Nanoparticles 10.1.5. Antimicrobal Activity of Sc3N@C80-Polymer Film 10.2. Applications in Organic Photovoltaics 10.2.1. Endohedral Fullerenes As New Acceptors in PSCs 10.2.2. Endohedral Fullerene-Based Donor–Acceptor Dyads 10.2.3. Photoelectrochemistry (PEC) Cells Based on Endohedral Fullerenes 10.3. Endohedral Fullerene Peapods 10.4. Other Potential Applications 11. Conclusions and Outlook
    Chemical Reviews 05/2013; 113(8):5989-6113. · 45.66 Impact Factor
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    Anna L Svitova, Alexey A Popov, Lothar Dunsch
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.
    Inorganic Chemistry 03/2013; 52(6):3368–3380. · 4.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,527.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
      • Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 1996–2014
    • Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden
      • • Department Electrochemistry and Conducting Polymers
      • • Institute for Solid State Research
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2013
    • Clemson University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Anderson, IN, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Science and Technology of China
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Hefei, Anhui Sheng, China
    • Hiroshima University
      • Graduate School of Engineering
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 2011
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2010–2011
    • Colorado State University
      • Chemistry
      Fort Collins, CO, United States
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Institute of Inorganic Chemistry
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2002–2011
    • Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
      • Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics
      Bratislava, Bratislavsky Kraj, Slovakia
  • 2000–2011
    • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
      • Ústav fyzikální chemie J. Heyrovského
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1993–2010
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Institute of Organic Chemistry
      • • Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Institut für Atom- und Molekülphysik
      Gießen, Hesse, Germany
    • Åbo Akademi University
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2007–2008
    • Moscow State Textile University
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
    • Charles University in Prague
      • Přírodovědecká fakulta
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2006
    • Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2003
    • Fachhochschule der Wirtschaft
      Paderborn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany